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Environmental Enrichment -- Operant Conditioning

I compiled a list of environmental enrichment-related references for the participants and attendees and everyone seems astounded at the number of articles I came up with. The topic is training primates, also referred to as operant conditioning, depending upon who you talk to. Anyway, here is the list, if you want to utilize it in any way, please do.

Peggy O'Neill-Wagner
National Institutes of Health
NICHD, Lab of Comparative Ethology
P.O. Box 334
Poolesville, MD 20837 USA
E-Mail: pow@helix.nih.gov
Phone: 301-496-7037
FAX: 301-496-0630


Areen, S.E., (1996). Habituation-socialization conditioning of a problem warthog, Phacochoerus africanus: The triumph of Tibbits. 1996 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings, pp. 411-413.

Baker, A. (1991). Training as a management tool: Creating the climate and maintaining the momentum. Proceedings of the 1991 AAZPA National Conference, San Diego, CA.

Bell, B.K. (1995). Dealing with specific behavioral problems using operant conditioning with bonobos (Pan paniscus). 1995 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings. pp. 26-28.

Bloomsmith, M.A., Laule, G.E., Alford ,P.L., & Thurston, R.H. (1994). Using training to moderate chimpanzee aggression during feeding. Zoo Biology.

Breland, K., & Breland, M. (1961). The misbehavior of organisms. American Psychologist, pp. 681-684.

Chambers, D.R., Gibson, T.E., Bindmand, L., Guillou, P.J., Herbert, W.J., Mayes, P.A., Pool, T.N., Wade, A.J., & Wood, R.K.S. (1992). Guidelines on Handling and Training of Laboratory Animals. Potters Bar: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.

Clarke, A., Mason, W. & Moberg, G. (1988). Interspecific contrasts in responses of macaques to transport cage training. Laboratory Animal Science 38(3), PP. 305-308.

Coe, J.C. (1995). Operant conditioning: A tool for integrating the design and operation of zoo facilities. 1995 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings. pp. 46-47.

Desmond, T., Laule, G.E., & McNary, J. (1987). Training for socialization and reproduction with drills. Proceedings of the 1987 AAZPA National Conference, Portland Oregon.

Edmonds, V. (1995). Operant conditioning in today's zoo. 1995 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings. pp. 413-415.

Forthman, D, & Ogden, J. (1992). The role of applied behavioral analysis in zoo management today and tomorrow. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis. 25, pp. 647-652.

Fulk, R. (1992). Conditioning: Principles underlying the dynamics of caregiver/chimpanzee interactions. In R. Fulk & C. Garland (Eds.), The Care and Management of Chimpanzees in Captive Environments, Asheboro: North Carolina Zoological Park, PP. 48-58. Goodwin, J. (1997).The application, use and effects of training and enrichment variables with Japanese snow macaques (Macaca fuscata) at the central park wildlife center. 1997 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings. pp. 510-515.

Grandin, T., Rooney, M. B. Phillips, M., Cambre, N.A., Irlbeck, N.A., and Graffam, W., (1995). Conditioning of nyala (Tragelaphus angasi) to blood sampling in a crate with positive reinforcement. Zoo Biology , 14, pp. 261-273.

Grandin,T., Irlbeck, N., & Phillips, M. (1996). The advantages of training antelope to cooperate with veterinary procedures. 1996 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings, pp. 562-567.

Hediger, H. (1992). The psychology and behavior of animals in zoos and circuses. New York, Dover Press.

Hediger, H. (1950 & 1964) Wild animals in captivity, London Butterworth Scientific Publications LTD., & N.Y. Dover publications, Inc.

Hellmuth, H. (1995). Behavioral training of 1.1 black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) 1995 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings, pp. 424-428.

Knowles, L., Fourrier, M., & Eisele, S. (1995). Behavior training of group-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) for handling purposes. Laboratory Animal Newsletter, 34:2, pp.1-4.

Laule, G. (1983). Training pinnepeds to work without walls. Proceedings of the 1983 International Marine animal Trainers' Association Conference, Minneapolis, MN.

Laule, G. (1984). Pepe-behavioral husbandry intervention in the case of a Tursiops Sp. Proceedings of the 1984 International Marine Animal Trainers' Association Annual Conference, Long Beach, CA.

Laule, G & Desmond, T. (1991). Meeting behavioral objectives while maintaining healthy social behavior and dominance- a delicate balance. Proceedings of the 1991 International Marine Animal Trainers' Association Annual Conference, San Francisco, CA.

Laule, G., Keeling, M., Alford, P., Thurston, R., Bloomsmith, M.A. & Beck, T. (1992). Positive reinforcement techniques and chimpanzees: An innovative training program. Proceedings of the 1992 AAZPA Regional Conference, Dallas, Texas, pp. 713-718.

Laule, G. (1992). Addressing psychological well-being: Training as enrichment, Proceedings of the 1992 AAZPA Regional Conference, Toronto, Canada.

Laule, G. (1995). The role of behavioral management in enhancing exhibit design and use. 1995 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings, pp. 84-88.

Laule, G.E., Thurston, R.H., Alford, P.L., & Bloomsmith, M.A. (1996). Training to reliably obtain blood and urine samples from diabetic chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), Zoo Biology, 15, pp.587-591.

LeDoux, J.E. (1994). Emotion memory and the brain. Scientific American : 271, pp. 50-57.

Loehe, R.J. (1995). Benefits of a positive reinforcement training program with bonobos (Pan Paniscus). 1995 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings, pp. 93-95.

Logsdon, S. & Taylor, S.R. (1995). Use of operant conditioning to assist in the medical management of hypertension in woolly monkeys, 1995 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings. pp. 96-102.

Martin, S. (1996). Training as enrichment. 1996 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings, pp. 139-143.

McHugh, M.C., Lacinak, C., Force, D. (1989). Husbandry training as a tool for marine mammal management. 1989 AAZPA Regional Proceedings, 799-802.

Mehrdadfar, F . (1995). The importance of training in facilitating care and treatment of exotic animals. AAZK Animal Keepers' Forum: 22(2), pp. 75-77.

Miller, N.E. .(1960). Learning resistance to pain and fear: Effects of overlearning, exposure, and rewarded exposure in context. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, pp. 137-145.

Priest, G.N. (1990). The use of operant conditioning in training husbandry behavior with captive exotic animals. Proceedings of the National American Association of Zoo Keepers Conference, 16, pp.94-108.

Priest, G.M. (1991) Training a diabetic drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) to accept insulin injections and venipuncture. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 30 (1), PP. 1-4.

Petiniot, C.M. (1990). A successful introduction: Behavior enrichment and training at the Toledo Zoo. 1990 Gorilla Workshop Proceedings, pp.129-132.

Petiniot, C.M. (1995).Operant conditioning and great ape management at the Toledo Zoo. 1995 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings, pp. 116-119.

Philipp, C. (1997). Developing a positive reinforcement program with primates at the Memphis zoo. 1997 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings, pp. 102-105.

Phillippi-Falkenstein, K. & Clarke, M.(1991). Procedure for training corral-living rhesus monkeys for fecal and blood-sample collection. Laboratory Animal Science: 42(1), pp. 83-85.

Pryor, K. (1969). Behavior modification: the porpoise caper. Psychology Today, pp. 92-98.

Pryor, K. (1985). Don't Shoot The Dog: The New Art of Teaching and Training.. New York, Simon and Schuster.

Reinhardt, V. & Cowley, D. (1990). Training stumptailed monkeys (Macaca arctoides) to cooperate during in-homecage treatment. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 29(4), pp. 9-10.

Reinhardt, V. (1991). Training adult male rhesus monkeys to actively cooperate during in-homecage venipuncture. Animal Technology, 42, pp.11-17.

Reinhardt, V. (1992). Difficulty in training juvenile rhesus macaques to actively cooperate during venipuncture in the homecage. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 31(3), pp. 1-2.

Reinhardt, V. (1997). Training nonhuman primates to cooperate during blood collections: A review. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 36:4, pp.1-4.

Sevenich, M. (1995). Guidelines for animal training programs. 1995 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings, pp. 142-147.

Sevenich, M. (1997). Care and feeding of training programs. 1997 AZA Regional Conference Proceedings, pp.127-128.

Suleman, M.A., Njugana, J., & Anderson, J. (1988). Training of vervet monkeys, Sykes monkeys, and baboons for the collection of biological samples. Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, p.12 (Abstract).

Vertein, R. & Reinhardt, V. (1989). Training female rhesus monkeys to cooperate during in-homecage venipuncture. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 28(2), pp. 1-3.