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African Ape Site Floral Lists

As a non-botanist who has spent time searching floral lists for presence of taxa and trying to correlate local and scientific names, I find printed floral lists useful but difficult to use; on a computer one can search, sort, merge and split such lists depending on one's immediate interests. When Masazumi Mitani approached me about contributing to a collection of floral lists to be published in TROPICS, I suggested we look into the possibility of making the lists available via the Primate Info Net (PIN) of the Wisconsin Primate Research Center (WRPRC). Thanks to Larry Jacobsen of PIN, the publishers of TROPICS, and the authors of the five articles, here we are.

These files contain tables, abstracts, and extracts of methods that have been edited for brevity, in order to keep the archive size to a manageable level. Users are STRONGLY URGED to consult the published text and figures before interpreting these tables analytically. These files supplement the hardcopy publication; they do not replace it.

Five study sites are represented in the TROPICS 3(3/4) publication. Files are listed by site name rather than authors, for ease of notation and recognition:

KAHUZI-BIEGA (size: 24 kb)

Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Zaire (chimpanzees and gorillas)
Contains two tables: Table1 -- List for Kahuzi region
Table2 -- List for Itebero region
Yumoto, T., Yamagiwa, J., Mwanza, N., & Maruhashi, T. (1994)
List of Plant Species Identified in Kahuzi-Biega National Park,
Zaire. TROPICS 3(3/4): 295-308.

LOPE (size: 39 kb)

Lope Reserve, Gabon (chimpanzees and gorillas)
Contains three tables: Table1 -- List for Lope
Table2 -- Top 10 species in basal area and density, by 2 forest types
Table3 -- Number species ape foods, by habitat
Tutin, C. E. G., White, L. J. T., Williamson, E. A., Fernandez, M.,
& McPherson, G. (1994) List of Plant Species Identified in the
Northern Part of the Lope Reserve, Gabon. TROPICS 3(3/4):

NDOKI (size: 27 kb)

Nouabale-Ndoki Forest, Congo (chimpanzees and gorillas)
Contains one table:
Table1 -- List for Nouabale-Ndoki forest
Moutsambote, J.-M., Yumoto, T., Mitani, M., Nishihara, T.,
Suzuki, S., & Kuroda, S. (1994) Vegetation and list of plant
species identified in the Nouabale-Ndoki Forest, Congo.
TROPICS 3(3/4): 277-293

UGALLA (Size: 10 kb)

Tongwe East Forest Reserve ("Ugalla"), Tanzania (chimpanzees)
Contains one table: Table1 -- List for Ugalla
Moore, J. (1994) Plants of the Tongwe East Forest Reserve
(Ugalla), Tanzania. TROPICS 3(3/4): 333-340

WAMBA (size: 51 kb)

Wamba Forest, Zaire (bonobos)
Contains 4 tables:
Table1 -- List for Wamba
Table2 -- Primary forest only, includes density & basal areas
Table3 -- Swamp forest, w/density & basal area
Table4 --Secondary forest, " " "
Idani, G., Kuroda, S., Kano, T., & Asato, R. (1994). Flora and
vegetation of Wamba Forest, Central Zaire with reference to
bonobo (Pan paniscus) foods. TROPICS 3(3/4): 309-332


All files were saved as ASCII text files and should be easily read by word processors or spreadsheet programs. The tables use commas (,) or semicolons (;) to delimit fields; the delimiter used is indicated in each file. I have removed some diacritics and written out some symbols after discovering problems translating to/from UNIX, hopefully without muddling content. The abstracts *only* are formatted with -returns- to facilitate reading onscreen; below that, formatting will look messy until dumped to a word processor or spreadsheet.


Please cite this material as you would the original TROPICS publications.

Within PIN operational constraints, in principle it would be nice to include additional sites, and to update existing lists as needed. It would also be good to fix any problems encountered by users, and to get an idea of whether there ARE any users. Please send network-related queries to Larry Jacobsen:

Larry Jacobsen, Head of Library Services,
Primate Center Library,
Wisconsin Primate Research Center,
1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299
Tel: (608) 263-3512; Fax: (608) 263-4031

and content/format/addition/"it's a good/bad idea" comments to me:

Jim Moore
Anthropology Dept. 0101
University of California, San Diego
La Jolla CA 92093 - 0101
Tel: (619) 534-5572; Fax: (619) 534-5946

Related Publications

Mahale NP (Tanzania)--
Nishida, T. & Uehara, S. (1981). Kitongwe name of plants:
A preliminary listing. Afr. Study Monogr. 1: 109-130.

Nishida, T. & Uehara, S. (1983). Natural diet of chimpanzees
(Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): Long-term record from
the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. Afr. Stud. Monogr. 3:

Gombe NP (Tanzania)--
Clutton-Brock, T. H. & Gillet, J. B. (1979). A survey of forest
composition in the Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Afr. J.
Ecol. 17: 131-158.

Peters, C. R., O'Brien, E. M. & Drummond, R. B. (1992).
Edible Wild Plants of Subsaharan Africa: an Annotated
Checklist, Emphasizing the Woodland and Savanna Floras of
Eastern and Southern Africa, Including the Plants Utilized
for Food by Chimpanzees and Baboons. Kew: Royal Botanic

About The Special Issue of TROPICS
(Preface, TROPICS 3(3/4): 247-248; 1994)

Floral Lists from Five Study Sites of Apes in the African Tropical Forests.
Edited by Masazumi MITANI, Suehisa KURODA, and Caroline E.G. TUTIN


The floral lists in this volume were produced after discussion in the workshop of the 14th IPS Congress on August 19, 1992 at Strasbourg in France. The workshop also produced a companion volume of TROPICS 2(4), entitled "Field Studies of African Apes in Tropical Rain Forests: Methods to Increase the Scope and Accuracy of Intersite Comparisons", edited by S. Kuroda and C.E.G. Tutin, published in November 1993. Recent advances in the studies of apes underway in the central African tropical forests have addressed questions about the adaptability of apes and the variation of their ecology. However, methodological difference between, and incomplete habitat descriptions from, each site have limited intersite comparison (Kuroda & Tutin, 1993). The workshop and the companion volume reflect our attempts to overcome this problem. And the floral lists in this volume also contribute by giving better description of the habitats.

Floral lists have been compiled from the sites of several field studies of African apes. Listing plant species recorded in the sites has been looked upon as one of the fundamental works for field researchers, even if they were not botanical specialists. Considering recent advances in primate research, we can notice additional, or up to date, meanings of the lists. These may be summarized as follows: (1) The African Apes are essentially plant eaters and the phenology and production of plants determines their foraging, ranging, and other behaviours. Floral lists give us knowledge of the potential availability of these resources, necessary to understand the apes' ecological strategies. And (2) the African apes may have the histories of coevolution with plants, either prey-predatory relationship or mutualism. A set of the plant species recorded in a list may be a result, or one of the results, of such coevolution. (3) Of course, the plant species composition is not stable. Earth-wide climate changes have modified the vegetation over time. In this sense, the lists are living fossils resulting from regional history. And (4) more serious and more recent floral changes may be found due to the impact of human activities. African tropical forests have been more seriously disturbed than S.E. Asian and S. American tropical forests. Additionally, many cases of the habitat isolation of African apes exist. The lists of plant species recorded from sites where apes live today allow comparison with already disturbed forests and some predictions about the impact of forest disturbance in the future. In relation to this point, (5) floral lists play an important role in conservation tactics, and, sometimes, they speak with more eloquence than hundreds of sentences. And above all things, (6) floral list encourage collaboration between biological fields, which are usually separate in scientific institutions, e.g., primatology and botanical taxonomy. Many of the floral lists in this volume are the result of such coworking.

Masazumi MITANI Division of Ecology, Museum of Nature and Human Activities Hyogo. Yayoi-ga-oka 6, Sanda, Hyogo, Japan
Suehisa KURODA Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
Caroline E.G. TUTIN Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville, Franceville, Gabon; Department of Biological and Molecular Sciences, University of Stirling, Scotland, U.K.


Kuroda, S. & Tutin, C.E.G. 1993, Field Studies of African Apes in Tropical Rain Forest: Methods to Increase the Scope and Accuracy of Intersite Comparisons. TROPICS 2(4): 187-188.