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OWM TAG

Newsletter

Volume 3, Number 2 Winter 1996

Newsletter for the Old World Monkey Taxon Advisory Group

American Zoo and Aquarium Association

B Virus in Zoo Macaques: Current Issues;

Reprinted from the 1995 Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, the Wildlife Disease Association, and the American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians.

Macaques (genus Macaca), Asian primates in the family Cercopithecidae, are divided into the following species groups: fascicularis, including the crab­eating (cynomolgus monkey), Japanese, Taiwan, and Rhesus macaques; silenus­sylvanus, including lion-tailed and Celebes macaques and the Barbary "ape" sinica, including toque and bonnet macaques; and arctoides, the stump­tail macaque.5 Macaques are an interesting group of primates that have traditionally been exhibited in zoo collections. Of the 16 or so species currently listed, lion-tails are endangered, Celebes are near endangered, and Barbary macaques are considered vulnerable.

Even though some macaque species have qualified for successful zoo exhibitry and conservation programs, they have an unenviable trait of carrying an alpha herpesvirus, herpes B, which is infectious for humans and potentially fatal. The virus, first recovered from researcher Dr. B in 1933, has since been found to be enzootic among laboratory and wild macaques.9 In the macaque, B virus is mostly a latent disease (as much as Herpes simplex is in humans) and only occasionally manifests as oral or genital ulcers. It has been uncommonly transmitted to non­macaque primates4, 9 and has rarely caused fatal disease in the primary macaque host itself. Although the epizootiology of B virus is not fully established, studies in laboratory macaques have shown that B virus is spread to post­adolescent conspecifics mainly by intimate exposure within colonies, and that the frequency of virus shedding at any given time is very low -- often 2 to 3 percent even in colonies 100 percent seropositive for herpes B.10, 11

The less than 40 human cases of herpes B infections reported in humans since the index case in 1933 translates to fewer than 1.5 cases every other year, despite the many thousands of contacts known to occur between macaques and their caretakers. This indicates that transmission of herpes B from a macaque to a human is not a casual event. The virus is very labile, and human infection usually requires direct inoculation by a scratch or bite or exposure of broken skin to secretions from a macaque shedding the virus. Other factors such as degree of susceptibility or resistance of the exposed individual may influence the infectivity of the virus and the severity of infection.1

Notwithstanding the low hazard for infection, herpes B in humans can be life threatening, and strict prophylactic procedures have been developed to further reduce the risk to those handling macaques. Laboratory methods for diagnosing herpes B by the latest immuno and molecular techniques are available,6 and new guidelines for the prevention and treatment of B virus infections in exposed persons have recently been published.2

Results of some sporadic serosurveys of macaque species in several zoos have shown that lion-tailed, Japanese, Tibetan, Celebes, and Barbary macaques, and perhaps some other non-macaque species, have tested seropositive for herpes B or B­like viruses7 (Gledhill, L. unpublished SSP report; Hilliard, J., personal communication). It is likely that herpes B seropositivity of macaques has been pervasive in zoo and wildlife parks; yet, human clinical cases of infections with this virus have never been documented in these settings.

The awareness of a disease potentially fatal to humans has created concern and led some zoo managers to remove macaques from their collections; others have strongly opposed these sentiments and actions.3 The purpose of this presentation is to provide a balanced medical overview of the herpes B question from a veterinary perspective in order to ascertain the chances of zoo primate handlers actually acquiring the disease. In addition to the clean record established already for no human B virus at zoos, and from the vast amount of preventative knowledge gained with laboratory macaques, the possibilities of zoo workers contracting this disease in the future seem to be even less likely.

Zoos should be able to continue to maintain macaques safely with little stress to the keeper force if they adopt a plan that provides preventative methods and education to zoo employees. This should be carried out by a veterinary staff and medical consultants that are knowledgeable about B virus.

With reference to special management practices, all macaques in zoo collections should be considered potentially B virus carriers. Although serologic testing should be an option, trying to sort animals by casual screening of individuals is not an accurate determination of B virus status, because seronegative animals may still be carrying the virus latently and seroconvert at a later time. Likewise, because of the nature of the herpesvirus, seropositive animals may revert to a negative status, yet still harbor the virus in a non­shedding state with the possibility of exacerbation. Therefore, dividing groups of zoo macaques by serologic status to the B virus is probably not a useful exercise at this time.

Prophylactic medical procedures for human exposures should be implemented, which include special first­aid practices to eliminate any potential viral contamination of a wound, followed by diagnostic procedures to document viral presence and treatment strategies as outlined in the new guidelines.2 When these procedures are followed, the hazard of human B virus in a zoo is probably less than that of rabies in an enzootic area (like the raccoon outbreak in northeastern U.S.), or even from a fatal injury by a megavertebrate or large felid.

In addition to these preventative methods, the development of specific­pathogen­free (SPF) colonies of several laboratory macaque species free from B virus has shown good results8, and offers promise for eventually eliminating this virus in all captive macaque groups. It is likely that these methods could be applied particularly to the imperiled macaque species and should be perhaps considered by SSP and TAG veterinarians advising these groups as another option for resolving the B virus "dilemma."


LITERATURE CITED

1 Davenport, D.S., D.R. Johnson, G.P. Holmes, D.A. Jewett, S.C. Ross, and J. Hilliard. 1994. Diagnosis and management of human B virus (Herpes simiae) infections in Michigan. Clinical Infectious Diseases 19:33-41.

2 Holmes, G. P., L. E. Chapman, J. A. Steward, S. E. Straus, J. K. Hillard, D. S. Davenport, and the B virus Working Group. 1995. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of virus infections in exposed persons. Clinical Infectious Diseases 20:421-439.

3 Lindburg, D.G. 1993. Macaques may have a bleak future in North American zoos. Zoo Biology 12:407-409.

4 Loomis, M. R, T. O'Neill, M. Bush, and R.J. Montali. 1981. Fatal herpesvirus infection in Patas monkeys and a black-and-white Colobus monkey. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 179(11):1236-1239.

5 Nowak R. M. 1991. In: Nowak R.M. (ed.). Walker's Mammals of the World, Fifth Edition. The John Hopkins University Press. Baltimore & London, p. 469-476.

6 Seinicariello, F., R. Eberle, and J. Hilliard. 1993. Rapid detection of B virus (Herpes simiae) DNA by polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Infectious Diseases 168:747­750.

7 Shima, A. L., D. L. Janssen, and M. R. Loomis. 1989. Management of herpes B virus seropositive macaques in a zoo collection. Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, Greensboro NC, p. 179­180.

8 Ward, J. A. and J. K. Hilliard. B virus­specific pathogen-free (SPF) breeding colonies of macaques: Issues, surveillance, and result in 1992. Laboratory Animal Science 44(3):222­228.

9 Weigler, B. J. 1992. Biology of B virus in macaques and human hosts: A review. Clinical Infectious Diseases 14:555­567.

10 Weigler, B. J., D. W. Hird, J. K. Hilliard, N.W. Lerche, J. A. Roberts, and L. M. Scott, 1993. Epidemiology of cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection and shedding in a large breeding cohort of rhesus macaques. Journal of Infectious Diseases 167:257­263.

11 Weir, E. C., P. N. Bhatt, R. O. Jacoby, J. K. Hilliard, and S. Morgenstern. 1993. Infrequent shedding and transmission of herpes virus simiae from seropositive macaques. Laboratory Animal Science 43(6):541­544.

Update on South Indian Field Studies;

The Indo-US Primate Project, under direction of Dr. S.M. Mohnot of JNV University in Jodhpur, includes investigations into the status, distribution, habitat evaluation, and biology of India's richly diverse primate fauna. As a collaborator on this project, I visited field sites within the Indira Ghandi Wildlife Sanctuary last November at the behest of the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The latter is co-sponsor of the Indo-US Project, along with the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.

The Sanctuary measures 987 km2, and is located in the Nilgiri Hills of southern India, about 65 km southwest of the city of Coimbatore. It contains patches of both deciduous and evergreen rain forest, and huge areas devoted to the production of tea, coffee, and teak. Old World monkeys found within the sanctuary include two langurs, Presbytis entellus and P. johnii, and two macaques, Macaca silenus and M. radiata. My focus was on M. silenus, since it is highly endangered and because my institution, the Zoological Society of San Diego, has funded a two-year study of the sexual behavior and reproduction of this species.

Dr. Mewa Singh, primatologist in the Department of Psychology at Mysore University, has been conducting surveys of the Sanctuary's primates since 1994, for which he has long-term funding from the Government of India. He is ably assisted by his wife, Dr. Mridula Singh, a Mysore University colleague Dr. Lancy D'Souza, and his field team of M. Ananda Kumar, H.N. Kumara, T.R. Shashidhar, and Mohammed Salahuddin. A driver (Ravi) and field tracker (Chandaran) are also employed by the project. All of the field observers are in academic training in India.

To date, 27 different lion-tail groups within the Sanctuary have been identified (possibly 28 since, on the day of our arrival one of Dr. Singh's team returned to camp well after dark, having taken extra time to track what he believed to be a previously unknown group). Mr. Salahuddin is concerned primarily with the study of reproduction in four groups of lion-tails, including two in heavily disturbed habitat. Distribution patterns of the four species of Old World monkeys documented so far indicate that the bonnet macaques and common langurs primarily inhabit deciduous forests at lower altitudes, whereas the lion-tails and Nilgiri langurs are primarily confined to evergreen and shola forests at higher ranges. But, there are fascinating exceptions, including one area where all four species are found. Partial results from these studies will be presented by Dr. Singh at the American Society of Primatology meeting in San Diego this coming July.

-- Donald G. Lindburg, Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species, Zoological Society of San Diego, P.O. Box 551, San Diego, CA 92110

Veterinary Topics;

I think that one of the missing links as far as health issues for lion-tailed macaques are concerned is the lack of a survey of the wild populations and the incidence of exposure to diseases in the wild. It would appear that the use of monkey houses in captivity to display primates from around the world has been a possible detriment to reintroduction of animals into the wild. With the utilization of monkey houses, where animals are exposed to pathogens of other species that are not native to their geographic area of origin and to humans who have not been screened for diseases, it is possible that pathogens that might be detrimental to the wild population may have become established in the captive population.

It is relatively easy to test for specific diseases such as tuberculosis, retroviruses, and herpes B, as well as Entamoeba histolytica in the captive population. However, the significance of these diseases relative to the wild population cannot be assessed until the wild population has been surveyed. To survey the wild population, we will need to obtain fecal and serum samples to run antibody titers and look for pathogens in the fecals. After this basic survey is completed, then we would know what pathogens are foreign to the wild population and must be eliminated from animals to be released, or we would know to pick individuals that have not been exposed to these pathogens in captivity.

I believe that through the SSP programs, we have increased the possibility of spreading disease among our captive population by frequent interzoo exchanges, and therefore we should test both the receiving institutions' animals and the animal being shipped to the institution for pathogens or signs of disease.

An adequate testing policy in quarantine would be a 60­day stay where appetite and behavior is monitored closely. There should be two TB tests done utilizing mammalian old tuberculin in the eyelid at .l cc for our screening program. If there is a suspicious or positive reaction, the animal should be worked up with a battery of tests, which include chest x­rays, follow­up TB testing with PPD bovis and avian, the examination of sputum samples for acid­fast organisms, culture, and possible PCR testing. A serum survey should be done for retroviruses, as well as herpes B. A fecal sample should be cultured for the monitoring of Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter, as well as a parasite examination done with particular emphasis on Entamoeba histolytica. A CBC or complete blood count with differential should be done at least once in quarantine to check the health of the animal.

This workup should be completed on all captive animals at least once a year so that their status can be acknowledged before exposing a new monkey into the troop. A vaccination program should be incorporated that involves at least tetanus toxoid, and a killed rabies vaccine where appropriate. Additional vaccines should be given when endemic diseases pose a threat and a safe vaccine is available. One of these vaccines that could possibly be used is a vaccine against Streptococcal meningitis; however, there are a multitude of serotypes that cause the problem and the vaccine must include the serotype that is involved in an outbreak to be effective. Exposure to any exotic monkey species should be avoided -- particularly transferring these primates into the shared holding areas for cleaning purposes.

Care staff looking after the lion­tailed macaques should also go through a health screening process at least once a year that includes TB testing, CBC, banking of serum, and fecal culture and parasite checks to stop any possible exchange of zoonotic disease. One of the issues that is very difficult to resolve is the exclusion of animals that have been exposed to herpes B in certain collections. Due to legal and moral issues, I am not sure that a stand can be taken; however, the disease exists in most Asian wild populations of macaques, and I feel it would be detrimental to the genetic diversity to eliminate these animals from captive collections. However, each institution should have a program of education and protocols in line to handle possible exposures. Cage design should keep in mind the elimination of any possible public exposure and to increase the safety of keepers having to work with the animals.

There are two areas of high mortality in the lion­ tailed macaque populations. One is neonatal, although there does not seem to be any one disease factor involved here. It is perhaps more a maternal behavioral problem and should be addressed by a behaviorist and possibly by looking at patterns of social groupings and the reproductive background of the females being bred. The other at­risk group of lion­tailed macaques is the three­ to six­month age period, during which the maternal antibodies are reducing due to the weaning process and the young animal's immune system is probably not as strong as it would be at a later time. There are not specific recommendations for this period other than that it should be recognized as a problem time and that management changes and disruption to the group should probably be kept to a minimum while infants are in this age group.

Another issue is preparing for reintroduction. Again, animals should be screened for the above listed diseases, but it is difficult to make specific recommendations until the wild population is screened and we know what exists in the wild and what we should probably avoid introducing. I would suggest that the best animals for reintroduction to India would be animals that have not been kept with exotic primate species.

There has been much literature produced on the reproduction physiology of preparing animals for artificial reproductive techniques. These include basic serum levels of estrogen and progesterone for the lion­ tailed macaque female's normal cycle and how to analyze the primates for perimenopausal and menopausal phases of their reproductive life. Normal values for testosterone, LH, and FSH in the males have been measured, as well as a range of parameters for ejaculates done by electroejaculation, both manual and computerized normal values. It is also known that when rectal probe electroejaculation is utilized that much of the sperm is retroejaculated back into the bladder, and techniques have been devised to recover this semen for artificial reproductive techniques.

Accomplishments that have occurred with artificial reproductive techniques to date are successful semen collection with freezing, thawing, and subsequent fertilization utilizing intercytoplasmic sperm injection. We know that the female lion­tailed macaque builds antibodies to the human, horse, and pig stimulating drugs and can only be stimulated once utilizing these commercially available drugs. However, the synthetic recombinant drugs that are now coming on the market are able to stimulate the lion­tails at least twice and possibly three times. We have concentrated on products that reduce adhesions post­surgically on these monkeys and have been quite successful with that. We have been able to collect numerous high­quality eggs after stimulation, mature them in vitro, and have 50­70 percent fertilization using the new technique of intercytoplasmic sperm injections. We have several lion­tailed macaque embryos frozen in our liquid nitrogen cooler. At the moment, we have successfully shut down overrepresented lion­tailed macaques using reversible GnRH agonists to make them suitable recipients for fresh embryos and recently transferred four fresh embryos of an underrepresented pair of lion­ tails to an overrepresented recipient. To date, it is too early to tell whether the animal is pregnant.

We have future interests in looking at freezing ovaries from animals that die and total in vitro maturation from their primordial state to fertilization. This project will be occurring over the next year and a half and opens up a great number of new possibilities. There are possibilities for importing wild genes into the captive population through successful usage of frozen/thawed lion­tailed macaque sperm. This would allow us to electroejaculate wild males and import their frozen sperm to incorporate in the captive population. If the future project of total in vitro maturation of immature eggs is successful, we would then be able to, with a simple laparoscopic procedure, take an ovarian biopsy of an unstimulated female that had been darted in the wild and immediately transport these biopsies in transport medium back to an appropriate lab to mature. Embryos produced would then return female genetic material into the captive population.

-- Michael R. Cranfield, D.V.M., Lion-tailed Macaque Veterinary Advisor, The Baltimore Zoo, Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, MD 21217

Lion-tailed Macaque SSP Coordinator's Report: A Visit to India;

A workshop co-sponsored by Zoo Outreach Organization, Central Zoo Authority of India, and the Forest Department of Tamil Nadu was recently held in Coimbatore, Southwest India, to develop Master Plans for both in-situ and ex-situ populations of lion-tailed macaques. A report on the Master Plan for the captive population is in this issue. The in-situ plan will be reported in the next issue of the newsletter. It was my pleasure to participate in this workshop and, while there, to visit two lion-tailed macaque habitats, and I would like to share my observations and experiences.

The highlight of the field trips was a visitation to Silent Valley National Park. Silent Valley, a part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, encompasses 89.5 sq. km. and has one of the highest levels of tropical rainforest diversity to be found anywhere. This plateau represents a well-preserved example of undulating, high rainfall (~4400 mm) terrain at mid-elevation, 685 m to 1500 m, under two zones -- one along the water course and the other away from the water course. Nowhere within Southwest Asia will you find an area that compares in terms of riparian and non-riparian ecosystems in a mid-elevation, high rainfall zone. This is a completely protected park with only government vehicles allowed within the boundaries. Visitation to the park is prohibited, except by limited permit, and the only residents are tribals who have historically existed in the park. In a bio-geographical sense, Silent Valley and the adjacent forests of the Western Ghats represent ecological islands, where the conditions that prevailed before habitat degradations occurred can still be observed.

To conservationists and primatologists, Silent Valley is famous as the battleground where Indian forces of conservation confronted advocates of development and industrial expansion, and won. ( See accompanying Profile of Silent Valley for details p.13). While 218 lion-tailed macaques make their home within the park, not one individual was found, despite trekking 10-15 km. Nonetheless, the experience of sitting at a Forest Service hilltop campsite and being able to survey acres of undisturbed rainforest was awe-inspiring. For more than 20 years, I have discussed lion-tailed macaques with various groups and have always mentioned the story of the fight to conserve Silent Valley. Now, I was standing in the midst of this hallowed land.

Much of the credit for the maintenance of Silent Valley must go to the dedicated Forest Service officers, especially Dr. Amit Mallick, IFS, the District Wildlife Warden. Dr. Mallick and his officers are extremely dedicated to their profession while working under less than optimum conditions. While there is tremendous support for conservation of India's wildlife and its habitat, unfortunately, the funding is lacking. India is facing many challenges, and funding for the Forest and Wildlife Services is a low priority. The entire Forest Service detachment at Silent Valley has only one pair of very old binoculars, no recording equipment, no computers, no portable two-way radios, etc. They have in their possession an old manual typewriter for use in correspondence and report writing. On-site access to scientific books and literature regarding the animals under their care is practically non-existent. In spite of these constraints, they are doing an exceptional job managing this jewel of a park.

On the second day, we visited several sites adjacent to the mountain town of Valparai in the Anaimalai Hills. This is an area of isolated rainforest segments interspersed within an extensive number of tea and coffee plantations. Within this area two troops were observed. The smaller of the two contained about 10 individuals, while the larger contained 23 individuals. Both groups had multiple adult males, but infants were not seen in either group. Also seen within the area were Bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata), Nilgiri langurs (Presbytis johni), Malabar giant squirrels (Ratufa indica) and a small squirrel, probably the flying squirrel (Petaurista petaurista).

In contrast to the previous day's pristine forest setting, this area was "underplanted," which is the practice of clear cutting while leaving occasional mature trees to provide the shade and humidity necessary for growing cardamon and coffee. The previous day, it was possible to stand on a hilltop and experience nothing but undisturbed rainforest as far as a person could see. At this location, all one could see were cardamom and coffee plantations. The troop of 23 individuals resided in the Puthuthotam Cardamom Forest and is the same group that Shaily Menon studied in 1989-91, which had 43 individuals at that time. We spent about only two hours in the area, so it is likely that there were additional individuals, but it was evident that the troop had not increased and had probably decreased in numbers.

The Puthuthotam Cardamom Forest is a 65 ha disturbed forest patch surrounded on three sides by tea and coffee plantations and on the other side by a heavily used road. It is a privately leased forest that has an ongoing history of selective logging. While traveling to and from the site, we passed several trucks loaded with logs or forest products (.ie. firewood). Prior to Shaily's study in 1989, approximately 800 trees were cut, and after receiving permission, another 300 were selective cut. Since returning, I have received information that the owners have given an order to cut 25 trees a day in this same forest. The matter has been referred to the Chief Conservator of Forest (CCF), who is investigating the situation. The Zoo Outreach Organization will be initiating a meeting in Valperai with foresters, researchers, environmental NGOs, and the estate owners to inform them about the plight of the lion-tailed macaques and discuss measures that could be taken to preserve the animals and also allow the use of their property.

Throughout the entire time spent in India, I was very impressed with the friendliness and enthusiasm of the participants, from both the field and zoo. The zoo participants exhibited an obsession in obtaining information concerning any and all areas of management techniques. In addition to their interest in everyday management topics, there was universal interest in "high tech" subjects such as AI and embryo transfer. This same desire was also evident within the in-situ sector. It was obvious that we must do a better job n sharing information between the various communities working with lion-tailed macaques.

Especially disconcerting was the dissemination of erroneous information. When I informed the participants that we routinely tranquilized our primates for annual exams, they were astonished. They had been led to believe that tranquilization was an extreme risk that had resulted in many deaths. Therefore, they were very reluctant to schedule regular health and reproductive exams or procedures that required tranquilization. They were also amazed when I stated the majority of the collection at Woodland Park Zoo had transponders implanted for identification. They were of the opinion that the transponders were a source of many infections. There was also very little knowledge of the St. Catherine's project, and what little they had was erroneous. It was their understanding that, for the most part, it was a failure; several animals had failed to adapt and there had been several deaths from strangulation by animals getting their radio collars caught. There has also been a communication problem relaying information from India to us. It has been my understanding that there was little or no interest at all in reintroduction or translocations. To my surprise, I encountered a great deal of discussion regarding the possibility of both translocations and reintroduction from Forest officers, researchers, and zoo officials. The Forest officers were extremely interested in the St. Catherine's Project, especially the release techniques, re-capturing procedure, radio collaring, tracking, and adaptation to naturally occurring food plants. The biggest surprise was that some preliminary discussion had been held regarding a release, including the selection of a possible release site.

It is obvious that a better system of communications must be established. This was a topic of discussion at the workshop, and in collaboration with our Indian colleagues, I am in the process of devising an approach to improve information transfer.

I would like to end this report in expressing my gratitude to my institution, Woodland Park Zoo, for allowing me to participate in this workshop and to the U.S. Fish & Wildlife division of the U.S. Department of the Interior, who provided the funding for my participation. This was my second such trip, and I returned tired but re-enthused with the knowledge that our efforts are contributing to the preservation of one of nature's treasures. If the opportunity should exist for any of you to visit India, and especially lion-tailed macaque areas, go for it. It will be an experience you will never forget.

-- Laurence Gledhill, AZA SSP Coordinator, Lion-tailed macaques, Woodland Park Zoological Gardens, 5500 Phinney Ave. N., Seattle, WA 98103

A Masterplan for The Indian ;

Ex-situ Population of ;

Lion-tailed Macaques, Macaca silenus;

The Central Zoo Authority, in collaboration with the Forest Department of Tamil Nadu and Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG, India, conducted a two-part workshop in Coimbatore, India, October 14-18, 1996, for the conservation of the lion-tailed macaque. Attending this workshop were Forest Officers and researchers from lion-tailed macaque bearing divisions in the southern Indian states and curators and biologists of zoos that are members of the Indian Endangered Species Breeding Programme for Lion-tailed macaques.

Local resource persons were:

L.N. Acharjyo (ret. vet. Nandankanan Zoo)

J.H. Desai, (Consultant Central Zoo Authority)

Ajith Kumar (Chief Scientist, SACON)

Iqbal Malik (Member, Central Zoo Authority)

Sanjay Molur (Zoo/CBSG India)

K.K. Ramachandran (Kerala Forest Research Inst.)

S.C. Sharma (Secretary, Central Zoo Authority)

R. Sukumar (Centre for Ecological Sciences)

Sally Walker (Zoo Outreach Org./CBSG, India).

Foreign resource persons assisting were:

Jon Ballou (National Zoo, Washington D.C., USA),

Laurence Gledhill (Woodland Park Zoo, Seattle WA, USA)

Robert Lacy (Brookfield Zoo, Chicago, IL, USA).

The first section of the workshop was for the Forest Officers and researchers and focused upon the dynamics and management of lion-tailed macaques in the wild. This section produced a report to be used as a baseline document for an In-situ Management Plan. A detailed report will appear in the next newsletter.

The second section for zoo curators and biologists focused upon husbandry, health, and the management and population dynamics of lion-tailed macaques in captivity. A Master Plan was generated to provide coordination of the management of the captive population with the recovery and conservation of the wild population. A synopsis of the Captive Master Plan follows.

Current Captive Population

The Indian captive population has 14 ancestors of unknown parentage. It is unlikely that these animals had any living relatives in the population other than their directly known descents, but due to the percentage (27%) of the total population and the presence of an additional 9 unrepresented animals of unknown parentage, it was necessary to make several population assumptions. All assumptions were made on a "worst-case" basis so that any decisions made using them would have a minimum deleterious effect upon the population.

The Indian population of contains 25.21.1 individuals in 12 institutions, with an age structure indicative of a very unstable population that could easily become extinct. Due to insufficient life history details, a demographic analysis of the captive population was not performed, as it would not provide relevant information.

Genetic analysis indicated that there are 15 founders currently represented in the population with a potential to increase this representation to 29 founders. The range of founder representation is from 1.2% to a high of 14.76%.

Computer gene drop simulation indicated that there is only 4.30 founder genome equivalents (FGE) in the current population. By controlling future reproduction, there is a potential to increase this representation to 20.45 FGEs. The disparity between potential and current FGEs demonstrates that extensive genetic control must be employed to increase this representation. The mean inbreeding coefficient of the population is 0.116, which also indicates the need for genetic control.

Master Plan Objectives

It was decided that the primary objective of the Master Plan was to establish a secure and genetically diverse population capable of supporting a future re-introduction program if one should be deemed advisable. The generally established recommendation of maintaining 90% of the current population heterozy

gosity for a 100-year span was used in the Master Plan. The immediate goal of the program is to expand the captive population as rapidly as possible while correcting the genetic and demographic unbalance. These considerations were the basis for all the recommendations.

General Recommendations

In addition to analyzing the genetics and demographics of the population and making breeding recommendations, the workshop participants made the following general recommendations to apply to all Indian lion-tailed macaque bearing institutions:

(1) To enable intelligent management decisions, records of the parentage, birth, death, and transfer dates must be kept of all lion-tailed macaques in all Indian zoos.

(2) All animals must be identified in a permanent manner with a tattoo or by implanting a transponder. If funding can be obtained, transponders are the preferred manner of identification.

(3) Diets currently in use should be analyzed for content and nutrition. Recommendations should made for a standardized diet to be fed to all Indian zoo lion-tailed macaques.

(4) To determine the female's receptivity to a male and the success of reproductive encounters, behavioral and reproductive observations must be made and recorded.

(5) All lion-tailed macaques must be maintained in enclosures that provide adequate shelter from the elements, including protection from both sun and rain. Provisions must be made for the animals to express their natural behavior by providing extensive climbing structures (living or dead trees, and/or artificial climbers) within the exhibit.

(6) As a result of the realignment of the collections, several males will be removed from the groups. As it is highly probable that some (possibly all) of these animals will be needed for future reproduction efforts, it is important that they be maintained in a social situation.

In addition to the general recommendations, 16 individual animal movements involving 10 institutions were recommended. The Master Plan was submitted to the Indian Zoo Directors Association on November 15, 1996, and if accepted, implementation of the moves should commence within a few months. It is hoped that implementation of a coordinated management plan will result in a viable captive population within the country that the lion-tailed macaque calls home.

-- Laurence Gledhill, AZA SSP Coordinator, Lion-tailed macaques, Woodland Park Zoological Gardens, 5500 Phinney Ave. N., Seattle, WA 98103

Lion-tailed Macaque Pins;

The Puget Sound Chapter of the American Association of Zookeepers is currently offering lion-tailed macaque label pins as a project to raise funds to support lion-tailed macaque activities within India. They obtained them with a conservation support grant from the Woodland Park Zoological Society, which allows all income to be used for lion-tailed macaque activities within India.

Besides the Puget Sound Chapter of AAZK, the pins are available at the Baltimore Zoo, San Diego Zoo, Baton Rouge Zoo, Assiniboine Park Zoo (Winnipeg), Detroit Zoo, and the Lake Superior Zoo (Duluth). If anyone would like to support this project, they can obtain pins from representatives at these zoos or from me at Woodland Park Zoo for a donation of $5.00. Additionally, if anyone would like to obtain a quantity of pins to sell, they are available from the chapter at Woodland Park Zoo.

Colobus Tales;

The Colobus SSP held its first Master Planning session in June 1996 at the Metro Washington Park Zoo in Portland, Oregon. In attendance were Management Group members of the Colobus SSP and also members of the Old World Monkey Advisory Group. The SSP population for Colobus guereza consists of 256 (101.142.12) animals at 50 AZA institutions, and the SSP population for C. angolensis consists of 42 (17.20.5) animals at 6 institutions. The TAG allotted 300 spaces and 100 spaces, respectively, for these species.

The first order of business for the Management Group was to decide how best to manage the subspecies of C. guereza. When making this decision, two important factors were taken into consideration. First, the Old World Monkey Advisory Group had determined in the Regional Collection Plan (1994) that this species was to be maintained in captivity for educational and exhibit purposes. In addition, the Group wished to keep surplus animals at a minimum and wished to take no additional animals from the wild.

The Management Group decided that AZA SSP population animals will be bred without consideration of their subspecific identity. However, it was recognized that breeding programs in other regions may decide to maintain pure subspecific populations of C. guereza. Therefore, for the next 12-month period, animals of known subspecific identity will be made available for export to other regions for use in developing pure subspecific regional populations, regardless of the animal's mean kinship value relative to the SSP population. If there is no interest from other regions for importing these animals, they will be incorporated into the SSP population and bred based on their mean kinship values, regardless of their subspecific identity.

Breeding recommendations for the Master Plan were made based on mean kinship of the animals in the North American population. Management of social groupings was of primary concern in making recommendations for the movement of animals. Although 300 spaces have been allotted to C. guereza by the TAG, SSP recommendations were made to maintain a stable population of 250 animals. There will need to be approximately 35 to 40 births per year to maintain the population at this number.

The primary goal of the captive population of C. angolensis is long­term retention of genetic diversity. The SSP recommendations were to expand this population as rapidly as possible. Accordingly, recruitment of new institutions and additional spaces for this species is an SSP priority.

The goals for the upcoming year are to: 1) work on developing the husbandry manual; 2) identify advisors for the SSP, and; 3) recruit new spaces for C. angolensis.

In preparation for the Master Planning session, the second edition of the colobus studbook was produced and distributed with the Master Plan to institutions holding colobus. The studbook historically contains data for a total of 1,300 Colobus guereza individuals, including 284 living animals in 56 institutions. Historic records for C. angolensis list 105 animals and records for living animals show 40 animals at 7 institutions. Animals that were transferred to institutions without subsequent verification have been listed as "Lost to Follow Up." These animals may be brought back into the population at a later date if information does become available. Anyone with information on these animals is asked to please contact the studbook keeper so that we may have a more accurate record of the number of animals living in North America. Included in the second edition are four feature articles. The first article is written by Carolyn Bocian, a Ph.D. student working under the advisement of Dr. John Oates. Carolyn has summarized results from her research in Zaire on a sympatric group of C. guereza and C. angolensis. Her article is entitled "Niche Separation in Sympatric Black­and­White Colobus." Amy McGuire's article "Colobus Training Strategy at the North Carolina Zoological Park" outlines the staff's experiences in training their colobus. Amy explains how the training has enhanced their management of the group. "Hand Rearing a Colobus Monkey" was submitted by Carolyn Munn from the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans. In this article, Carolyn summarized her and her staff's experience in successfully hand­raising an infant colobus. In addition, of interest to many colobus managers, Ingrid Porton of the AZA's Contraceptive Task Force reviews contraception in colobus. Also included in the studbook is an updated bibliography.

-- Cathi Lehn, Animal Genetics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2471; North American Regional Colobus Studbook

For more information please contact: Cathi Lehn, or Mike Tucker, Animal Genetics, Colobus SSP Coordinator, Texas A&M University, Caidwell Zoo College Station, P.O. Box 4280, Tyler, TX 77843­2471 E­mail: cal2590@zeus.tamu.edu

Macaca f. fuscata, Japanese Macaque

RCP Category = PMP; M/L Status = Safe; Cities II

NA (Studbook) population size = 97.165 (24)

AZA population size = 59.125 (15)

Studbook keeper: Michelle Selden-Koch, Detroit Zoological Institute

Population manager: Scott Carter, Detroit Zoological Institute

Macaca nigra, Sulawesi Crested (Black) Macaque

RCP Category = SSP; M/L Status = Endangered;

Cities II

NA population size = 172.151.7 (37)

AZA population: 52.69.1 (19)

Studbook keeper: Lorraine Meller, North CarolinaZoo

Macaca silenus, Lion-tailed Macaque

RCP Category = SSP; M/L Status = Endangered;

Cities I

NA population size = 126.129.11 (36)

AZA population size = 113.104.11 (26)

Inter. studbook keeper: Laurence Gledhill,

Woodland Park Zoo

SSP Coordinator: Laurence Gledhill

Recommendations and goals:

1. Reduce AZA population using regained speces for recommended macaque species. Priority use of space to be alloted to Sulawesi black macaques. (S. Carter)

2. Recruit additional known founders from research community. (S. Carter)

3. Coordinate management of population by implementing a Population Management Plan (PMP) with Scott Carter as population manager. (S. Carter)

4. Maintain and update Regional Studbook. (M. Selden-Koch)

Recommendations and goals:

1. Establish SSP for species. (L. Meller)

2. Publish and distribute studbook by Sept. 1996. (L. Meller)

3. Monitor in-situ conservation status. (L. Meller)

4. Recruit additional institutions into SSP participation. (L. Meller)

5. Phase out non-recommended Sulawesi macaque species in NA collections. (L. Meller)

Recommendations and goals:

1. Implement Master Plan. (L. Gledhill)

2. Work toward establishment of a global Master Plan for this species. (L. Gledhill)

3. Continue to monitor in-situ status. (L. Gledhill)

4. Investigate and develop technology for possible future reintroduction. (L. Gledhill)

Revised OWMTAG Recommendations and Goals for Macaques;

(As adopted at 1996 midyear meeting, Portland, OR)

Global Macaque Projects:

1. Conduct a workshop to establish a generic Macaque Husbandry Manual, including all three managed species. ($10,000)

2. Conduct an internal educational program among AZA institutions, emphasizing the potential (or lack of) for zoonotic disease transmission and preventive methods. ($10,000)

Global Macaque Projects:

1. Conduct a workshop to establish a generic Macaque Husbandry Manual, including all three managed species. ($10,000)

2. Conduct an internal educational program among AZA institutions, emphasizing the potential (or lack of) for zoonotic disease transmission and preventive methods. ($10,000)

Silent Valley -- A Historical Profile of Habitat Conservation in Kerala, India;

1. The water sheds of the Silent Valley area were first explored and investigated as early as 1847.

2. The forest of the Silent Valley area was declared as a Reserve Forest in 1914.

3. Certain portions of the Silent Valley forest area were subjected to forestery operations during the years between 1927 and 1976.

4. In 1928-29, the location at Sairnadhri on the Kunthipuzha was identified as an ideal site for power generation.

5. A study and survey of the area was conducted in 1958, and a hydroelectic project of 120 MV costing 17 Crore Rs. was proposed by the Kerala State Electricity Board.

6. The National Committee on Enviromental Planning and Co-ordination (NCEPC) studied the proposal for the hydro project and suggested 17 safeguards to be implemented in case the project cannot be abandoned.

7. In 1977, the Kerala Forest Research Institute carried out an Ecological Impact study of the Silent Valley area and proposed that the area be declared as a Biosphere Reserve.

8. In 1978, the Honorable Prime Minister of India approved the project, with the condition that the State Government enact Legislation ensuring the necessry safeguards.

9. IUCN (Ashkhabad, USSR, 1978) passed a Resolution recommending protection oflion-tailed macaques in Silent Valley and Kalakkad.

10. In 1979, the Government of Kerala passed an Enactment viz Silent Valley Protection Area (Protection of Ecological balance) Act of 1979.

11. The government of Kerala issued a notification declaring the exclusion of the Hydroelectric Project Area from the proposed National Park.

12. Dr. Salim Ali, eminent ornithologist, visited the Valley and appealed for the abandoning of the Hydroelectric Project.

13. Kerala Sasthra Sahithya Parishath published a Techno-economic and Socio-Political assessment report on the silent Valley Hydroelectric project.

14. A petition of writ was filed against the clear cutting of forests in the Hydroelectric Project area before the High Court of Kerala, and the court ordered a stop to the clear cutting.

15. Dr. M.S. Swaminathan, the renowned Agricultural Scientist, visited the Silent Valley area and suggested the development of the Silent Valley and the adjoining forests as a National Rain Forest Bio-sphere Reserve.

16. In January 1980, the Hon. High Court of Kerala lifted the stay order on clear cutting.

17. In 1980, Smt. Indira Gandhi, the Hon. Prime Minister of India, requested the Government of Kerala to stop further works in the project area until all aspects were fully discussed.

18. In December 1980, the Government of Kelala declared the Silent Valley area, excluding the Hydroelectric Project area, as a National Park.

19. A multi-disciplinary committee with Prof. M.G.K. Menon as chairman, was created to decide if the Hydroelectric Project was feasible without any significant ecological damage.

20. In early 1983, Prof. Menon's Committee submitted its report.

21. After a careful study of the Menon report, the Hon. Prime Minister of India decided to abandon the Hydroelectric Project.

22. On November 15 ,1984, the Silent Valley forests were declared as a National Park.

23. On September 7, 1985, the Silent Valley National Park was formally inaugurated by Shri. Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minister of India.

24. On September 1, 1986, the Silent Valley National Park was included in the core area of the Nilgiri Bio-sphere Reserve.

Old World Monkey Taxon Advisory Group Co-chairs

Fred Koontz, Director of Research

NYZS/The Wildlife Conservation Society

185th Street & Southern Blvd.

Bronx, NY 10460-1099

David Ruhter, Director of Wildlife

Silver Springs Nature Park

5656 East Silver Springs Blvd.

Silver Springs, FL 34488

Eve Watts, Asst. Curator of Primates and Carnivores

San Francisco Zoological Society

1 Zoo Road

San Francisco, CA 94132-1098

OWM TAG Newsletter

Helena Fitch-Snyder: Editor

Zoological Society of San Diego

P.O. Box 551

San Diego, CA 92112-0551

USA