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Chinese Primate Research and Conservation News

Volume 3 (2), December 1994


Population and Distribution of Black Leaf Monkeys in China

Recent Development of Studies of Sichuan Golden Monkeys in
Qingling Mountain

Status of Primate Fauna anmd Conservation in Vietnam

Breeding and Raising of Primates in Vietnam

Ecology of Endangered Primates in Vietnam

Present Status on Research of Primtes in Guangxi

Information of the Second Symposium of Ghinese Primatology

Introduction for XVth Congress of the International
Primatological Society

Population and Distribution of Black Leaf Monkeys in China

QUNG Guoqing (1)  YANG Dehua (2)  WU Mingchuan (3)

1) Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
2) Research Center for Yunnan Experimental Primates, Kunming
3) Forestry Design Center of Guangxi, Nanning 530011

The Black leaf monkeys (Trachypithecus francoisi) are mainly
found along the coast and the margins of inland of southeastern
Asia. In China, they are distributed from its northmost part, the
juncture of south Sichuan and north Guizhou, through the boundary
of the southwestern Guizhou and western Guangxi, southward to the
border between China and Vietnam. One subspecies of Black leaf
monkeys, T. f. Ieucocephalus, mainly spreads in Chongzuo, Fusui,
Ningming and Longzhou counties, an area between the south of Zuo
River and the east of Ming River, Guangxi Province. The number
and present status of T. f. francoisi and T. f. leucocephalus are
as follows:

1. Trachypithecus francoisi francoisi
     (1) The monkeys cover 23 counties in Guangxi Province. There
are about 100 individuals in Longan County. Of which, 10
individuals live in Longhushan Reserve, where only 6 individuals
belonging to 2 groups were reported in 1980s. The population
density in the Reserve is 0.5 inds/km2.  The Nazuo Reserve of
Xilin County has 10 langurs. In Zongzuo County, the population
number has increased into 486 in 1992 from 340 individuals in
1982 and the density reaches 3.19 inds/km2 in an area of 146.6
km2.  There are 130 francoisi langurs and 26 inds/km2in Dahongbao
Reserve of Longlir County, according to investigation in 1994. In
the reserve of Daxing County a range of about 299 km2, the
population number was 35 groups with a total of 586 individuals
in 1993. Of which, Longmei region with 60 km2 has 33 groups with
a total of 409 individuals and its density at 6.8 inds/km2. The
total number of the monkeys in Guangxi Province was 4000-5000 in
1983, and becomes 5000-6000 by now.

     (2) The monkeys can be found in eleven counties in Guizhou
Province. There are 5.36 inds/km2 (73/13.62) in the core area of
Yezhong Reserve in Shuizhen County. Thirty-nine groups have been
found at Mt. Juchi and or the sides of Mayang and Hongshi Rivers,
about a range of 40 km2. Forty-nine groups with a total of 367
individuals habite in Dongzhi, Shuiyang, Zhengan, Daozhen and
Wuquan counties, Zunyi Prefecture.

One hundred and nine groups with a total number of 1000
leaf-monkeys live in Guizhou on the basis of the investigation by
random sampling.

     (3) In Sichuan Province, T. f. francoisi confines in Kingfu
Mountain, and is estimated to be two groups containg 27

2. Trachypithecus francoisi leucocephalus

T. f. leucocephalus occupies an area of 200-500 km2 in Guangxi.
The mostly densely populated areas are:

     (1) Longrui Reserve of Linming County: There were 45 groups
with a total number of 280 in 1976, 68 with 450 in 1986, and 85
with 800 in 1993.  Correspondingly, the population density was
0.9, 1.4 and 3.0 inds/Km2.

     (2) Zongzuo County:14 groups, a total of 114 individuals,
were found over 18.67 km2 ( density: 6.1 inds/km2). Recently, 19
groups, a total of 174 individuals, were found over 34.66 Km2
(density: 5.02 inds/Km2).

The number of T. f. Ieucocephalus was estimated at 600 before
1977, and may have reached 1000-1300 by now.

3. Estimated number in China

The number of T. f francoisi has increased into 6000-7000 within
ten years. T f. Ieucocephlus may have 1000-1300 individuals.


Recent Development in Studies of Sichuan
Golden Monkey in Qinling Mountains

LI Baoguo, YANG Xingzhong
(Department of Biology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069)

Current distribution of Sichuan golden monkey (Rhinopithecus
roxellana) in Shaanxi, China, are located in the offshoots near
the main ridge of the central Qinling mountains, betwoon 107~ 24~
-108x 27' E., and 33x 32' -33x 57' N. In recent years, We
reported the monkey's habitat, seasonal foods, major categories
of vocal behaviour, pattern of daily activity, behaviour, and
troop movement. It is discovered there are 39 troops in the
region, about 3800 individuals. Monkey troops usually prefer to
live in the deciduous broadleaf forest, then move in the
coniferous and deciduous broadleaf forest. They almost do not go
to the coniferous forest. The altitude range is limited below
1400-2500m. Fifty-seven species of plants eaten by the Sichuan
golden monkey, and the food include four deciduous broadleaf,
three evergreen trees and shrubs. With seasonal change, monkeys
utilize different parts and kinds of plants. This food change is
related to the phenology of plants. Major categories of
vocalization produced by free-living golden monkey are described
as 6 types, i.e. amazement call, alarm call, warning call,
peaceful call, contacting call and other vocalizations. Emission
of major vocalizations are accompanied by troop behaviour and
body movements. Vocal communication maintains stability of
population. The first role is leading troop activity. The second
role is maintaining group order. The third role is reducing
consumption of energy of troop members.

The north slope of Qinling mountain is north line of golden
monkey distributition It is observed monkey troops well adapt the
environment of this area.  As compared with habitats of golden
monkey in Sichuan and Hubei provinces, this area has its

In the future, we will study home range size and its seasonal
changes, utilization of habitat, time distribution of activity
pattern of individuals and troops, major categories of behaviour,

Because of human population increase and economic expansion, we
must conserve the monkey's home range, to facilitute genetic
exchanges between troops, in order to save the rare species.

Status of Primate Fauna and Conservation in

Cao Van Sung
(Institute of Ecology and Biological Resource. Hanoi, Vietnam)

The primate fauna of Vietnam is rich and many species are
endemic. In Vietnam, it has registered 14 species (22 species and
subspecies). The primate fauna of Vietnam comprises 4
geographycal elements: Indo-Hymalian 22.7%, Indo-Malaysian 18.1%,
Chinese-9.1% and High endemic 50%. The amount of High endemic
element are found in North Central Vietnam region (5 species and
subspecies, Northwest; 4 species, South Central; 3 species,
Northeastand one species, South, Vietnam). Primates occur in
different forest types: Evergreen-22 species and subspecies;
Semi-deciduous foest-18; Deciduous forest-15; Limestone
forest-11; Deciduous subtropical forest-8; Bamboo forest-3;
Mangrove-1. No species has been found in temperate coniferous

Owing to habitat destruction and hunting pressure many primates
are threatened. It has listed 16 species and subspecies in Red
Data book of Vietnam.

For protection Vietnam has established 87 protected areas. Some
of them are directed to protect endangered primates, Such as
National parks: Cat ba, Babe, Cuc phuong, Cat tien, Yokdon and
natural reserces: Son tra, Na hang, Kon cha rang. It has created
also some breeding centers and stations such as Dao Reu island in
the North, Dao Thi island in the South, Which are not only for
vaccine production but also for preservation and restoration of
these precious gene pool. For best hope to survival of endangered
endangered primates Vietnam with international assistance has
established a rescue Center. Vietnam initiates the efforts to
research and protection of threatened primates, especially Douc
langur, Leaf monkeys, Tokin snub-nosed monkey, Gibbons. 
Neccessary living materials and facilities are provided in this
rescue Center. International organizations provide expertise,
funding for implementing this progam. The Center is going first
step and should be the basis to improve the protection and
against the extinction and degradation of endangered primates.


Breeding and Raising of Primates in Vietnam

Cao Van Sung
(Institute of Ecology and Biological Resource. Hanoi, Vietnam)
Vern Weikel Belconnen
Vu NgocThanh
(Hanoi University, Hanoi,Vietnam)

Many forest animal materials are used as traditional products in
Asian medicine. Moreover they are also exported for increasing
living standards. 

But exploitation only from nature leads to degradaton and threat
of primates, especially precious and rare species. For providing
needs inside country and export, Vietnam has built some centers
of bereeding monkeys.Now these are 3 centers: Dao Reu island in
North, Dao Thi island nearly Nha Trang in Center and " Joint
Company Monkey's Breeding and Development" in Dong Nai Province.

The Dao Reu breeding center was established in 1962 to provide
primate tissues for vaccine production. Recently each year, the
center supplies of 200 Stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoicles)
replaced former M. mulatta. 

The Center at Nha Trang was found at 1986 in cooperation with
former Soviet Union and supplies the primates for research and
vaccine production also. Four macaque species are now bred: M.
mulatfa (800 ind.), M. arctoides (400 ind.), M fascicularis (400
ind.), and most recently M. nemestrina (200 ind.). In two of
these centers animalsare kept in cages or in semi-wild on an
island with appropriate dietary calories and protein.

The joint company is specialized to breed M. fascicularis with
the capacity of 6000 animals. This company is facillated to
develop techniques under good breeding conditions.

Breeding and raising of Monkey are new job but has prospect in
public health, export and preservation of monkey sources.


Ecology of Endangered Primates in Vietnam

Cao Van Sung
(Institute of Ecology and Biological Resource. Hanoi, Vietnam)
Pham Nhat
(Forestry College Xuan Mai, Hanoi, Vietnam)

There are 16 species or subspecies of endangered primates in
Vietnam. The report presents a results of long-term study on
ecology of most precious species as Douc langur (Pygathrix
nemaeus), Tonkin snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus avunculus),
Francois' langur (Trachypithecus francoisi), Black gibbon
(Hylobates concolor), Macaques (Macaca spp.).

The report offers new and appreciate information on distribution,
population, structure and organization herd, habitat and vital
area, behavior, diet and foot regime, productivity, age and

The number of primates are estimated: Douc langur, 500-600
animals; Delacour langur (T. f delacouri), 150-200 ind.; Black
gibbons (Hylobates concolor), Golden headed langur ( T. f.
poliocephalus), 200 ind.; Hatinh langur (T. f. hatinhensis), 50
ind.; Tonkin sunb-nosed monkey, 130 ind.. This numbers show the
serious threat and requirement of some highest conservation
priority of these endangered primates.

The results of study on diet of some specialized leaf eating
monkey are given. The diet of R. avunculus consists of 60 plant
species, of Douc langur 63 plants. The macaques have mixed food
regime: Macaca mulaffa, 171 plants and 17 animal species; Macaca
arctoides,161 plants and 19 animals respectively. This
information is intended to be used in supplying food for animal
diet in breeding and in planting food trees.

Part of the report focuses on significance and yield status and
potential ofprimate sources. Based on this information it has
made sufficient recommendation for sustainable use, protection of
primate resources in Vietnam and neighbouring countries.

Present Status on Research of Primates in Guangxi

Li Chunyao 
Lu Liren 
and Huang Chenming
(Department of Biology, Guangxi Normal Unversity, Guilin, 541004)

Guangxi is rich in primate resources. According to Wu Mingchuan
(1993 important primate species in Guangxi include Slow
loris (Nycticebus coucang), Rhesus macaque( Macaca mulatta),
Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis), Stump-tailed macaque(
Macaca arctoides), Pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina),
Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana), White-headed leaf monkey
(Presbytis leucocephalus), Black leaf monkey (Presbytis
francoisi) and Black gibbon (Hylobates concolor). Data on these
primates are limited, except for that from the prelimitary survey
of some species in the early 1980s and from the capative breeding
of some species. Data, such as their current patterns of
distribution, diversity, total number and their ecological
behavior which are important for protection of the primates, have
still not been reported.

Recent years, due to the human interference, destruction of
natural environment and illegal hunting, many primates' survival
has been in great danger, althrough the government has set up a
series of reserves to conservate them. Some primate species, such
as Slow loris and Black gibbon, are not easy to be found. In
order to protect these primates efficiently and to provide
information necessary for the government to take measures on
reserve management, we must study on these primates, to get
information about their current patterns of distribution,
diversity, total number and their sociological behavior.
Regretfully, only the study of White-headed leaf monkey has just


Information of the Second Symposium of Chinese Primatology

For the coming 2nd Symposium of Chinese Primatology, the chief
leaders of the Preparatory and Organizing Committees met in
Beijing and Nanning, respectively on Sep.25 and Nov.21,1994 and
determined the following affairs:

1. The editorial board, for the edition and publication of a
collection of papers presented for the Symposium and record of
topics on primates published by Chinese researchers since 1930s.
has been organized.
     1). The conveners of scientific sessions will be invited to
be consultants of the collection of papers. The Organizing
Committee will inform authors directly to send their papers to
relevant consultants on the basis of author's recepts.
     2). A record of topics of scientific papers on Primates
published inside and outside China by Chinese researchers since
1930s, will be published in Chinese and English prior to the
Symposium, So that the Primatologists in the world could
understand the present situation of studies on primates in China.

2. For the coservation and saving of primates in China, the
writer's group contiues to revise and perfect the Action Plan for
Chinese Primate Conservation according to suggestions by some
specialists. The manuscript of the Action (in Chinese and
English) plan will be submitted to the Symposium for further

3. The topics reported in the Symposium
1). Resources and conservation of primates in Guangxi -- LIU
2). Review and prospect of Studies in China -- WANG Yingxiang
3). Present status and conservation of Primates in China -- ZHANG
4). Action Plan for Chinese primate Conservation -- WANG Qishan
5). Socioeconomic development and conservation in Asia -- Ardith
A. Eudey
6). Conservation programs of the American Society of Primatology
-- Ramon J. Rhine

4. Reports in sessions
     45-50 papers will be reported in scientific sessions. They
involve many aspects of primates, such asfossil ape, psychology,
genetics, conservation biology, morphology, evolution,
systematics, feeding and breeding, laboratory primate medicine,
etc. The subjects of their syudies include Golden monkey, Douc
langur, Black leaf monkey, Tibetan macaque and Rhesus monkeys,

5. Participants
     There are about 80 specialists who have registered up to
now. Of which, Chinese come from institute, university, forestry
department and zoo. Foreigners come from US, Brazil, Japan, Sri
Lanka, Russia, Vietnam, India, etc. The statuses of the
participants cover professor of University or members of Primate
Specialist Group of IUCN/SSC, or leaders and members of
Conservation Committee of ASP and Wildlife Conservation Society,

6. Visiting in natural reserve
     During the Symposium, the Organizing Committee will arrange
for the participants to visit Longhushan Natural Reserve for one
day. The Reserve is located in the west of Nanning city and has
an area of about 20 km2 Black leaf monkeys and 8 groups of Rhesus
macaques exist there.

The purposes of the Symposium, besides improving international
communication, give a chance for participants to seek
international cooperation in order to conserve and save


Introduction for XVth Congress of the International
Primatological Society

Wang Yingxiang
(Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Kunming, Yunnan, 650223 China)

The XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society
hold in Kuta, Bali Island, Indonesia, on 3-8 August, 1994. About
340 primatologists from 45 countries in world were presented this
meeting, Among them, Forty-six primatologists are from host
country, Indonesia. Eight primatologists are from Kunming
Institute of Zoology, Chiness Academy of Sciences; Institute of
Vertebrate Paleontology & Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of
Sciences; Department of Psychology, Beijing University etc.,
three from Taiwan and three of Chinese students studying abroad.
About 470 papers are provided to this Congress, Among them, 400
papers are readed in 34 group's meeting, 60 articles are shown as
poster in this congress. Its substance including: conservation
(42 articles), behavior ecology (32 art.), social interaction (28
art.), cognition and learning (18 art.), ecology and demography
(16 art.), social organization (16 art.), behavior (14 art.),
physiology and endocrinology (14 art.), pathology and veterinary
medicine (13 art.), genetics and molecular genetics (12 art),
locomotion and functional anatomy (11 art.), evolution and
systematics (10 art.), reproductive biology (9 art.), feeding and
nutrition (9 art.), immunology and virology (8 art.),
communication (8 art.), growth and development (8 art.), captive
breeding (5 art.), enviromental enrichment (5 art.)etc.

There are also 19 symposiun in this congress, they are:
1).1nternational collaborations in research, conservation and
training by the U.S. Regional Primate Research Centers (4 art.).
2). Ecology and conservation of Sulawesi macaques (9 art.).
3). Contribution of non-human primate to human health (6 art.).
4). Alfred Russel Wallace: the man, the line and the monkey (6
5). Evolution and communication behavior in Sulawesi primates (6
6). Orangutan: research and rehabilitation ( 10 art.).
7). Welfare and quality of non-human primates bred in source
 (14 art.).
8). Causes and consequnces of dominance in female primates (4
9). Early development in primates (3 art.).
10). New world primates with patternal care: male-female
strategies  (6 art.).
11). Biology of the snub-nosed langurs of China and Vietnam (12
12). The experimental use of non-human primates (8 art.).
13). The importance of seeds in the primate diets (7 art.).
14). Hierarchical structures in great apes cogniton (5 art.).
15). Primate for ecotourism (3 art.).
16). Ethical challenges to primate research and conservation (8
17).Behavior physiology & anatomical aspects of vocal
 (6 art.).
18).Social influnces on responsiveness to foods and food-binding
situations in new world monkey  (5 art.).
19). Social and ecological cognition in great ape (3 art.).

Besides, there are five workshop in this meeting to discuss, they
1). Extinction in primate evolution and conservation.
2). Population viability analysis to assist primate conservation.
3). Graduate training program in primatology: status and
4). The history of primatology.
5). Bioengineering challenges and opportunities in primatology


Instructions for Authors

Chinese Primate Reserch and Conservation News, sponsored by the
Chinese primate Specialist group. is issued irregularly and
circulated to interested members of mammal associations, academic
groups abroad, and primate specialists. The News will help people
find out primate research projects both in and out of China and
the work of the Chinese primate Specialist Group. Contents of the
News include: research projects of primate species, academic
information, introduction to academic groups, rescue and
conservation of endangered primate species, keeping and breeding
of resource species, scientific use, publication evaluation,
comments and suggestion on primate species conservation.

Any papers, comments and suggestions are welcome, and any support
for the News will be appreciated. Please mail your manuscript to
the Liaison.

Editors: WANG Qishan, Ll Jinhua
Sponsor: Primate Specialist Group of Mamma!ogical Society of
Published: Dec. 28, 1994
Office Address: Institute of Zoology Chinese Academy of Sciences
19 Zhongguancun Road, Beijing 100080, China
Liaison: QUAN Guoqiang
Tel: 86/112562712
Fax: 861112565689