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Current Topics in Primatology
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Washington Regional Primate Research Center



AGING/AGED AND NONHUMAN PRIMATES:  1998-1999

Aujard F
[Age-related effects on photoperiodic control of energy expenditure in a
Malagasy prosimian, the lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).]
PRIMATOLOGIE. 1: 379-403, 1998. (French w/ English summary)

Aujard F; Boissy I; Claustrat B
Melatonin secretion in a nocturnal prosimian primate: Effect of
photoperiod and aging. Pp. 337-340 in BIOLOGICAL CLOCKS: MECHANISMS AND
APPLICATIONS. Touitou Y, ed. Amsterdam, Elsevier Sci Publ, 1998. (ISBN
0-444-82503-7; Serial title: Int Congr Ser No 1152)

Aujard F; Perret M
Age-related effects on reproductive function and sexual competition in the
male prosimian primate, Microcebus murinus.
PHYSIOLOGY & BEHAVIOR 64(4): 513-519, 1998.

Aujard, F
Effect of aging on sexual behaviour and reproductive function in male
lesser mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus).
FOLIA PRIMATOLOGICA 69(1): 47, 1998. (Abstract)

Baeyens MM
Medical problems and treatment of geriatric great apes at the Little Rock
Zoo. CHIMPANZOO CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 1997: 71, 1998. (Abstract)

Coe CL
Psychological factors and immune senescence in aged nonhuman primates.
PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE 61(1): 110, 1999. (Abstract)

Coe, C L; Lemieux, A M; Rier, S E; Uno, H; Zimbric, M L
Profile of endometriosis in the aging female rhesus monkey.
JOURNAL OF GERONTOLOGY A53(1): M3-M7, 1998.

Colman RJ
THE SKELETAL EFFECTS OF AGING, MENOPAUSE AND DIETARY RESTRICTION IN RHESUS
MACAQUES (MACACA MULATTA). PhD thesis. Madison Univ of Wisconsin, 1998,
113+ pages..

Colman RJ; Lane MA; Binkley N; Wegner FH; Kemnitz JW
Skeletal effects of aging in male rhesus monkeys.
BONE 24(1): 17-23, 1999.

Colman RJ; Roecker EB; Ramsey JJ; Kemnitz JW
The effect of dietary restriction on body composition in adult male and
female rhesus macaques. AGING-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH 10(2):
83-92, 1998.

Couzin J
Low-calorie diets may slow monkeys' aging.
SCIENCE 282(5391): 1018, 1998.

Croft MA; Kaufman PL; Crawford KS; Neider MW; Glasser A; Bito LZ
Accommodation dynamics in aging rhesus monkeys.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY 275(6 pt 2): R1885-R1897, 1998.

DeLany JP; Hansen BC; Bodkin NL; Hannah J; Bray GA
Long-term calorie restriction reduces energy expenditure in aging monkeys.
JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY A54(1): B5-B11, 1999.

Dhenain M; Duyckaerts C; Michot JL; Volk A; Picq JL; Boller F
Cerebral T2-weighted signal decrease during aging in the mouse lemur
primate reflects iron accumulation.
NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING 19(1): 65-69, 1998.

Dhenain M; Michot JL; Volk A; Gauthier CA; Boller F; Picq JL
[Preliminary study of cerebral aging in mouse lemurs by a spatial version
of the delayed non matching to sample task.] PRIMATOLOGIE. 1: 309-331,
1998. (French w/ English summary)

Dhenain M; Volk A; Picq JL; Privat N; et al.
Cerebral aging in Microcebus murinus: Behavior, MRI, neuropathology.
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 10(Suppl): 391, 1998.
(Abstract)

Dhenain, M; Volk, A; Picq, J-L; Perret, M; et al 
Magnetic resonance imaging study of cerebral atrophy in Microcebus
murinus. FOLIA PRIMATOLOGICA 69(1): 53, 1998.
(Abstract)

Dunbar DC; Badam GL
Development of posture and locomotion in free-ranging primates.
NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS 22(4): 541-546, 1998.

Durham RA; Bian F; Callahan MJ; Emmerling MR; et al
Regional differences in the distribution of Abeta40 and Abeta42 in the
brains of aged rhesus monkeys. SOCIETY FOR NEUROSCIENCE ABSTRACTS 24(Pt
1): 727, 1998. (Abstract)

Edwards IJ; Rudel LL; Terry JG; Kemnitz JW; Weindruch R; Cefalu WT
Caloric restriction in rhesus monkeys reduces low density lipoprotein
interaction with arterial proteoglycans.
JOURNAL OF GERONTOLOGY A53(6): B443-B448, 1998.

Emborg ME; Ma SY; Mufson EJ; Levey AI; Taylor MD; Brown WD; Holden JE;
Kordower JH
Age-related declines in nigral neuronal function correlate with motor
impairments in rhesus monkeys.
JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY 401(2): 253-265, 1998.

Emborg ME; Ma SY; Mufson EJ; Levey A; et al
Nigrostriatal degeneration and impaired motor function in aged rhesus
monkeys: A model of human aging and early Parkinson's disease (PD) for
neural transplantation.
EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY 153(2): 389, 1998. (Abstract)

Erwin J; Bloomsmith M; Boysen S; Hof P; et al.
Development of comparative neurobiology of aging resource: Progress during
year one of the Great Ape Aging Project.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY 45(2): 179, 1998. (Abstract)

Erwin J; Bloomsmith M; Hof P; Holloway R; et al
The great ape aging project: A resource for the comparative study of
behavior, cognition, health, and neurobiology of the oldest apes.
THIRD INTERNATIONAL GREAT APES OF THE WORLD CONFERENCE. : 48, 1998.
(Abstract)

Erwin JM; Hof P; Perl D
The Great Ape Aging Project: Behavior, cognition, and neurobiology.
CHIMPANZOO CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 1997: 72, 1998.
(Abstract)

Fuller C; Murphy M; Morris A; O'Leary M
The glory and gore of going geriatric.
CHIMPANZOO CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 1997: 11-14, 1998.

Gage TB
The comparative demography of primates: With some comments on the
evolution of life histories.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF ANTHROPOLOGY : 197-221, 1998.

Gelatt K; Brooks DE; Samuelson DA
Comparative glaucomatology II: The experimental glaucomas.
JOURNAL OF GLAUCOMA 7(4): 282-294, 1998.

Geula C; Wu CK; Saroff D; Lorenzo A; Yuan ML; Yankner BA
Aging renders the brain vulnerable to amyloid beta-protein neurotoxicity.
NATURE MEDICINE 4(7): 827-831, 1998.

Gibbons A
A blow to the 'grandmother theory'.
SCIENCE 280(5363): 516, 1998.

Gibson M; Zuercher G
Susie: A profile of an older female chimpanzee at Sunset Zoo.
CHIMPANZOO CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 1997: 73, 1998.
(Abstract)

Gilissen EP; Ghosh P; Jacobs RE; Allman JM
Topographical localization of iron in brains of the aged fat-tailed dwarf
lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) and gray lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus
murinus). AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY 45(3): 291-299, 1998.

Gilissen EP; Jacobs RE; Allman JM
Dwarf and mouse lemurs as primate model of brain aging: Distribution of
age pigments. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY 45(2): 182-183, 1998.
(Abstract)

Gresl T; Cartee G; Gazdag A; Roecker E; et al.
Dietary restriction protects against the development of type 2 diabetes in
rhesus monkeys. FASEB JOURNAL 12(4 pt 1 suppl): A254, 1998.
(Abstract)

Hansen BC
Lessons from life-time studies in monkeys.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY 22(Suppl 3): S92, 1998.
(Abstract)

Harada T; Tokuriki M; Tanioka Y
Age-related changes in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials of the
marmoset. HEARING RESEARCH 128(1-2): 119-124, 1999.

Hayashi M
[Aging and neuronal factors in the primate brain.]
REICHORUI KENKYU/ PRIMATE RES 14(2): 89-93, 1998.
(Japanese)

Herndon JG; Constantinidis I; Moss MB
Age-related brain changes in rhesus monkeys: A magnetic resonance
spectroscopic study. NEUROREPORT 9(9): 2127-2130, 1998.

Herndon JG; Tigges J; Klumpp SA; Anderson DC
Brain weight does not decrease with age in adult rhesus monkeys.
NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING 19(3): 267-272, 1998.

Hof PR; Nimchinsky EA; Perl DP; Erwin J
Identification of neural types in cingulate cortex that are unique to
humans and great apes. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY 45(2): 184-185,
1998. (Abstract)

Iams DR
Parallel aging. CHIMPANZOO CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 1997: 39-43, 1998.

Jallageas V; Privat N; Mestre-Frances N; Bons N
Age-related changes in serotonergic and catecholaminergic brain systems in
the lemurian primate Microcebus murinus.
ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 839: 628-630, 1998. (ISBN
1573311103)

Johnson RL; Kapsalis E
Do aged free-ranging female rhesus monkeys exhibit a mortality plateau?
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY 45(2): 186-187, 1998.
(Abstract)

Johnson RL; Kapsalis E
Menopause in free-ranging rhesus macaques: Estimated incidence, relation
to body condition, and adaptive significance.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY 19(4): 751-765, 1998.

Junge, R E; Mezei, L E; Muhlbauer, M C; Weber, M
Cardiovascular evaluation of lowland gorillas.
JAVMA [J AM VET MED ASSOC] 212(3): 413-415, 1998.

Kalaria RN; Cohen DL; Greenberg DB; Savage MJ; et al.
Alzheimer pathology in cerebral cortex and cerebral vessels of aged
non-human primates. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 10(Suppl): 90, 1998.
(Abstract)

Kawasaki K; Kubo N; Tsuchida J
[An application of behavior observation for analysis of cognitive ability
in aged monkeys.] REICHORUI KENKYU/ PRIMATE RES 14(2): 103-107, 1998.
(Japanese)

Keefe DL
Reproductive aging is an evolutionarily programmed strategy that no longer
provides adaptive value.
FERTILITY AND STERILITY 70(2): 204-206, 1998.

Kim MJ
Caloric restriction, oxidative stress and aging: Studies in red and white
blood cells from rhesus monkeys. DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL
B59(1): 167, 1998. (To order: #AAD97-36198. University Microfilms, Inc,
Ann Arbor, MI 48106)

King J; O'Connor L; Erwin J; Perl D; et al
Round table discussion on aging chimpanzees.
CHIMPANZOO CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 1997: 75, 1998.
(Abstract)

Kisilevsky R
Amyloid beta threads in the fabric of Alzheimer's disease.
NATURE MEDICINE 4(7): 772-773, 1998.

Koyama T; Terao K
[Characteristics of psycho-immuno-endocrinological responses of aged
monkeys to social stress.] REICHORUI KENKYU/ PRIMATE RES 14(2): 109-114,
1998. (Japanese)

Krueger D; Todd H; Haffa A; Bruner J; Yandow D; Binkley N
Central region-of-interest analysis of lumbar spine densitometry
demonstrates lower bone mass in older rhesus monkeys.
BONE 24(1): 29-33, 1999.

Krylova RI; Lapin BA
Pathology of aged monkeys. BALTIC JOURNAL OF LABORATORY ANIMAL SCIENCE
8(2): 81-88, 1998. (Russian summary)

Lacreuse A; Herndon GJ; Moss MB
[Age-related cognitive decline in humans and rhesus monkeys (Macaca
mulatta).] PRIMATOLOGIE. 1: 333-377, 1998.
(French w/ English summary)

Lee CM; Lopez ME; Weindruch R; Aiken JM
Association of age-related mitochondrial abnormalities with skeletal
muscle fiber atrophy.
FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE 25(8): 964-972, 1998.

Lee E; Davidov T; Sandell JH
Age-related changes in the microvasculature of primary visual cortex in
the macaque monkey. FASEB JOURNAL 12(5 pt 2 suppl): A752, 1998.
(Abstract)

Lees CJ; Ramsay H
Histomorphometry and bone biomarkers in cynomolgus females: A study in
young, mature, and old monkeys. BONE 24(1): 25-28, 1999.

Leibel RL
Commentary on |Long-term calorie restriction reduces energy expenditure in
aging monkeys.| JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY A54(1): B12-B13, 1999.

Lorigados L; Serrano T; Fernandez CI; Pavon N; Bergado J; de la Cuetara K;
Alvarez P
NGF levels in experimental models of aging.
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE REVIEW 3(1): 106-108, 1998.

Mackic, J B; Weiss, M H; Miao, W; Kirkman, E; Ghiso, J; Calero, M; Bading,
J; Frangione, B; Zlokovic, B V
Cerebrovascular accumulation and increased blood-brain barrier
permeability to circulating Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide in aged
squirrel monkey with cerebral amyloid angiopathy.
JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY 70(1): 210-215, 1998.

Martens R; Couch R; Hansen B; Howard C; et al
An international database for the study of diabetes, obesity, and aging in
great apes and other nonhuman primates.
THIRD INTERNATIONAL GREAT APES OF THE WORLD CONFERENCE. : 49, 1998.
(Abstract)

Mesulam MM
Some cholinergic themes related to Alzheimer's disease: Synaptology of the
nucleus basalis, location of m2 receptors, interactions with amyloid
metabolism, and perturbations of cortical plasticity.
JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY PARIS 92(3-4): 293-298, 1998.
(French summary)

Morris ED; Chefer SI; Lane MA; Muzic RF Jr; et al.
Effect of age on D2 dopamine receptor binding measured with
11-C-raclopride and PET in rhesus monkeys. Partial volume correction
reduces the apparent rate of decline with age.
JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE 39(5 suppl): 207P, 1998. (Abstract)

Morris ED; Chefer SI; Lane MA; Muzic RF Jr; Wong DF; Dannals RF; Matochik
JA; Bonab AA; Villemagne VL; Grant SJ; Ingram DK; Roth GS; London ED
Loss of D2 receptor binding with age in rhesus monkeys: Importance of
correction for differences in striatal size.
JOURNAL OF CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW AND METABOLISM 19(2): 218-229, 1999.

Moss MB; Herndon JG; Killiany RJ
Age-related cognitive impairment in the rhesus monkey: Successful and
unsuccessful aging. FASEB JOURNAL 12(5 pt 2 suppl): A943, 1998. (Abstract)

Nakamura E; Lane MA; Roth GS; Ingram DK
A strategy for identifying biomarkers of aging: Further evaluation of
hematology and blood chemistry data from a calorie restriction study in
rhesus monkeys. EXPERIMENTAL GERONTOLOGY 33(5): 421-443, 1998.

Nam KH; Akari H; Terao K; Itagaki S; Yoshikawa Y
Age-related changes in major lymphocyte subsets in cynomolgus monkeys.
EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS 47(3): 159-166, 1998.

Nam KH; Akari H; Terao K; Ohto H; Itagaki S; Yoshikawa Y
Age-dependent remodeling of peripheral blood CD4+ CD8+ T lymphocytes in
Cynomolgus monkeys.
DEVELOPMENTAL AND COMPARATIVE IMMUNOLOGY 22(2): 239-248, 1998.

Ochiai M
[Behavioral analysis of aged monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata): Effects of
places on object discrimination learning.]
REICHORUI KENKYU/ PRIMATE RES 14(3): 266, 1998.
(Japanese) (Abstract)

Ochiai M; Itou K; Izumi A; Kojima S
[Studies on the cognitive functions of aged monkeys.]
REICHORUI KENKYU/ PRIMATE RES 14(2): 95-102, 1998.
(Japanese)

Overdorff D
American Society of Primatologists twenty-first annual meeting.
EVOLUTIONARY ANTHROPOLOGY 7(5): 153-154, 1999.

Packer C; Tatar M; Collins A
Reproductive cessation in female mammals.
NATURE 392(6678): 807-811, 1998.

Pasin MS; Taylor LL; Leon BS
Age and locomotion in captive Coquerel's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi
coquereli). AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY 45(2): 199, 1998.
(Abstract)

Paule MG; Gillam MP; Morris P
The effects of cocaine on nonhuman primate brain function are age
dependent. ANNALS OF THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 846: 178-182, 1998.
(ISBN 1573311278)

Pavelka MSM
Primate gerontology.
Pp. 220-224 in THE NONHUMAN PRIMATES. Dolhinow P, ed. Mountain View,
Mayfield Publ, 1999. (ISBN 1559349743)

Perl DP; Hof PR; Nimchinsky E; Erwin JM
Studies of age-related neuronal loss in chimpanzees.
THIRD INTERNATIONAL GREAT APES OF THE WORLD CONFERENCE. : 50, 1998.
(Abstract)

Peters A; Morrison JH; Rosene DL; Hyman BT
Are neurons lost from the primate cerebral cortex during normal aging?
CEREBRAL CORTEX 8(4): 295-300, 1998.

Peters A; Sethares C; Moss MB
The effects of aging on layer 1 in area 46 of prefrontal cortex in the
rhesus monkey. CEREBRAL CORTEX 8(8): 671-684, 1998.

Picq JL; Dhenain M
Reaction to new objects and spatial changes in young and aged grey mouse
lemurs (Microcebus murinus). QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
B51(4): 337-348, 1998.

Rice DC
Age-related increase in auditory impairment in monkeys exposed in utero
plus postnatally to methylmercury.
TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES 44(2): 191-196, 1998.

Sandell JH; Baker LS Jr; Davidov T
The distribution of neurotrophin receptor TrkC-like immunoreactive fibers
and varicosities in the rhesus monkey brain.
NEUROSCIENCE 86(4): 1181-1194, 1998.

Santoni L; Simkin P; Kramer P; Ott S; et al.
Degenerative disk disease in the aging macaque.
ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM 41(9 suppl): S147, 1998. (Abstract)

Schultz C; Koppers D; Braak E; Braak H
Tau-positive cytoskeletal pathology in specific neurons and glial cells of
the aged baboon. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 10(Suppl): 92, 1998.
(Abstract)

Schwarze SR
Molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial alterations with aging: Studies in
rhesus monkeys and Drosophila melanogaster.
DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL B59(7): 3253, 1999.
(To order: #AAD98-29144. University Microfilms, Inc, Ann Arbor, MI 48106)

Sheffield LG
Microglial activation and region-specific distribution correspond to
age-related and Alzheimer's disease changes in the primate brain.
DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL B59(10): 5261, 1999.
 (To order: #AAD99-09616. University Microfilms, Inc, Ann Arbor, MI 48106)

Sheffield LG; Berman NEJ
Microglial expression of MHC class II increases in normal aging of
nonhuman primates. NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING 19(1): 47-55, 1998.

Smith DE; McKay HH; Gage FH; Roberts JA; et al
Intraparenchymal delivery of NGF by ex vivo gene transfer reverses
age-related loss of expression of p75NTR in basal forebrain cholinergic
neurons. SOCIETY FOR NEUROSCIENCE ABSTRACTS 24(Pt 1): 541, 1998.
(Abstract)

Struckhoff G; Schultz C; Koppers D; Braak E; et al.
Abnormally phosphorylated tau in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes of the
aged baboon. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE 10(Suppl): 92, 1998.
(Abstract)

Summers JB; Hill WD; Prendergast MA; Buccafusco JJ
Co-localization of apolipoprotein E and beta-amyloid in plaques and
cerebral blood vessels of aged non-human primates.
ALZHEIMER'S REPORTS 1(2): 119-128, 1998.

Taylor LL
Behavior and reproduction in aged lemurs.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY (Suppl 26): 217, 1998. Abstract

Taylor LL
Social isolation and aged lemurs.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY 45(2): 210-211, 1998.
(Abstract)

Terao K
[Age-related changes in immune functions.]
REICHORUI KENKYU/ PRIMATE RES 14(2): 135-140, 1998.
(Japanese)

Turiak G; Rosene D; Volicer L
Determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive products formed from
deoxyribose in biological samples. NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS
23(3): 151-158, 1998.

Tuszynski MH; Smith DE; Roberts J; McKay H; Mufson E
Targeted intraparenchymal delivery of human NGF by gene transfer to the
primate basal forebrain for 3 months does not accelerate beta-amyloid
plaque deposition.
EXPERIMENTAL NEUROLOGY 154(2): 573-582, 1998.

Uno, H; Alsum, P; Zimbric, M L; Houser, W D; Thomson, J A; Kemnitz, J W
Colon cancer in aged captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY 44(1): 19-27, 1998.

Vaitkevicous PV; Lane M; Ebersold C; Ingram D; et al
A novel collagen crosslink breaker effects a sustained reduction in
arterial stiffness in old primates. CIRCULATION 98(17 suppl I): 8-9, 1998.
(Abstract)

Van Kampen M; Fuchs E
Age-related levels of urinary free cortisol in the tree shrew.
NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING 19(4): 363-366, 1998.

Voytko ML; Ehrenkaufer RI; Gage HD; Mach RH; et al
Changes in cerebral blood flow of aged rhesus monkeys.
SOCIETY FOR NEUROSCIENCE ABSTRACTS 24(Pt 2): 1496, 1998.
(Abstract)

Wang XD; Masilamani NS; Mabrey JD; Alder ME; Agrawal CM
Changes in the fracture toughness of bone may not be reflected in its
mineral density, porosity, and tensile properties.
BONE 23(1): 67-72, 1998.

Wasser SK; Norton GW; Rhine RJ; Klein N; Kleindorfer S
Ageing and social rank effects on the reproductive system of free- ranging
yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) at Mikumi National Park, Tanzania.
HUMAN REPRODUCTION UPDATE 4(4): 430-438, 1998.

Wu CK
Age-related, chemo- and cyto-architectonic changes of the primate basal
forebrain cholinergic system.
DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS INTERNATIONAL B58(12): 6427, 1998.

Yamada G; Nakamura S; Fukuzaki K; Izumi H; Horai N; Nagata R; Minami T;
Tohno Y; Suzuki K; Haraguchi R; Miyado K; Toyoda T; Izpisua-Belmonte JC;
Maruyama I; Kitajima I
Dysregulation of trace element composition in ovariectomized cynomolgus
monkey bones.
CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY 44(8): 1205-1213, 1998.

Yoshikawa Y
[Development of senile disease models with non-human primates-history and
future of the project.] REICHORUI KENKYU/ PRIMATE RES 14(2): 77-81, 1998.
(Japanese)