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Primate Factsheets
Using the PIN Factsheets

The Wisconsin National Primate Research Center has created this series of factsheets as a starting point to find information about the various primate species. Each PIN Factsheet covers one or more species in-depth with range maps and many images from our AV collection and from new contributors illustrating the text. New factsheets will be developed and added to this site on a regular basis.

A glossary of special vocabulary is available. Terms used in the glossary appear in the text as links which can be clicked to see a definition. A full glossary can also be browsed.

Each PIN Factsheet includes a list of references used in its creation with a link to recently published literature provided as well. An expert reviewer has been identified for each species to check each PIN Factsheet for accuracy and currency.

AT A GLANCE

Status: conservation status according to IUCN Red List evaluation


Average life span: indicated if captive or wild
Total population: estimates for captive or wild
Region: countries where the primate is found
Average height: crown-rump length
Average weight: weight in units as noted
Gestation: length in days and approximate length in months

Found under TAXONOMY, MORPHOLOGY, & ECOLOGY

TAXONOMY

In this section, information about the basic taxonomy of the species can be found. All taxonomic relationships are taken from Groves (2001). Common and foreign language names of the focal species are also listed here and are taken from http://www.iucn.org or http://www.cites.org.

MORPHOLOGY

Information about the physical appearance of the animal as well as weight, height, average lifespan, locomotion patterns, and special physical characteristics are listed in this section.

RANGE

The country or countries in which the species are found as well as specific geographical information about their range within those countries is provided in this section. Also included is information about long-term study sites and important researchers that have contributed significant knowledge about the species both in the wild and in captivity. Estimated population numbers, when available, are also listed.

HABITAT

In this section, the habitats in which the species are found are described including vegetational composition and climatic information such as seasonal variation in temperature and rainfall and average yearly temperature and rainfall.

ECOLOGY

The focus of this section of the fact sheet is how each species interacts with its physical environment in order to survive. General characteristics about diet composition, daily patterns of activity, day range lengths, home range size, seasonal variation in feeding behavior, specialized feeding behaviors such as tool use, competition with other species, and natural predators are described in this section.


Found under BEHAVIOR

SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AND BEHAVIOR

Because primates are highly social animals with complex behavioral repertoires, this section extensively examines basic social structure of wild groups in comparison to captive animals, group size and composition, social interactions within the group including dominance hierarchies, immigration and emigration patterns, dispersal patterns, and territorial interactions.

REPRODUCTION

In this part of the fact sheets, information about sexual maturity, reproductive parameters of both males and females, description of birth seasonality, reproductive behavior, and gestation length is described. It is indicated if this information is from wild or captive animals of each species.

PARENTAL CARE

Both parental care behavior and development from birth to juvenilehood is detailed in this section. Information about nursing, weaning, infant carrying, teaching, and learning is included.

COMMUNICATION

Visual, auditory, and chemical communication are outlined and described in this section. Visual communication includes body position and posture as well as facial cues between animals while auditory communication involves vocalizations. Chemical communication in some primates is highly developed and information about scent marking and pheremonal cues is provided.


Found under CONSERVATION

CONSERVATION STATUS

The subcategories within this section are adapted from the IUCN "Categories of Threat" used to asses the status of all species and they include: Human-Induced Habitat Loss and Degradation, Invasive Alien Species, Harvesting (hunting/gathering), Accidental Mortality, Persecution Pollution, Natural Disasters, Changes in Native Species Dynamics, Intrinsic Factors, and Human Disturbance. After the description of each of these is a section on possible solutions either based on actual programs that have been implemented to combat specific threats or based on recommendations of researchers familiar with the conservation concerns of each species. Also included is a list of links to other information on the conservation of each species, either to more information about general biology or behavior of the species or websites devoted to conservation actions and programs to protect the species.

SPECIAL NOTES

In this section, not found in all of the fact sheets, information about the species that is not related to the other sections can be found. Information about the cultural significance of the species, its use in biomedical research, description of studies involving language skills, and tool use may also be found here.


Found under REFERENCES

REFERENCES

The reference lists have been compiled according to the style outlined by the Council of Science Editors using the 6th edition and supplemented with the website ( http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/).


Found under LINKS

LINKS TO OTHER INFORMATION

Links to factsheets found on other web sites for each species or group of species are provided, as well as searches on Primate Info Net and the International Directory of Primatology.