Yellow-tailed woolly monkey
CITES: Appendix I
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IUCN Red List: O. flavicauda: CR
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Key: CR = Critically endangered
(Click on species name to see IUCN Red List entry, including detailed status assessment information.)
Photo: Noga Shanee
The yellow-tailed woolly monkey is one of the World's 25 Most
Endangered Primates (Cornejo et al. 2009; Mittermeier et al. 2009).
Until the middle of the 20th Century, most of the yellow-tailed woolly
monkey's habitat was largely inaccessible. Since then, road building to
increase human habitation of their region of occurrence has increased
threats to the species (Leo Luna 1982; 1987). Large-scale immigration
started during unrest in the 1970s and 1980s, and the influx continues
today (Shanee et al. 2008; DeLuycker 2007). There are no up-to-date
population estimates but its total area of potential suitable habitat is
under 8,000 km² and is declining and largely fragmented (Cornejo et al.
2009). The species is known to exist in several protected areas, but
even these areas are being illegally logged and hunted, with a lack of
law enforcement, and have increasing human populations (Cornejo et al.
2009). Further, the low birth rate exacerbates these threats because
populations are slow to recover, particularly from hunting (Leo Luna
1980; 1987). Other aspects of its ecology that increase the
susceptibility of the species include its low density and limited range
of occurrence (Leo Luna 1987).
Threat: Human-Induced Habitat Loss and Degradation
The primary threat to the yellow-tailed woolly monkey is habitat
loss or fragmentation through clear-cutting or selective logging of its
forest habitat (Leo Luna 1982; 1987; Butchart et al. 1995; DeLuycker
2007; Cornejo et al. 2009). Deforestation is intensified and increased
by continuing human immigration into suitable habitats (DeLuycker 2007;
Shanee et al. 2007a). Areas are cleared for various types of
agriculture, including coca cultivation and coffee cultivation, but also
for timber, mining, road construction, and cattle husbandry (DeLuycker
2007; Shanee et al. 2008). Soils are poor, and quickly erode,
necessitating further clearance (Shanee et al. 2008). Such destruction
is often illegal and sometimes occurs in protected areas (DeLuycker
Threat: Harvesting (hunting/gathering)
Hunting is another major threat to the survival of the species (Leo
Luna 1987; Shanee et al. 2007a). Yellow-tailed woolly monkeys are often
hunted for food and trade, for both indigenous and immigrant subsistence
(Parker & Barkley 1981; Leo Luna 1987; Shanee et al. 2007a). They
are easily hunted due to their large size and their loud and obvious
responses to intruders, making them easy to find for hunters (Butchart
et al. 1995; DeLuycker 2007). Mothers are sometimes shot to procure
their infants as pets (DeLuycker 2007). These infants are either kept
or sold for approximately 10-70 US dollars (Shanee et al. 2007a).
LINKS TO MORE ABOUT CONSERVATION
ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN Oreonax flavicauda CONSERVATION
Content last modified: September 30, 2010
Written by Kurt Gron.
Cite this page as:
Gron KJ. 2010 September 30. Primate Factsheets: Yellow-tailed woolly monkey (Oreonax flavicauda) Conservation . <http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/yellow-tailed_woolly_monkey/cons>. Accessed 2014 April 24.