Primate Info Net Banner Wisconsin PRC Logo
PIN Home > About the Primates > Primate Factsheets > Nomascus leucogenys

White-cheeked gibbon
Nomascus leucogenys

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Nomascus leucogenys, search PrimateLit. Note that the species is often referred to as Hylobates leucogenys.


Cunningham CL, Anderson JR, Mootnick AR. In press. Object manipulation to obtain a food reward in hoolock gibbons (Hoolock hoolock). Anim Behav.

Dao Van Tien. 1983. On the north Indochinese gibbons (Hylobates concolor) (primates: Hylobatidae) in North Vietnam. J Hum Evol 12: 367-72.

Nomascus leucogenys
Photo: Bertrand L. Deputte

Deputte BL. 1982. Duetting in male and female songs of the white-cheeked gibbon (Hylobates concolor leucogenys). In: Snowdon CT, Brown CH, Petersen MR, editors. Primate communication. Cambridge (England): Cambridge Univ Pr. p 67-93.

Geissmann T. 1991. Reassessment of age of sexual maturity in gibbons (Hylobates spp.). Am J Primatol 23: 11-22.

Geissmann T, Nguyen Xuan Dang, Lormée N, Momberg F. 2000. Vietnam primate conservation status review 2000. Part 1: gibbons. Hanoi (Vietnam): Fauna & Flora Int, Indochina Programme. 130 p.

Gerald MS. 2003. How color may guide the primate world: possible relationships between sexual selection and sexual dichromatism. In: Jones CB, editor. Sexual selection and reproductive competition in primates: new perspectives and directions. Volume 3, Special topics in primatology. Norman (OK): Am Soc Primatol. p 141-71.

Groves C. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington DC: Smithsonian Inst Pr. 350 p.

Leighton DR. 1987. Gibbons: territoriality and monogamy. In: Smuts BB, Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM, Wrangham RW, Struhsaker TT, editors. Primate societies. Chicago: Univ Chicago Pr. p 135-45.

Lukas KE, Barkauskas RT, Maher SA, Jacobs BA, Bauman JE, Henderson AJ, Calcagno JM. 2002. Longitudinal study of delayed reproductive success in a pair of white-cheeked gibbons (Hylobates leucogenys). Zoo Biol 21: 413-34.

Macdonald D, editor. 2001. The encyclopedia of mammals. Volume 2, Primates and large herbivores. New York: Facts on File. 930 p.

Nadler RD, Dahl JF, Collins DC. 1993. Serum and urinary concentrations of sex hormones and genital swelling during the menstrual cycle of the gibbon. J Endocrinol 136: 447-55.

Nowak RM. 1999. Walker's mammals of the world. Volume I. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins Univ Pr. 836 p.

Palombit R. 1994. Dynamic pair bonds in hylobatids: implications regarding monogamous social systems. Behaviour 128(1-2): 65-101.

Rowe N. 1996. The pictorial guide to the living primates. East Hampton (NY): Pogonias Pr. 263 p.

Rumbaugh DM, Washburn DA. 2003. Intelligence of apes and other rational beings. New Haven (CT): Yale Univ Pr. 326 p.

Schilling D. 1984. Song bouts and duetting in the concolor gibbon. In: Preuschoft H, Chivers DJ, Brockelman WY, Creel N, editors. The lesser apes: evolutionary and behavioural biology. Edinburgh (Scotland): Edinburgh Univ Pr. p 390-403.

Varsik A, compiler. 2001. North American regional studbook for white-cheeked gibbon Nomascus leucogenys and golden-cheeked gibbon Nomascus Gabriella. Santa Barbara (CA): Santa Barbara Zoo Gardens. 33 p.

Zhang Y, Chen L, Qu W, Coggins C. 2002. The primates of China: biogeography and conservation status. Asian Prim 8(1-2): 20-2.

Content last modified: December 1, 2010