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The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Chlorocebus sp., search PrimateLit. Note that much of the literature uses the taxonomy Cercopithecus.


Adeyemo AI. 1997. Diurnal activities of green monkeys Cercopithecus aethiops in Old Oyo National Park, Nigeria. S Afr J Wildl Res 27(1): 24-6.

Andelman SJ. 1987. Evolution of concealed ovulation in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Am Natural 129: 785-99.

Baldellou M, Adan A. 1997. Time, gender, and seasonality in vervet activity: a chronobiological approach. Primates 38(1): 31-43.

Boulton AM, Horrocks JA, Baulu J. 1996. The Barbados vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus): changes in population size and crop damage, 1980-1994. Int J Primatol 17(5): 831-44.

Bowen-Jones E, Pendry S. 1999. The threat to primates and other mammals from the bushmeat trade in Africa, and how this threat could be diminished. Oryx 33(3): 233-46.

Carlsson HE, Schapiro SJ, Farah I, Hau J. 2004. Use of primates in research: a global overview. Am J Primatol 63(4): 225-37.

Chakrabarti L. 2002. Natural history of simian immunodeficiency viruses: clues to the emergence and virulence of AIDS viruses. In: Burroughs T, Knobler S, Lederberg J, editors. The emergence of zoonotic diseases: understanding the impact on animal and human health. Washington DC : National Acad Pr. p 61-3.

Chapman C, Fedigan LM. 1984. Territoriality in the St. Kitts vervet, Cercopithecus aethiops. J Hum Evol 13(8): 677-86.

Cheney DL. 1981. Intergroup encounters among free-ranging vervet monkeys. Folia Primatol 35(2-3): 124-46.

Cheney DL. 1983. Extra-familial alliances among vervet monkeys. In: Hinde RA, editor. Primate social relationships: an integrated approach. Oxford ( UK ): Blackwell. p 278-86.

Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM. 1983. Nonrandom dispersal in free-ranging vervet monkeys: social and genetic consequences. Am Natural 122(3): 392-412.

Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM. 1990. How monkeys see the world: inside the mind of another species. Chicago (IL): Univ Chicago Pr. 377 p.

Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM, Andelman SJ, Lee PC. 1988. Reproductive success in vervet monkeys. In: Clutton-Brock TH, editor. Reproductive success: studies of individual variation in contrasting breeding systems. Chicago (IL): Univ Chicago Pr. p 384-402.

Eley RM, Gulamhusein N, Lequin RM. 1986. Reproduction in the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops): I. Testicular volume, testosterone, and seasonality. Am J Primatol 10(3): 229-35.

Eley RM, Tarara RP, Worthman CM, Else JG. 1989. Reproduction in the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops): III. The menstrual cycle. Am J Primatol 17(1): 1-10.

Else JG, Eley RM, Wangula C, Worthman C, Lequin RM. 1986. Reproduction in the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops): II. Annual menstrual patterns and seasonality. Am J Primatol 11(4): 333-42.

Ervin F, Palmour R. 2003. Primates for the 21 st century biomedicine: the St. Kitts vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops, SK). In: [Anonymous]. International perspectives: the future nonhuman primate resources; 2002 Apr 17-19; Bogor, Indonesia. Washington DC : Natl Acad Pr. p 49-53.

Fairbanks LA, McGuire MT. 1985. Relationships of vervet mothers with sons and daughters from one through three years of age. Anim Behav 33(1): 40-50.

Fairbanks LA, McGuire MT. 1986. Age, reproductive value, and dominance-related behaviour in vervet monkey females: cross-generational influences on social relationships and reproduction. Anim Beh 34(6): 1710-21.

Fedigan L, Fedigan LM. 1988. Cercopithecus aethiops: a review of field studies. In: Gautier-Hion A, Bourlière F, Gautier JP, Kingdon J, editors. A primate radiation: evolutionary biology of the African guenons. Cambridge ( UK ): Cambridge Univ Pr. p 389-411.

Gerald MS. 2001. Primate colour predicts social status and aggressive outcome. Anim Behav 61(3): 559-66.

Groves C. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington DC : Smithsonian Inst Pr. 350 p.

Grubb P, Butynski TM, Oates JF, Bearder SK, Disotell TR, Groves CP, Struhsaker TT. 2003. Assessment of the diversity of African primates. Int J Primatol 24(6): 1301-57.

Harrison MJS. 1983. Patterns of range use by the green monkey, Cercopithecus sabaeus, at Mt. Assirik, Senegal. Folia Primatol 41(3-4): 157-79.

Harrison MJS. 1984. Optimal foraging strategies in the diet of the green monkey, Cercopithecus sabaeus, at Mt. Assirik, Senegal. Int J Primatol 5(5): 435-71.

Henzi SP. 1985. Genital signaling and the coexistence of male vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus). Folia Primatol 45(3-4): 129-47.

Hoorocks JA. 1986. Life-history characteristics of a wild population of vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) in Barbados, West Indies. Int J Primatol 7(1): 31-47.

Horrocks J, Baulu J. 1994. Food competition between vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) and farmers in Barbados : implications for management. Rev Ecol (Terre Vie) 49(3): 281-94.

Horrocks JA, Hunte W. 1986. Sentinel behaviour in vervet monkeys: who sees whom first? Anim Behav 34(5): 1566-7.

Isbell LA. 1995. Seasonal and social correlates of changes in hair, skin, and scrotal condition in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) of Amboseli National Park, Kenya. Am J Primatol 36(1): 61-70.

Isbell LA, Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM. 1991. Group fusions and minimum group sizes in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Am J Primatol 25(2): 57-65.

Isbell LA, Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM. 2002. Why vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) live in multimale groups. In: Glenn ME, Cords M, editors. The guenons: diversity and adaptation in African monkeys. New York : Kluwer Acad/Plenum. p 173-87.

Isbell LA, Enstam KL. 2002. Predator (in)sensitive foraging in sympatric female vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas): a test of ecological models of group dispersion. In: Miller LE, editor. Eat or be eaten: predator sensitive foraging among primates. Cambridge ( UK ): Cambridge Univ Pr. p 154-68.

Isbell LA, Enstam KL. Under review. Vervet monkey: Cercopitheus (a.) pygerthus. In: Happold DCD, Kingdon, J, Butynski, editors. Mammals of Africa. London: Academic Pr.

Isbell LA, Pruetz JD, Lewis M, Young TP. 1998. Locomotor activity differences between sympatric patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops): implications for the evolution of long hindlimb length in Homo. Am J Phys Anthro 105(2): 199-207.

Isbell LA, Pruetz JD, Lewis M, Young TP. 1999. Rank differences in ecological behavior: a comparative study of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops). Int J Primatol 20(2): 257-72.

Jones TS. 1998. The Sierra Leone monkey drives. In: Grubb P, Jones TS, Davies AG, Edberg E, Starin ED, Hill JE, editors. Mammals of Ghana, Sierra Leone, and the Gambia. Zennor ( UK ): Trendrine Pr. p 214-19.

Kavanaugh M. 1981. Variable territoriality among tantalus monkeys in Cameroon. Folia Primatol 36(1-2): 76-98.

Keddy Hector A, Raleigh MJ. 1992. The effects of temporary removal of the alpha male on the behavior of subordinate male vervet monkeys. Am J Primatol 26(2): 77-87.

Lee PC. 1984. Early infant development and maternal care in free-ranging vervet monkeys. Primates 25(1): 36-47.

Lee PC. 1987. Sibships: cooperation and competition among immature vervet monkeys. Primates 28(1): 47-59.

Lernould JM. 1988. Classification and geographical distribution of guenons: a review. In: Gautier-Hion A, Bourlière F, Gautier JP, Kingdon J, editors. A primate radiation: evolutionary biology of the African guenons. Cambridge ( UK ): Cambridge Univ Pr. p 54-78.

Nakagawa N. 1999. Differential habitat utilization by patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and tantalus monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops tantalus) living sympatrically in northern Cameroon. Am J Primatol 49(3): 243-64.

Napier PH, editor. 1981. Catalogue of primates in the British Museum (Natural History) and elsewhere in the British Isles : Part II: Family Cercopithecidae, Subfamily Cercopithecinae. London : British Museum (Natural History). 203 p.

Oates JF, compiler. 1996. Status survey and conservation action plan: African primates (Revised edition). Gland ( Switzerland ): IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. 80 p.

Peeters M, Courgnaud V, Abela B, Auzel P, Pourrut X, Bibollet-Ruche F, Loul S, Liegeois F, Butel C, Koulagna D, et al. 2002. Risk to human health from a plethora of simian immunodeficiency viruses in primate bushmeat. Emerg Infect Diseas 8(5): 451-7.

Poirier FE. 1972. The St. Kitts green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus): ecology, population dynamics, and selected behavioral traits. Folia Primatol 17: 20-55.

Rowe N. 1996. The pictorial guide to the living primates. East Hampton (NY): Pogonias Pr. 263 p.

Saj TL, Sicotte P, Paterson JD. 2001. The conflict between vervet monkeys and farmers at the forest edge in Entebbe, Uganda. Afr J Ecol 39: 195-9.

Seier J. 2003. Supply and use of nonhuman primates in biomedical research: A South African perspective. In: [Anonymous]. International perspectives: the future nonhuman primate resources; 2002 Apr 17-19; Bogor, Indonesia. Washington DC : Natl Acad Pr. p 16-19.

Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL, Marler P. 1980b. Monkey responses to three different alarm calls: evidence of predator classification and semantic communication. Science 210(4471): 801-3.

Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL, Marler P. 1980a. Vervet monkey alarm calls: semantic communication in a free-ranging primate. Anim Behav 28(4): 1070-94.

Shimada MK, Shotake T. 1997. Genetic variation of blood proteins within and between local populations of grivet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops aethiops) in central Ethiopia. Primates 38(4): 399-414.

Skinner JD, Smithers RHN. 1990. The mammals of the southern African subregion, 2nd edition. Pretoria (South Africa): Univ Pretoria. 771 p.

Starin ED. 1999. Conservation in the Gambia ? In: Lowe J, editor. Wildlife conservation in West Africa II. The proceedings of a symposium of the Nigerian Field Society ( UK branch); 1999 Oct 9-10; Dunstable, England. Surrey ( UK ): Nigerian Field Soc. p 38-43.

Struhsaker TT. 1967. Social structure among vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Behaviour 29: 83-121.

van der Kuyl AC, Dekker JT, Goudsmit J. 1996. St. Kitts green monkeys originate from West Africa : genetic evidence from feces. Am J Primatol 40(4): 361-4.

Whitten PL. 1983. Diet and dominance among female vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Am J Primatol 5(2): 139-59.

Wolfheim JH. 1983. Primates of the world: distribution, abundance, and conservation. Seattle (WA): Univ Washington Pr. 831 p.

Zinner D, Peláez F, Torkler F. 2002. Distribution and habitat of grivet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops aethiops) in eastern and central Eritrea. Afr J Ecol 40: 151-8.

Content last modified: January 3, 2006