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The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Cacajao, search PrimateLit.


Aquino R. 1995. Conservacion de Cacajao calvus ucayalii en la Amazonia Peruana. Neotrop Prim 3(2):40-2.

Aquino R, Encarnación F. 1999. Observaciones preliminaries sobre la dieta de Cacajao calvus ucayalii en el nor-oriente Peruano. Neotrop Prim 7(1):1-5.

Aquino R. 1988. Preliminary survey on the population densities of Cacajao calvus ucayalii. Prim Conserv 9:24-6.

Aquino R, Encarnación F. 1994. Primates of Peru. Prim Rep 40:1-127.

Aquino R. 1998. Some observations on the ecology of Cacajao calvus ucayalii in the Peruvian Amazon. Prim Conserv 18:21-4.

Ayres JM. 1989. Comparative feeding ecology of the uakari and bearded saki, Cacajao and Chiropotes. J Hum Evol 18:697-716.

Ayres JM, Johns AD. 1987. Conservation of white uacaries in Amazonian várzea. Oryx 21(2):74-80.

Ayres JM. 1986. The conservation status of the white uakari. Prim Conserv 7:22-6.

Ayres JM. 1990. Scarlet faces of the Amazon. Nat Hist 99(3):32-41.

Ayres JM. 1986. Uakaris and Amazonian flooded forest. PhD dissertation, University of Cambridge. 338p.

Barnett AA. 2005. Cacajao melanocephalus. Mammal Spec 776:1-6.

C. calvus calvus
Cacajao calvus calvus

Barnett AA, de Castilho CV, Shapley RL, Anicácio A. 2005a. Diet, habitat selection and natural history of Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary in Jaú National Park, Brazil. Intl J Primatol 26(4):949-69.

Barnett AA, Brandon-Jones D. 1997. The ecology, biogeography and conservation of the uakaris, Cacajao (Pitheciinae). Folia Primatol 68(3-5):223-35.

Barnett AA, Borges S, de Castilho CV. 2000. Golden-backed uacari, Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary, in Jaú National Park, Amazonas, Brazil. Primate Eye 70:33-7.

Barnett A, da Cunha AC. 1991. The golden-backed uacari on the upper Rio Negro, Brazil. Oryx 25(2):80-8.

Barnett AA. 2004. The meanings of Cacajao and Uacari: folk etymology in neotropical primate taxonomy. Neotrop Prim 12(3):147-52.

Barnett AA, Deveny A, Schiel V. 2005b. Report of a technical visit to Jaú National Park, Amazonas, 27 March-4 April 2005. Concord (CA):Akodon Ecological Consulting. 5p.

Barnett AA, de Castilho CV. 2000. Report on a short study of the dry season feeding ecology and habitat preferences of the golden-backed uacari or bicó, Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary (Cebidae: Pitheciinae) on the lower Rio Jaú, Amazonas, Brazil. Concord (CA): Akodon Ecological Consulting. 18p.

Barnett AA. 1999. Report on a short study of the wet season feeding ecology and habitat preferences of the golden-backed uacari or bicó, Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary, in Jaú National Park, Brazil. Concord (CA): Akodon Ecological Consulting. 8p.

Barnett AA. 2008. Report on fieldwork conducted in Jaú National Park, Amazonian Brazil, between January and December 2007 on the diet, habitat preferences and conservation ecology of the golden-backed uacarí, Cacajao ouakary (Pitheciidae, Primates). Concord (CA): Akodon Ecological Consulting.

Bartecki U, Heyman EW. 1987. Sightings of red uakaris, Cacajao calvus rubicundus, at the Rio Blanco, Peruvian Amazon. Prim Conserv 8:34-6.

Bennett CL, Leonard S, Carter S. 2001. Abundance, diversity, and patterns of distribution of primates on the Tapiche River in Amazonian Peru. Am J Primatol 54(2):119-26.

Boubli JP. 1994. The black uakari monkey in the Pico da Neblina National Park. Neotrop Prim 2(3):11-2.

Boubli JP. 1997a. Ecology of the black uakari monkey, Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus, in Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil. PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Boubli JP. 1999. Feeding ecology of black-headed uacaris (Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus) in Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil. Intl J Primatol 20(5):719-49.

Boubli JP. 1993. Southern expansion of the geographical distribution of Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus. Intl J Primatol 14(6):933-7.

Boubli JP. 1997b. A study of the black uakari, Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus, in the Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil. Neotrop Prim 5(4):113-5.

Boubli JP. 2002. Western extension of the range of bearded sakis: a possible new taxon of Chiropotes sympatric with Cacajao in the Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil. Neotrop Prim 10(1):1-4.

Boubli JP, da Silva MNF, Amado MV, Hrbek T, Pontual FB, Farias IP. 2008. A taxonomic reassessment of Cacajao melaocephalus Humboldt (1811), with the description of two new species. Intl J Primatol 29:723-41.

Bowler M. 2002. The ecology and conservation of the red uakari monkey Cacajao calvus ucayalii in the Yavari valley of Peru [abstract]. Prim Eye 79:3-4.

da Cunha AC, Barnett A. 1989. Project uakari: first report-preliminary survey. Part one-zoology. Rio de Janeiro: Pronatura. 108p.

Davies CR, Ayres JM, Dye C, Deane LM. 1991. Malaria infection rate of Amazonian primates increases with body weight and group size. Funct Ecol 5(5):655-62.

Defler TR. 2001. Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary densities on the lower Apaporis River, Colombian Amazon. Prim Rep 61:31-6.

Defler TR. 1999. Fission-fusion in the black-headed uacari (Cacajao melanocephalus) in eastern Colombia. Neotrop Prim 7(1):5-8.

Defler TR. 1991. Preliminary observations of Cacajao melanocephalus Humboldt, 1811 (Primates, Cebidae) in Colombia. Trianea 4:557-8.

Defler TR. 2003. Primates de Colombia. Bogotá: Conservación Internacional Colombia.

Defler TR. 2004. Primates of Colombia. Bogotá: Conservation International. 550p.

Fernandes MEB. 1993. Tail-wagging as a tension relief mechanism in Pithecines. Folia Primatol 61:52-6.

Fontaine R, DuMond FV. 1977. The red ouakari in a seminatural environment: potentials for propagation and study. In: Rainier III (Grimaldi) Prince of Monaco, Bourne GH, editors. Primate conservation. New York: Academic Pr. p167-236.

Fontaine R. 1981. The uakaris, genus Cacajao. In: Coimbra-Filho A, Mittermeier RA, editors. Ecology and behavior of neotropical primates. Rio de Janeiro: Academic Brasileira de Ciências. p 443-93.

Groves C. 2005. Order primates. In: Wilson DE, Reeder DM, editors. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, third edition, volume 1. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins U Pr. p 111-84.

Grüter CC, Zinner D. 2004. Nested societies. Convergent adaptations of baboons and snub-nosed monkeys? Prim Rep 70:1-98.

Hershkovitz P. 1987. Uacaries, new world monkeys of the genus Cacajao (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary taxonomic review with the description of a new subspecies. Am J Primatol 12(1):1-53.

Heymann EW. 1990. Further field notes on red uacaris, Cacajao calvus ucayalii, from the Quebrada Blanco, Amazonian Peru. Prim Conserv 11:7-8.

Heymann EW. 1992. The red uakari (Cacajao calvus ucayalii): some field observations and speculations on a little-known species [abstract]. Prim Eye 47:6-7.

Lehman SM, Robertson KL. 1994. Preliminary survey of Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus in southern Venezuela. Intl J Primatol 15(6):927-34.

Leonard S, Bennett C. 1996. Associative behavior of Cacajao calvus ucayalii with other primate species in Amazonia Peru. Primates 37(2):227-30.

Leonard S, Bennett C. 1995. Behavioral ecology study of red uakari, Cacajao calvus ucayalii, in northeastern Peru. Neotrop Prim 3(3):84.

Mittermeier RA, Coinbra-Filho AF. 1977. Primate conservation in Brazilian Amazonia. In: Rainier III (Grimaldi) Prince of Monaco, Bourne GH, editors. Primate conservation. New York: Academic Pr. p 117-66.

Norconk MA. 2007. Sakis, uakaris, and titi monkeys: behavioral diversity in a radiation of primate seed predators. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Panger M, Bearder SK, editors. Primates in perspective. New York: Oxford U Pr. p 123-38.

Peres CA. 1997. Primate community structure at twenty western Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. J Trop Ecol 13(3):381-405.

Silva JS Jr., Martins ES. 1999. On a new white bald uakari population in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. Neotrop Prim 7(4):119-21.

Walker SE. 1996. The evolution of positional behavior in the saki-uakaris (Pithecia, Chiropotes, and Cacajao). In: Norconk MA, Rosenberger AL, Garber PA, editors. Adaptive radiations of neotropical primates. New York: Plenum Pr. p 335-67.

Walker SE, Ayres JM. 1996. Positional behavior of the white uakari (Cacajao calvus calvus). Am J Phys Anth 101(2):161-72.

Ward NS, Chism J. 2003. A report on a new geographic location of red uakaris (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) on the Quebrada Tahuaillo in northeastern Peru. Neotrop Prim 11(1):19-22.

Weigl R. 2005. Longevity of mammals in captivity; from the living collections of the world. Stuttgart (DE): E. Schweizerbartsche. 214 p.

Whitehead M. 1984. Howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) and uakaris (Cacajao spp.) in captivity and the field: a review with reference to experiences at Twycross zoo, U.K. Proc Symp Asso Brit Wild Anim Keep 8:5-21.

Content last modified: July 21, 2008