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Tufted capuchin
Cebus apella

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The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Cebus apella, search PrimateLit.


Boinski S, Quatrone RP, Swartz H. 2000. Substrate and tool use by brown capuchins in Suriname: ecological contexts and cognitive bases. Am Anth 102(4):741-61.

Butchart SHM, Barnes R, Davies CWN, Fernandez M, Seddon N. 1995. Observations of two threatened primates in the Peruvian andes. Prim Conserv 16:15-9.

Byrne G, Suomi SJ. 1995. Development of activity patterns, social interactions, and exploratory behavior in infant tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). Am J Primatol 35(4):255-270.

Cebus apella
Photo: Kevin Schafer

Byrne G, Suomi SJ. 1998. Relationship of early infant state measures to behavior over the first year of life in the tufted capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). Am J Primatol 44(1):43-56.

Calle Z. 1990. A field observation of infant development and social interactions of a wild black-capped capuchin (Cebus apella) female and infant at La Macarena (Colombia). Field Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena, Colombia, Vol. 4:1-8.

Carosi M, Linn GS, Visalberghi E. 2005. The sexual behavior and breeding system of tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Adv Stud Behav 35:105-49.

Chapman CA, Peres CA. 2001. Primate conservation in the new millennium: the role of scientists. Evol Anth 10(1):16-33.

da Silva JMC, Rylands AB, Silva JS Jr, Gascon C, Da Fonseca GAB. 2005. Primate diversity patterns and their conservation in Amazonia. In: Purvis A, Gittleman JL, Brooks T, editors. Phylogeny and conservation. Cambridge:Cambridge U Pr. p 337-64.

Defler TR. 1982. A comparison of intergroup behavior in Cebus albifrons and C. apella. Primates 23(3):385-92.

Di Bitetti MS, Vidal EML, Baldovino MC, Benesovsky V. 2000. Sleeping site preferences in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus). Am J Primatol 50(4):257-74.

Dobroruka LJ. 1972. Social communication in the brown capuchin. Intl Zoo Ybk 12:43-5.

Emmons LH, Freer F. 1997. Neotropical rainforest mammals: a field guide, second edition. Chicago: U Chicago Pr. 307 p.

Epple G, Lorenz R. 1967. Vorkommen, morphologie und function der sternaldrüse bei den platyrrhini. Folia Primatol 7:98-126.

Escobar-Páramo P. 1989. The development of the wild black-capped capuchin (Cebus apella) in La Macarena, Colombia. Field Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena, Colombia, Vol. 2:45-56.

Fleagle JG, Mittermeier RA. 1980. Locomotor behavior, body size, and comparative ecology of seven Surinam monkeys. Am J Phys Anth 52:301-314.

Fleagle JG. 1999. Primate adaptation and evolution. San Diego (CA): Academic Pr. 596p.

Fragaszy DM, Baer J, Adams-Curtis L. 1991. Behavioral development and maternal care in tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) from birth through seven months. Develop Psychobiol 24(6):375-93.

Fragaszy DM, Adams-Curtis L. 1997. Developmental changes in manipulation in tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) from birth through 2 years and their relation to foraging and weaning. J Comp Psychol 222(2):201-11.

Fragaszy DM, Visalberghi E, Fedigan LM. 2004. The complete capuchin: the biology of the genus Cebus. Cambridge: Cambridge U Pr. 339 p.

Fragaszy DM, Adams-Curtis LE. 1998. Growth and reproduction in captive tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). Am J Primatol 44(3):197-203.

Freese CH, Oppenheimer JR. 1981. The capuchin monkeys, genus Cebus. In: Coimbra-Filho A, Mittermeier RA, editors. Ecology and behavior of neotropical primates, volume 1. Rio de Janeiro: Academia Brasileira de Ciências. p 331-90.

Gilbert KA, Setz EZF. 2001. Primates in a fragmented landscape: six species in central Amazonia. In: Bierregaard RO, Gascon C, Lovejoy TE, Mesquita CG, editors. Lessons from Amazonia: the ecology and conservation of a fragmented forest. New Haven: Yale U Pr. p 262-70.

Groves C. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington DC: Smithsonian Inst Pr. 350 p.

Hakeem A, Sandoval GR, Jones M, Allman J. 1996. Brain and life span in primates. In: Birren JE, Schaie KW, editors. Handbook of the psychology of aging, fourth edition. San Diego: Academic Pr. p 78-104.

Izawa K. 1994. Group division of wild black-capped capuchins. Field Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena, Colombia 9:5-14.

Izawa K. Preliminary report on social changes of black-capped capuchins (Cebus apella). 1988. Field Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena, Colombia 1:13-18.

Izazwa K. 1980. Social behavior of the wild black-capped capuchin (Cebus apella,). Primates 21(4):443-67.

Izawa K. 1990. Social changes within a group of wild black-capped capuchins (Cebus apella) in Colombia (II). Field Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena, Colombia 3:1-5.

Izawa K. 1997. Social changes within a group of wild black-capped capuchins, V. Field Studies of Fauna and Flora, La Macarena, Colombia 11:1-10.

Janson C. 1985. Aggressive competition and individual food consumption in wild brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 18:125-38.

Janson CH. 1990b. Ecological consequences of individual spatial choice in foraging groups of brown capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Anim Behav 40(5):922-34.

Janson CH. 1984. The mating system as a determinant of social evolution in capuchin monkeys (Cebus). In: Else JG, Lee PC, editors. Primate ecology and conservation. Cambridge: Cambridge U Pr. p 169-79.

Janson CH. 1990a. Social correlates of individual spatial choice in foraging groups of brown capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Anim Behav 40(5):910-21.

Kay RF, Plavcan JM, Glander KE, Wright PC. 1988. Sexual selection and canine dimorphism in new world monkeys. Am J Phys Anth 77(3):385-97.

Lehman SM. 2004. Biogeography of the primates of Guyana: effects of habitat use and diet on geographic distribution. Intl J Primatol 25(6):1225-42.

Leigh SR. 1994. Relations between captive and noncaptive weights in anthropoid primates. Zoo Biol 13(1):21-43.

Linn GS, Mase D, Lafrancois D, O'Keeffe RT, Lifshitz K. 1995. Social and menstrual cycle phase influences on the behavior of group-housed Cebus apella. Am J Primatol 35(1):41-57.

Martinez RA, Moscarella RA, Aguilera M, Márquez E. 2000. Update on the status of the Margarita Island capuchin (Cebus apella margaritae). Neotrop Prim 8(1):34-5.

Masterson TJ. 2003. Canine dimorphism and interspecific canine form in Cebus. Intl J Primatol 24(1):159-178.

Matheson MD, Johnson JS, Feuerstein J. 1996. Male reunion displays in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Am J Primatol 40(2):183-8.

Mittermeier RA, van Roosmalen MGM. 1981. Preliminary observations on habitat utilization and diet in eight Surinam monkeys. Folia Primatol 36:1-39.

Moura ACdA. 1999. Aggression and dominance reversal in a captive all-male group of Cebus apella. Neotrop Prim 7(1):20-1.

Nagle CA, Denari JH. 1983. The cebus monkey (Cebus apella). In: Hearn J, editor. Reproduction in new world primates: new models in medical science. Lancaster (UK): MTP Pr Ltd. p 39-67.

Napier PH. 1976. Catalogue of primates in the British museum (natural history): I. families Callitrichidae and Cebidae. London: British Museum (Natural History). 121 p.

Parr LA, Matheson MD, Bernstein IS, de Waal FBM. 1997. Grooming down the hierarchy: allogrooming in captive brown capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Anim Behav 54(2):361-7.

Peres CA, Janson CH. 1999. Species coexistence, distribution, and environmental determinants of neotropical primate richness: a community-level zoogeographic analysis. In: Fleagle JG, Janson C, Reed KE, editors. Primate communities. Cambridge: Cambridge U Pr. p 55-74.

Phillips KA, Goodchild LMS. 2005. Reunion displays in captive male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). Primates 46(2):121-5.

Phillips KA, Bernstein IS, Dettmer EL, Devermann H, Powers M. 1994. Sexual behavior in brown capuchins (Cebus apella). Intl J Primatol 15(6):906-17.

Rettig NL. 1978. Breeding behavior of the harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja). Auk 95(4):629-43.

Robinson JG, Janson CH. 1986. Capuchins, squirrel monkeys, and atelines: socioecological convergence with old world primates. In: Smuts BB, Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM, Wrangham RW, Struhsaker TT, editors. Primate societies. Chicago: U Chicago Pr. p 69-82.

Rylands AB, Kierulff MCM, Mittermeier RA. 2005. Notes on the taxonomy and distributions of the tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus, Ceidae) of south america. Lundiana 6(supplement):97-110.

Sampaio DT, Ferrari SF. 2005. Predation of an infant titi monkey (Callicebus moloch) by a tufted capuchin (Cebus apella). Folia Primatol 76(2):113-5.

Spironello WR. 2001. The brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella): ecology and home range requirements in central Amazonia. In: Bierregaard RO, Gascon C, Lovejoy TE, Mesquita CG, editors. Lessons from Amazonia: the ecology and conservation of a fragmented forest. New Haven:Yale U Pr. p 271-83.

Terborgh J, Janson CH. 1983. The ecology of primates in southeastern Peru. Nat Geogr Soc Res Rep 15:655-62.

Ueno Y. 1994. Responses to urine odor in the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella). J Ethol 12(2):81-7.

Ueno Y. 1991. Urine-washing in tufted capuchin (Cebus apella): discrimination between groups by urine-odor. In: Ehara A, Kimura T, Takenaka O, Iwamoto M, editors. Primatology Today. Amsterdam: Elsevier Sci Pub. p 297-300.

Valenzuela N. 1994. Early behavioral development of three wild infant Cebus apella in Colombia. In: Roeder JJ, Thierry B, Anderson JR, Herrenschmidt N, editors. Current Primatology, vol 2: Social development, learning and behaviour. Strasbourg (FR): Univ Louis Pasteur. p 297-302.

van Schaik, CP, van Noordwijk, MA. 1989. The special role of male Cebus monkeys in predation avoidance and its effect on group composition. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 24(5):265-76.

Visalberghi E, Valenzano DR, Preuschoft S. 2006. Facial displays in Cebus apella. Intl J Primatol 27(6):1689-707.

Visalberghi E, Moltedo G. 2001. Sexual behaviour of tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): what affects the target? [abstract]. Folia Primatol 72(3):134.

Weigel RM. 1979. The facial expressions of the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). Behaviour 68:250-76.

Welker C, Hoehmann H, Schaefer-Witt C. 1990. Significance of kin relations and individual preferences in the social behaviour of Cebus apella. Folia Primatol 54(3-4):166-70.

Wright EM, Bush DE. 1977. The reproductive cycle of the capuchin (Cebus apella). Lab Anim Sci 27(5):651-4.

Youlatos D. 1999. Tail-use in capuchin monkeys. Neotropical Primates 7(1):16-20.

Zhang S-Y. 1995a. Activity and ranging patterns in relation to fruit utilization by brown capuchings (Cebus apella) in French Guiana. Intl J Primatol 16(3):489-507.

Zhang S-Y. 1995b. Sleeping habits of brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in French Guiana. Am J Primatol 36(4):327-35.

Content last modified: April 17, 2009