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Tarsier
Tarsius

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Tarsius, search PrimateLit.

REFERENCES

Ankel-Simons FA, Simons C. 2003. The axial skeleton of primates: how does genus Tarsius fit? In: Wright PC, Simons EL, Gursky S, editors. Tarsiers: past, present, and future. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers U Pr. p121-44.

Ankel-Simons F. 2007. Primate anatomy: an introduction, third edition. San Diego: Academic Pr. 724p.

Brandon-Jones D, Eudey AA, Geissmann T, Groves CP, Melnick DJ, Morales JC, Shekelle M, Stewart CB. 2004. Asian primate classification. Intl J Primatol 25(1):97-164.

Catchpole HR, Fulton JF. 1943. The oestrus cycle in Tarsius: observations on a captive pair. J Mammal 24:90-3.

Crompton RH, Andau PM. 1986. Locomotion and habitat utilization in free-ranging Tarsius bancanus: a preliminary report. Primates 27(3):337-55.

Crompton RH, Andau PM. 1987. Ranging, activity rhythms, and sociality in free-ranging Tarsius bancanus: a preliminary report. Intl J Primatol 8(1):43-71.

Dagosto M, Gebo DL, Dolino CN. 2003. The natural history of the Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta). In: Wright PC, Simons EL, Gursky S, editors. Tarsiers: past, present, and future. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers U Pr. p237-59.

Dagosto M, Gebo DL, Dolino C. 2001. Positional behavior and social organization of the Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta). Primates 42(3):233-43.

Dagosto M, Gebo DL. 1996/1997. A preliminary study of the Philippine tarsier in Leyte. Asian Prim 6(3/4):5-8.

Driller C, Perwitasari-Farajallah D, Zischler H, Merker S. 2009. The social system of Lariang tarsiers (Tarsius lariang) as revealed by genetic analyses. Int J Primatol 30(2): 267-81.

Fitch-Snyder HM. 2003. History of captive conservation of tarsiers. In: Wright PC, Simons EL, Gursky S, editors. Tarsiers: past, present, and future. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers U Pr. p277-95.

Fogden MPL. 1974. A preliminary field study of the western tarsier, Tarsius bancanus Horsefield. In: Martin RD, Doyle GA, Walker AC, editors. Prosimian Biology. Pittsburgh (PA):U Pittsburgh Pr. p 151-65.

Groves C. 2005. Order Primates. In: Wilson DE, Reeder DM, editors. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, third edition, volume 1. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins U Pr. p111-84.

Groves C. 1998. Systematics of tarsiers and lorises. Primates 39(1):13-27.

Grow NB, Gursky-Doyen SL. In Review. Preliminary data on the behavior, ecology, and morphology of Tarsius pumilus. Intl J Primatol: forthcoming.

Gursky S. 2000a. Allocare in a nocturnal primate: data on the spectral tarsier, Tarsius spectrum. Folia Primatol 71(1-2):39-54.

Gursky S. 2005. Associations between adult spectral tarsiers. Am J Phys Anth 128(1):74-83.

Gursky S. 2002a. The behavioral ecology of the spectral tarsier, Tarsius spectrum. Evol Anth 11(6):226-34.

Gursky SL. 1998. Conservation status of the spectral tarsier Tarsius spectrum: population density and home range size. Folia Primatol 69(Suppl 1):191-203.

Gursky S. 2002b. Determinants of gregariousness in the spectral tarsier (Prosimian: Tarsius spectrum). J Zool Lond 256(3):401-10.

Gursky SL. 2000b. Effect of seasonality on the behavior of an insectivorous primate, Tarsius spectrum. Intl J Primatol 21(3):477-95.

Gursky S. 2006. Function of snake mobbing in spectral tarsiers. Am J Phys Anth 129(4):601-8.

Gursky S. 1995. Group size and composition in the spectral tarsier, Tarsius spectrum: implications for social organization. Trop Biodiv 3(1):57-62.

Gursky SL. 1994. Infant care in the spectral tarsier (Tarsius spectrum) Sulawesi, Indonesia. Intl J Primatol 15(6):843-53.

Gursky S. 2003a. Lunar philia in a nocturnal primate. Intl J Primatol 24(2):351-67.

Gursky S. 1997. Modeling maternal time budgets: the impact of lactation and infant transport on the time budget of the spectral tarsier, Tarsius spectrum. PhD dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook.

Gursky S. 2002c. Predation on a wild spectral tarsier (Tarsius spectrum) by a snake. Folia Primatol 73(1):60-2.

Gursky S. 2005b. Predator mobbing in Tarsius spectrum. Intl J Primatol 26(1):207-21.

Gursky S. 2000c. Sociality in the spectral tarsier, Tarsius spectrum. Am J Primatol 51(1):89-101.

Gursky SL. 2007a. The spectral tarsier. Upper Saddle River (NJ):Pearson Prentice Hall. 229p.

Gursky S. 1999. The Tarsiidae: taxonomy, behavior, and conservation status. In: Dolhinow P, Fuentes A, editors. The nonhuman primates. Mountain View (CA): Mayfield Pub Co. p140-5.

Gursky S. 2007b. Tarsiiformes. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Panger M, Bearder SK, editors. Primates in perspective. New York: Oxford U Pr. p73-85.

Gursky S. 2003b. Territoriality in the spectral tarsier, Tarsius spectrum. In: Wright PC, Simons EL, Gursky S, editors. Tarsiers: past, present, and future. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers U Pr. p221-36.

Gursky-Doyen S, Grow NB. 2009. Elusive highland pygmy tarsier rediscovered in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Oryx 43(2): 173-4.

Haring DM, Wright PC. 1989. Hand-raising a Philippine tarsier, Tarsius syrichta. Zoo Biol 8(3):265-74.

Horsfield J. 1821. Zoological research in Java and in the neighboring islands. London(UK): Kingsbury, Parbury and Allen.

Izard MK, Wright PC, Simons EL. 1985. Gestation length in Tarsius bancanus. Am J Primatol 9(4):327-31.

Jablonski NG, Crompton RH. 1994. Feeding behavior, mastication, and tooth wear in the western tarsier (Tarsius bancanus). Intl J Primatol 15(1):29-59.

Jachowski DS, Pizzaras C. 2005. Introducing an innovative semi-captive environment for the Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta). Zoo Biol 24(1):101-9.

Linnaeus C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (10th ed). Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae, Stockholm(SE): Laurentii Salvii, Holmie.

Leksono SM, Masala Y, Shekelle M. 1997. Tarsiers and agriculture: thoughts on an integrated management plan. Sulawesi Prim News 4(2):11-3.

MacKinnon J, MacKinnon K. 1980. The behavior of wild spectral tarsiers. Intl J Primatol 1(4):361-79.

MacKinnon K. 1997. The ecological foundations of biodiversity protection. In: Kramer R, van Schaik C, Johnson J, editors. Last stand: protected areas and the defense of tropical biodiversity. New York: Oxford U Pr. p36-63.

Maryanto I, Yani M. 2004. The third record of pygmy tarsier (Tarsius pumilus) from Lore Lindu National Park, central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Trop Biodiv 8(2):79-85.

Merker S, Driller C, Dahruddin H, Wirdateti, Sinaga W, Perwitasari-Farajallah D and Shekelle M. 2010. Tarsius wallacei: A new tarsier species from Central Sulawesi occupies a discontinuous range. International Journal of Primatology: [EPub ahead of print]

Merker S. 2006. Habitat-specific ranging patterns of Dian’s tarsiers (Tarsius dianae) as revealed by radiotracking. Am J Primatol 68(2):111-25.

Merker S, Yustian I. 2008. Habitat use analysis of Dian’s tarsier (Tarsius dianae) in a mixed-species plantation in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Primates 49(2):161-4.

Merker S, Yustian I, Mühlenberg M. 2005. Responding to forest degradation: altered habitat use by Dian’s tarsier Tarsius dianae in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Oryx 39(2):189-95.

Merker S, Groves CP. 2006. Tarsius lariang: a new primate species from western central Sulawesi. Intl J Primatol 27(2):465-85.

Merker S, Mühlenberg M. 2000. Traditional land use and tarsiers-human influences on population densitites of Tarsius dianae. Folia Primatol 71(6):426-8.

Merker S. 2003. Vom aussterben bedroht oder anpassungsfähig?-der koboldmaki Tarsius dianae in den regenwäldern Sulawesis. PhD dissertation, University of Göttingen.

Meyer AB. 1897. Säugethiere vom Celebes- und Philippinen-archipel, I. Abhandlungen und Berichte der Kaiserlich Zoologische und Anthropologische-Ethnologische Museum zu Dresden 6: 1–36.

Miller GS, Hollister N. 1921. Twenty new mammals collected by H.C. Raven in Celebes. Proc Biol Soc Washington 34: 93-104.

Mittermeier RA, Ratsimbazafy J, Rylands AB, Williamson L, Oates JF, Mbora D, Ganzhorn JU, Rodríguez-Luna E, Palacios E, Heymann EW, Kierulff MCM, Long YC, Supriatna J, Roos C, Walker S, Aguiar JM. 2007. Primates in peril: the world’s 25 most endangered primates, 2006-2008. Prim Conserv 22:1-40.

Musser GG, Dagosto M. 1987. The identity of Tarsius pumilus, a pygmy species endemic to the montane mossy forests of central Sulawesi. Am Mus Nov 2867:1-53.

Neri-Arboleda I, Stott P, Arboleda NP. 2002. Home ranges, spatial movements and habitat associations of the Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta) in Corella, Bohol. J Zool Lond 257(3):387-402.

Niemitz C. 1984a. Activity rhythms and use of space in semi-wild Bornean tarsiers, with remarks on wild spectral tarsiers. In: Niemitz C, editor. Biology of tarsiers. Stuttgart (DE): Gustav Fischer Verlag. p85-115.

Niemitz C. 1984b. An investigation and review of the territorial behaviour and social organization of the genus Tarsius. In: Niemitz C, editor. Biology of tarsiers. Stuttgart (DE): Gustav Fischer Verlag. p117-27.

Niemitz C. 1985. Leaping locomotion and the anatomy of the tarsier. In: Kondo S, editor. Primate morphophysiology, locomotor analyses and human bipedalism. Tokyo (JP): U Tokyo Pr. 235-50.

Niemitz C. 1984c. Locomotion and posture of Tarsius bancanus. In: Niemitz C, editor. Biology of tarsiers. Stuttgart (DE): Gustav Fischer Verlag. p191-225.

Niemitz C. 1983. New results on the locomotion of Tarsius bancanus, Horsfield, 1821. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, Paris 5:89-100.

Niemitz C. 1979. Results of a field study on the western tarsier (Tarsius bancanus borneanus Horsfield, 1821) in Sarawak. Sarawak Mus J 27:171-228.

Niemitz C. 1984d. Synecological relationships and feeding behaviour of the genus Tarsius. In: Niemitz C, editor. Biology of tarsiers. Stuttgart (DE): Gustav Fischer Verlag. p59-75.

Niemitz C. 1973. Tarsius bancanus (Horsfields tarsier) preying on snakes. Lab Prim News 12(4):18-9.

Niemitz C, Nietsch A, Warter S, Rumpler Y. 1991. Tarsius dianae: a new primate species from central Sulawesi (Indonesia). Folia Primatol 56(2):105-16.

Niemitz C. 1984e. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Tarsius Storr, 1780. In: Niemitz C, editor. Biology of tarsiers. Stuttgart (DE): Gustav Fischer Verlag. p1-16.

Niemitz C. 1984f. Vocal communication of two tarsier species (Tarsius bancanus and Tarsius spectrum). In: Niemitz C, editor. Biology of tarsiers. Stuttgart (DE): Gustav Fischer Verlag. p129-41.

Nietsch A. 1999. Duet vocalizations among different populations of Sulawesi tarsiers. Intl J Primatol 20(4): 567-83.

Nietsch A. 2003. Outline of the vocal behavior of Tarsius spectrum: call features, associated behaviors, and biological functions. In: Wright PC, Simons EL, Gursky S, editors. Tarsiers: Past, present, and possible future. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers U Pr. p196-220.

Nietsch A, Kopp M-L. 1998. Role of vocalization in species differentiation of Sulawesi tarsiers. Folia Primatol 69(suppl 1):371-8.

Pallas PS. 1778. Novae species quadrupedum e glirium ordine, cum illustrationibus variis complurium ex hoc ordine animalium. Erlangen(DE): Walther. 275p.

Rickart EA, Heaney LR, Heideman PD, Utzurrum RCB. 1993. The distribution and ecology of mammals on Leyte, Biliran, and Maripipi Islands, Philippines. Fieldiana Zool 72:1-62.

Riley J. 2002. Mammals on the Sangihe and Talaud Islands, Indonesia, and the impact of hunting and habitat loss. Oryx 36(3):288-96.

Roberts M. 1994. Growth, development, and parental care in the western tarsier (Tarsius bancanus) in captivity: evidence for a "slow" life-history and nonmonogamous mating system. Intl J Primatol 15(1):1-28.

Roberts M, Kohn F. 1993. Habitat use, foraging behavior, and activity patterns in reproducing western tarsier, Tarsius bancanus, in captivity: a management synthesis. Zoo Biol 12(2):217-32.

Roberts M. 1985. The management and husbandry of the western tarsier (Tarsius bancanus) at the National Zoological Park. AAZPA Ann Conf Proc 1985:466-75.

Shekelle M. 2008. The history and mystery of the mountain tarsier, Tarsius pumilus. Prim Conserv 23:121-4.

Shekelle M, Leksono SM, Ichwan LLS, Masala Y. 1997. The natural history of the tarsiers of north and central Sulawesi. Sulawesi Prim News 4(2):4-11.

Shekelle M. 2003. Taxonomy and biogeography of eastern tarsiers. PhD dissertation, Washington University, St. Louis.

Shekelle M, Groves C, Merker S, Supriatna J. 2008. Tarsius tumpara: a new tarsier species from Siau Island, North Sulawesi. Prim Conserv 23:55–64.

Simons E. 1987. Update on the primate colony at the Duke University Primate Center. Prim Conserv 8:51-4.

Tremble M, Muskita Y, Supriatna J. 1993. Field observations of Tarsius dianae at Lore Lindu National Park, central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Trop Biodiv 1(2):67-76.

Weigl R. 2005. Longevity of mammals in captivity; from the living collections of the world. Stuttgart (DE): E. Schweizerbartsche. 214 p.

Wright PC. 2003. Are tarsiers silently leaping into extinction? In: Wright PC, Simons EL, Gursky S, editors. Tarsiers: Past, present, and possible future. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers U Pr. p296-308.

Wright PC, Toyama LM, Simons EL. 1986a. Courtship and copulation in Tarsius bancanus. Folia Primatol 46(3):142-8.

Wright PC, Izard MK, Simons EL. 1986b. Reproductive cycles in Tarsius bancanus. Am J Primatol 11:207-15.

Wright PC, Haring D, Simons EL, Andau P. 1987. Tarsiers: a conservation perspective. Prim Conserv 8:51-4.

Yustian I. 2007. Ecology and conservation status of Tarsius bancanus saltator on Belitung Island, Indonesia. PhD dissertation, Georg-August-Universität zu Göttingen.

Yustian I, Merker S, Supriatna J, Andayani N. 2008. Relative population density of Tarsius dianae in man-influenced habitats of Lore Lindu National Park, central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Asian Prim J 1(1):10-6.

Content last modified: December 1, 2010