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Slow loris

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Nycticebus, search PrimateLit.


Ankel-Simons F. 2007. Primate anatomy, an introduction: third edition. San Diego: Elsevier. 724p.

Barrett E. 1981. The present distribution and status of the slow loris in peninsular Malaysia. Malays Appl Biol 10(2):205-11.

Brandon-Jones D, Eudey AA, Geissmann T, Groves CP, Melnick DJ, Morales JC, Shekelle M, Stewart CB. 2004. Asian primate classification. Int J Primatol 25(1):97-164.

Chen J-H, Pan D, Groves C, Wang Y-X, Narushima E, Fitch-Snyder H, Crow P, Thanh VN, Ryder O, Zhang H-W, Fu Y-X, Zhang Y-P. 2006. Molecular phylogeny of Nycticebus inferred from mitochondrial genes. Int J Primatol 27(4):1187-200.

Choudhury A. 2001. Primates in northeast India: an overview of their distribution and conservation status. ENVIS Bull 1(1):92-101.

Choudhury AU. 1992. The slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) in north-east India. Prim Rep 34:77-83.

Curtis DJ. 1995. Functional anatomy of the trunk musculature in the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). Am J Phys Anth 97(4):367-79.

Daschbach NJ, Schein MW, Haines DE. 1982-1983. Cage-size effects on locomotor, grooming and agonistic behaviours of the slow loris, Nycticebus coucang (Primates, Lorisidae). Appl Anim Ethol 9(3-4):317-30.

Daschbach NJ, Schein MW, Haines DE. 1981. Vocalizations of the slow loris, Nycticebus coucang (Primates, Lorisidae). Int J Primatol 2(1):71-80.

Duckworth JW. 1994. Field sightings of the pygmy loris, Nycticebus pygmaeus, in Laos. Folia Primatol 63(2):99-101.

Ehrlich A. 1974. Infant development in two prosimian species: greater galago and slow loris. Dev Psychobiol 7(5):439-54.

Ehrlich A, Macbride L. 1989. Mother-infant interactions in captive slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang). Am J Primatol 19(4):217-28.

Ehrlich A, Musicant A. 1977. Social and individual behaviors in captive slow lorises. Behaviour 60(3-4):195-220.

Elliot O, Elliot M. 1967. Field notes on the slow loris in Malaya. J Mammal 48:497-8.

Fisher HS, Swaisgood RR, Fitch-Snyder H. 2003a. Countermarking by male pygmy lorises (Nycticebus pygmaeus): do females use odor cues to select mates with high competitive ability? Behav Ecol Sociobiol 53(2):123-30.

Fisher HS, Swaisgood RR, Fitch-Snyder H. 2003a. Odor familiarity and female preferences for males in a threatened primate, the pygmy loris Nycticebus pygmaeus: applications for genetic management of small populations. Naturwissenschaften 90(11):509-12.

Fitch-Snyder H, Ehrlich A. 2003. Mother-infant interactions in slow lorises (Nycticebus bengalensis) and pygmy lorises (Nycticebus pygmaeus). Folia Primatol 74(5-6):259-71.

Fitch-Snyder H, Thanh VN. 2002. A preliminary survey of lorises (Nycticebus spp.) in northern Vietnam. Asian Prim 8(1-2):1-3.

Fitch-Snyder H, Jurke M. 2003. Reproductive patterns in pygmy lorises (Nycticebus pygmaeus): behavioral and physiological correlates of gonadal activity. Zoo Biol 22(1):15-32.

Fooden J. 1991. Eastern limit of distribution of the slow loris, Nycticebus coucang. Intl J Primatol 12(3):287-90.

Gebo DL. 1987. Locomotor diversity in prosimian primates. Am J Primatol 13(3):271-81.

Groves CP. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington, D.C.:Smithsonian Institution. 350p.

Groves CP. 1971. Systematics of the genus Nycticebus. Proc. 3rd Int Cong Primatol, Zurich 1970 1:44-53.

Hagey LR, Fry BG, Fitch-Snyder H. 2007. Talking defensively, a dual use for the brachial gland exudates of slow and pygmy lorises. In: Gursky SL, Nekaris KAI, editors. Primate anti-predator strategies. New York:Springer. p253-72.

Haque MN, Siddiqi NA. 1988. Status of slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) in Bangladesh with some information on its food preferences. Tigerpaper 15(2):18-21.

Huynh DH. 1998. Ecology, biology and conservation status of prosimian species in Vietnam. Folia Primatol 69(suppl 1):101-8.

Ishida H, Jouffroy FK, Nakano Y. 1986. Comparative dynamics of pronograde and upside down horizontal quadrupedalism in the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). In: Jouffroy FK, Stack MH, Niemitz C, editors. Gravity, posture and locomotion in primates. Firenze (IT):Il Sedicesimo. p209-20.

Izard MK, Weisenseel KA, Ange RL. 1988. Reproduction in the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). Am J Primatol 16(4):331-9.

Kappeler PM. 1991. Patterns of sexual dimorphism in body weight among prosimian primates. Folia Primatol 57(3):132-46.

Khan MAR, Ahsan MF. 1986. The status of primates in Bangladesh and a description of their forest habitats. Prim Conserv 7:102-9.

Lan DY. 1999. Diversity and conservation of slow loris in Yunnan, China. Tigerpaper 26(4):12-5.

Malone N, Purnama AR, Wedana M, Fuentes A. 2002. Assessment of the sale of primates at Indonesian bird markets. Asian Prim 8(1-2):7-11.

Medhi R, Chetry D, Bhattacharjee PC. 2004. Slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis) and its conservation in northeast India. Tigerpaper 31(3):6-9.

Nekaris KAI, Nijman V. 2007. CITES proposal highlights rarity of Asian nocturnal primates (Lorisidae: Nycticebus). Folia Primatol 78(4):211-4.

Nekaris KAI, Blackham GV, Nijman V. 2008. Conservation implications of low encounter rates of five nocturnal primate species (Nycticebus spp.) in Asia. Biodivers Conserv 17(4):733-47.

Nekaris A, Bearder SK. 2007. The Lorisiform primates of Asia and mainland Africa. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Panger M, Bearder SK,editors. Primates in perspective. New York:Oxford U Pr. p24045.

Newell TG. 1971. Social encounters in two prosimian species: Galago crassicaudatus and Nycticebus coucang. Psychon Sci 24(3):128-30.

Nekaris KAI, Jaffe S. 2007. Unexpected diversity of slow lorises (Nycticebus spp.) within the Javan pet trade: implications for slow loris taxonomy. Contrib Zool 76(3):187-96.

Phipps M. 1992. Recent incidents involving illegal primate trade in Taiwan. Asian Prim 2(2):5-6.

Radhakrishna S, Goswami AB, Sinha A. 2006. Distribution and conservation of Nycticebus bengalensis in Northeastern India. Int J Primatol 27(4):971-82.

Rasmussen DT. 1986. Life history and behavior of slow lorises and slender lorises: implications for the lorisine-galagine divergence. PhD dissertation, Duke University. 190p.

Ravosa MJ. 1998. Cranial allometry and geographic variation in slow lorises (Nycticebus). Am J Primatol 45(3):225-43.

Rigel EP. 2004. Analysis of Lorisidae taxonomy using postcranial skeletal material. MA thesis, Georgia State University.

Schulze H, Groves CP. 2004. Asian lorises: taxonomic problems caused by illegal trade. In: Nadler T, Streicher U, Long HT, editors. Conservation of primates in Vietnam. Hanoi (VN): Frankfurt Zoological Society. p33-6.

Streicher U. 2004a. Aspects of ecology and conservation of the pygmy loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus) in Vietnam. PhD dissertation, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität, Munich (DE).

Streicher U. 2004. Confiscated primates-healths aspects and long-term placement options. In: Nadler T, Streicher U, Long HT, editors. Conservation of primates in Vietnam. Frankfurt(DE): Frankfurt Zool Soc. p154-60.

Streicher U, Schulze H, Plesker R, Vornefeld B. 2002. A conservation and health database for lorises and pottos. Prim Rep 63:33-9.

Striecher U. 2007. Morphological data of pygmy lorises (Nycticebus pygmaeus). Vietnam J Primatol 1(1):67-74.

Streicher U. 2004b. Seasonal changes in colouration and fur patterns in the pygmy loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus). In: Nadler T, Streicher U, Ha Thang Long, editors. Conservation of primates in Vietnam. Frankfurt (DE): Frankfurt Zoological Soc. p29-32.

Tan CL, Drake JH. 2001. Evidence of tree gouging and exudates eating in pygmy slow lorises (Nycticebus pygmaeus). Folia Primatol 72(1):37-9.

Tenaza R, Fitch H. 1984. The slow loris. Zoonooz 57(4):10-2.

Utami SS, van Hooff JARAM. 1997. Meat-eating by adult female Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). Am J Primatol 43(2):159-65.

Weigl R. 2005. Longevity of mammals in captivity; from the living collections of the world. Stuttgart (DE): E. Schweizerbartsche. 214p.

Wiens F. 2002. Behavior and ecology of wild slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang): social organization, infant care system, and diet. PhD dissertation, University of Bayreuth.

Wiens F, Zitzmann A, Hussein NA. 2006. Fast food for slow lorises: is low metabolism related to secondary compounds in high-energy plant diet? J Mammal 87(4):790-8.

Wiens F, Zitzmann A. 1999. Predation on a wild slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) by a reticulated python (Python reticulates). Folia Primatol 70(6):362-4.

Wiens F, Zitzmann A. 2003a. Social dependence of infant slow lorises to learn diet. Int J Primatol 24(5):1007-21.

Wiens F, Zitzmann A. 2003b. Social structure of the solitary slow loris Nycticebus coucang (Lorisidae). J Zool Lond 261(1):35-46.

Weisenseel KA, Izard MK, Nash LT, Ange RL, Poorman-Allen P. A comparison of reproduction in two species of Nycticebus. Folia Primatol 69(suppl 1):321-4.

Wilde H. 1972. Anaphylactic shock following bite by a "slow loris," Nycticebus coucang. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21(5):592-4.

Zhang Y-Z, Wang S, Quan G-Q. 1981. On the geographical distribution of primates in China. J Hum Evol 10:215-26.

Zimmermann E. 1981. First record of ultrasound in two prosimian species. Naturwissenschaften 68:531-2.

Zimmermann E. 1989. Reproduction, physical growth and behavioral development in slow loris (Nycticebus coucang, Lorisidae). Hum Evol 4(2-3):171-9.

Zimmermann E. 1985. Vocalizations and associated behaviours in adult slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). Folia Primatol 44(1):52-64.

Content last modified: March 18, 2009