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Symphalangus syndactylus

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for siamangs, search PrimateLit.


Alberts S. 1987. Parental care in captive siamangs (Hylobates syndactylus). Zoo Biol 6(4):401-6.

Andrews P, Groves CP. 1976. Gibbons and brachiation. Gibb Siam 4:167-218.

Ankel-Simons F. 2000. Primate anatomy: an introduction, second edition. San Diego: Academic Pr. 506 p.

Badraun JC, Mootnick AR, Deaner RO, Agoramoorthy G, McNeese KM. 1998. Hand modulation of vocalization in siamangs Hylobates syndactylus. Intl Zoo Ybk 36:84-9.

Barkell C. 1988. The vocalizations of captive siamangs. Aust Primatol 3(1):2-3.

Bartlett TQ. 2007. The Hylobatidae: small apes of Asia. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Panger M, Bearder SK, editors. Primates in perspective. New York: Oxford U Pr. p 274-89.

Bertram JEA. 2004. New perspectives on brachiation mechanics. Ybk Phys Anth 47:100-17.

Caldecott JO. 1980. Habitat quality and populations of two sympatric gibbons (Hylobatidae) on a mountain in Malaya. Folia Primatol 33(4):291-309.

Chivers DJ. 1976. Communication within and between family groups of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus). Behaviour 57:116-35.

Chivers DJ, Chivers ST. 1975. Events preceding and following the birth of a wild siamang. Primates 16(2):227-30.

Chivers DJ. 1977. The feeding behaviour of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus). In: Clutton-Brock TH, editor. Primate ecology: studies of feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs, monkeys and apes. London: Academic Pr. p 355-82.

Chivers DJ. 1985. Gibbons. In: Macdonald D, editor. All the world's animals: primates. New York: Torstar Books Inc. p 118-23.

Chivers DJ. 1980. Introduction. In: Chivers DJ, editor. Malayan forest primates: ten years' study in tropical rain forest. New York: Plenum Pr. p 1-27.

Chivers DJ, Raemaekers JJ, Aldrich-Blake FPG. 1975. Long-term observations of siamang behaviour. Folia Primatol 23:1-49.

Chivers DJ. 1978. Sexual behaviour of wild siamang. In: Chivers DJ, Herbert J, editors. Recent advances in primatology, volume one: behaviour. London: Academic Pr. p 609-10.

Chivers DJ. 1972a. The siamang and the gibbon in the Malay peninsula. Gibb Siam 1:103-35.

Chivers DJ. 1972b. The siamang in Malaya. PhD dissertation, Cambridge U.

Chivers DJ. 1974. The siamang in Malaya: a field study of a primate in tropical rain forest. Contrib Primatol 4:1-335.

Crockett C, Wilson WL. 1980. Survey of Sumatran primates: diversity and abundance in a shrinking paradise. Tigerpaper 7(2):1-5.

Dal Pra G, Geissmann T. 1994. Behavioural development of twin siamangs (Hylobates syndactylus). Primates 35(3):325-42.

Dielentheis TF, Zaiss E, Geissmann T. 1991. Infant care in a family of siamangs (Hylobates syndactylus) with twin offspring at Berlin zoo. Zoo Biol 10(4):309-17.

Ferenc H, Wielich A. 2000. Parental behaviour in a siamang family group at Poznan zoo. Intl Zoo News 47(7):427-31.

Geissmann T. 2003. Circumfacial markings in siamang and evolution of the face ring in the Hylobatidae. Intl J Primatol 24(1):143-56.

Geissmann T. 2000. Duet songs of the siamang, Hylobates syndactylus: I. structure and organization. Prim Rep 56:33-60.

Geissmann T. 1999. Duet songs of the siamang, Hylobates syndactylus: II. Testing the pair-bonding hypothesis during a partner exchange. Behaviour 136(8):1005-39.

Geissmann T. 1993. Evolution of communication in gibbons (Hylobatidae). PhD dissertation, Universität Zürich. 374 p.

Geissmann T, Nijman V, Dallmann R. 2006. The fate of diurnal primates in southern Sumatra. Gibb J 2:18-24.

Geissmann T, Orgeldinger M. 1995. Neonatal weight in gibbons (Hylobates spp.). Am J Primatol 37(3):179-89.

Geissmann T. 1991. Reassessment of age of sexual maturity in gibbons (Hylobates spp.). Am J Primatol 23(1):11-22.

Geissmann T. 2007. Status reassessment of the gibbons: results of the Asian primate red list workshop 2006. Gibb J 3:5-15.

Geissmann T. 1987. A sternal gland in the siamang gibbon (Hylobates syndactylus). Intl J Primatol 8(1):1-15.

Gittins SP, Raemaekers JJ. 1980. Siamang, lar, and agile gibbons. In: Chivers DJ, editor. Malayan forest primates: ten years' study in tropical rain forest. New York: Plenum Pr. p 63-105.

Gittins SP. 1980. Territorial advertisement and defense in gibbons. In: Preuschoft H, Chivers DJ, Brockelman WY, Creel N, editors. The lesser apes: evolutionary and behavioural biology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh U Pr. p 420-4.

Groves C. 2005. Order primates. In: Wilson DE, Reeder DM, editors. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, third edition, volume 1. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins U Pr. p 111-84.

Groves CP. 1972. Systematics and phylogeny of gibbons. Gibb Siam 1:1-89.

Jenkins PD. 1990. Catalogue of primates in the British museum (natural history) and elsewhere in the British isles, part V: the apes, superfamily hominoidea. London: Natural History Museum Pub. 137p.

Kawabe M. 1970. A preliminary study of the wild siamang gibbon (Hylobates syndactylus) at Fraser's Hill, Malaysia. Primates 11:285-91.

Koyama N. 1971. Observations on mating behavior of wild siamang gibbons at Fraser's Hill, Malaysia. Primates 12(2):183-9.

Lamprecht VJ. 1970. Duettgesang beim siamang, Symphalangus syndactylus (Hominoidea, Hylobatinae). Z Tier 27:186-204.

Lappan S. 2005. Biparental care and male reproductive strategies in siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus) in southern Sumatra. PhD dissertation, New York University. 312 p.

Lappan S. 2007. Patterns of dispersal in Sumatran siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus): preliminary mtDNA evidence suggests more frequent male than female dispersal to adjacent groups. Am J Primatol 69(6):692-8.

Liebal K. 2007. Gestures in siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus). In: Call J, Tomasello M, editors. The gestural communication of apes and monkeys. Mahwah (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Assc. p 131-58.

Liebal K, Pika S, Tomasello M. 2004. Social communication in siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus): use of gestures and facial expressions. Primates 45(1):41-57.

MacKinnon K. 1986. The conservation status of nonhuman primates in Indonesia. In: Benirschke K, editor. Primates: the road to self-sustaining populations. New York: Springer-Verlag. p 99-126.

MacKinnon K. 1987. Conservation status of primates in Malesia, with special reference to Indonesia. Prim Conserv 8: 175-83.

MacKinnon JR, MacKinnon KS. 1980. Niche differentiation in a primate community. In: Chivers DJ, editor. Malayan forest primates: ten years' study in tropical rain forest. New York: Plenum Pr. p 167-90.

MacKinnon JR. 1984. The distribution and status of gibbons in Indonesia. In: Preuschoft H, Chivers DJ, Brockelman WY, Creel N, editors. The lesser apes: evolutionary and behavioural biology. Edinburgh (UK): Edinburgh U Pr. p 16-8.

MacKinnon J, MacKinnon K. 1977. The formation of a new gibbon group. Primates 18(3):701-8.

Malone N, Purnama AR, Wedana M, Fuentes A. 2002. Assessment of the sale of primates at Indonesian bird markets. Asia Prim 8(1-2):7-11.

Marshall J, Sugardjito J. 1986. Gibbon systematics. In: Swindler DR, Erwin J, editors. Comparative primate biology, volume 1: systematics, evolution, and anatomy. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc. p 137-86.

Medway L. 1972. The Gundong Benom expedition 1967, VI: the distribution and altitudinal zonation of birds and mammals on Gunong Benom. Bull Brit Mus Nat Hist Zool 23:105-54.

Mootnick AR. 2006. Gibbon (Hylobatidae) species identification recommended for rescue or breeding centers. Prim Conserv 21:103-38.

Mootnick AR, Baker E. 1994. Masturbation in captive Hylobates (Gibbons). Zoo Biol 13(4):345-53.

Norikoshi K. 1986. Socio-ecological study of siamangs in Maninjau, west Sumatra. Kyoto U Over Res Rep Stud Asia Non-Hum Prim 5:29-43.

O'Brien TG, Kinnaird MF, Nurcahyo A, Iqbal M, Rusmanto M. 2004. Abundance and distribution of sympatric gibbons in a threatened Sumatran rain forest. Intl J Primatol 25(2):267-84.

O'Brien TG, Kinnaird MF, Nurcahyo A, Prasetyaningrum M, Iqbal M. 2003. Fire, demography and the persistence of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus: Hylobatidae) in a Sumatran rainforest. Anim Conserv 6(2):115-21.

Orgeldinger M. 1996. Behavioural changes following the death of a siamang infant. Intl Zoo News 43(6):426-33.

Orgeldinger M. 1994. Monitoring body weight in captive primates, with special reference to siamangs. Intl Zoo News 41(1):17-26.

Orgeldinger M. 1997. Protective and territorial behavior in captive siamangs (Hylobates syndactylus). Zoo Biol 16(4):309-25.

Orgeldinger M. 1991. Siamangs (Hylobates syndactylus) in captivity: an overview. Intl Zoo News 38(6):5-13.

Palombit RA. 1994b. Dynamic pair bonds in Hylobatids: implications regarding monogamous social systems. Behaviour 128(1-2): 65-101.

Palombit RA. 1994a. Extra-pair copulations in a monogamous ape. Anim Behav 47(3):721-3.

Palombit RA. 1997. Inter- and intraspecific variation in the diets of sympatric siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) and lar gibbons (Hylobates lar). Folia Primatol 68(6):321-37.

Palombit RA. 1992. Pair bonds and monogamy in wild siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) and wite-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) in norther Sumatra. PhD dissertation, University of California, Davis. 453 p.

Palombit RA. 1996a. Pair bonds in monogamous apes: a comparison of the siamang Hylobates syndactylus and the white-handed gibbon Hylobates lar. Behaviour 133(5-6):321-56.

Palombit RA. 1996b. The siamang and white-handed gibbon of Gunung Leuser National Park. In: van Schaik CP, Supriatna J, editors. Leuser: a Sumatran sanctuary. Jakarta: Yayasan Bina Sains Hayati Indonesia (YABSHI). p 269-79.

Papaioannou J. 1973. Observations on locomotor and general behaviour of the siamang. Malay Nat J 26:46-52.

Raemaekers J. 1980. Causes of variation between months in the distance traveled daily by gibbons. Folia Primatol 34:46-60.

Raemaekers J. 1979. Ecology of sympatric gibbons. Folia Primatol 31:227-45.

Raemaekers J. 1984. Large versus small gibbons: relative roles of bioenergetics and competition in their ecological segregation in sympatry. In: Preuschoft H, Chivers DJ, Brockelman W, Creel N, editors. The lesser apes: evolutionary and behavioural biology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh U Pr. p 209-18.

Raemaekers JJ. 1978. The sharing of food sources between two gibbon species in the wild. Malay Nat J 31(3):181-8.

Raemaekers JJ, Chivers DJ. 1980. Socio-ecology of Malayan forest primates. In: Chivers DJ, editor. Malayan forest primates: ten years' study in tropical rain forest. New York: Plenum Pr. p 279-316.

Schmidt VCR, Weigl R. 1999. Hohe lebensdauer beim siamang, Symphalangus syndactylus. Zool Garten 69(3):192-3.

Schneider G. 1906. Ergebnisse zoologischer forschungsreisen in Sumatra. Zoologische Jahrbücher Abteilung Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 23:1-172.

Schultz AH. 1933. Observations on the growth, classification and evolutionary specialization of gibbons and siamangs. Hum Biol 5:212-55; 385-428.

Soo-Hoo C. 1966. A brief note on the birth of a siamang Hylobates syndactylus at San Francisco zoo. Intl Zoo Ybk 6:147.

Tembrock G. 1974. Sound production of Hylobates and Symphalangus. Gibb Siam 3:176-205.

Treesucon U. 1997. Siamang (Hylobates syndactylus): a new mammal recorded for Thailand. Nat Hist Bull Siam Soc 45:123-4.

Uhde NL, Sommer V. 2002. Antipredatory behavior in gibbons (Hylobates lar, Khao Yai/Thailand). In: Miller LE, editor. Eat or be eaten: predator sensitive foraging among primates. Cambridge: Cambridge U Pr. p 268-91.

Weigl R. 2005. Longevity of mammals in captivity; from the living collections of the world. Stuttgart (DE): E. Schweizerbartsche. 214 p.

Wilson CC, Wilson WL. 1976. Behavioral and morphological variation among primate populations in Sumatra. Ybk Phys Anth 20:207-233.

Content last modified: May 20, 2008