Primate Info Net Banner Wisconsin PRC Logo

Ruffed lemur

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Varecia, search PrimateLit.


Balko EA. 1998. A behaviorally plastic response to forest composition and logging disturbance by Varecia variegata variegata in Ranomafana national park, Madagascar. PhD dissertation, State University of New York, Syracuse.

Balko EA, Underwood HB. 2005. Effects of forest structure and composition on food availability for Varecia variegata at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Am J Primatol 66(1):45-70.

Bogart MH, Cooper RW, Benirschke K. 1977. Reproductive studies of black and ruffed lemurs Lemur macaco macaco and L. variegatus ssp. Int Zoo Yb 17:177-82.

Britt A. 2000. Diet and feeding behaviour of the black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata) in the Betampona reserve, eastern Madagascar. Folia Primatol 71(3):133-41.

Britt A. 1997. Environmental influences on the behavioural ecology of the black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata variegata, Kerr 1792). PhD dissertation, University of Liverpool.

Varecia rubra
Varecia rubra
Photo: Primates in Art & Illustration Collection

Britt A, Welch C, Katz AS. 2003. Can small, isolated primate populations be effectively reinforced through the release of individuals from a captive population? Biol Conserv 115(2):319-27.

Britt A, Welch C, Katz AS. 1998. First release of captive-bred lemurs into their natural habitat. Lemur News 3:8-11.

Britt A, Welch C, Katz A. 2001. The impact of Cryptoprocta ferox on the Varecia v. variegata reinforcement project at Betampona. Lemur News 6:35-7.

Britt A, Welch C, Katz A. 2000. Ruffed lemur re-stocking and conservation program update. Lemur News 5:36-8.

Brockman DK, Willis MS, Karesh WB. 1987. Management and husbandry of ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, at the San Diego zoo. II. Reproduction, pregnancy, parturition, litter size, infant care, and reintroduction of hand-raised infants. Zoo Biol 6(4):349-63.

Downman M. 1993. Breeding behaviour in the black and white ruffed lemur Varecia v. variegata at the Cotswold wild life park. Ratel 20(3):87-91.

Evans MI, Thompson PM, Wilson A. 1993-1994. A survey of the lemurs of Ambatovaky special reserve, Madagascar. Prim Conserv 14/15:13-21.

Foerg R. 1982. Reproductive behavior in Varecia variegata. Folia Primatol 38(1-2):108-121.

Ganzhorn JU, Landgrand O, Wright PC, O'Connor S, Rakotosamimanana B, Feistner ATC, Rumpler Y. 1996/1997. The state of lemur conservation in Madagascar. Prim Conserv 17:70-86.

Gebo DL. 1987. Locomotor diversity in prosimian primates. Am J Primatol 13(3):271-81.

Geissmann T, Mutschler T. 2006. Diurnal distribution of loud calls in sympatric wild indris (Indri indri) and ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata): implications for call functions. Primates 47(4):393-6.

Goodman SM, Ganzhorn JU. 2004. Biogeography of lemurs in the humid forests of Madagascar: the role of elevational distribution and rivers. J Biogeog 31(1):47-55.

Greeley ML. 1982. Quintuplets! Zoonooz 55(6):16.

Groves C. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington DC: Smithsonian Inst Pr. 350 p.

Kappeler PM. 1991. Patterns of sexual dimorphism in body weight among prosimian primates. Folia Primatol 57(3):132-46.

Karpanty SM. 2006. Direct and indirect impacts of raptor predation on lemurs in southeastern Madagascar. Intl J Primatol 27(1):239-61.

Karpanty SM, Grella R. 2001. Lemur responses to diurnal raptor calls in Ranomafana national park, Madagascar. Folia Primatol 72(2):100-3

Kaufman R. 1991. Female dominance in semifree-ranging black-and-white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata variegata. Folia Primatol 57(1):39-41.

Kerridge FJ. 1999. Part-time fostering by a pair of black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Anim Welf 8:35-42.

Lehman SM, Ratsimbazafy J, Rajaonson A, Day S. 2006. Ecological correlates to lemur community structure in southeast Madagascar. Intl J Primatol 27(4):1023-40.

Lindsay NBD, Simons HJ. 1986. Notes on Varecia in the northern limits of its range. Dodo, J Wildl Preserv Trusts 23:19-24.

Macedonia JM. 1990. What is communicated in the antipredator calls of lemurs: evidence from playback experiments with ringtailed and ruffed lemurs. Ethology 86:177-90.

Meyer C, Gallo T, Schultz ST. 1999. Female dominance in captive red ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata rubra (primates, lemuridae). Folia Primatol 70(6):358-61.

Mittermeier RA, Konstant WR, Hawkins F, Louis EE, Langrand O, Ratsimbazafy J, Rasoloarison R, Ganzhorn JU, Rajaobelina S, Tattersall I, Meyers D. 2006. Lemurs of Madagascar. Washington, D.C.:Conserv Intl. 520 p.

Mittermeier RA, Konstant WR, Nicoll ME, Langrand O. 1992. Lemurs of Madagascar: an action plan for their conservation 1993-1999. IUCN: Gland, Switzerland. 58p.

Morland HS. 1990. Parental behavior and infant development in ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) in a northeast Madagascar rain forest. Am J Primatol 20(4):253-65.

Morland HS. 1991b. Preliminary report on the social organization of ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) in a northeast Madagascar rain forest. Folia Primatol 56(3):157-61.

Morland HS. 1993b. Reproductive activity of ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) in a Madagascar rain forest. Am J Phys Anth 91:71-82.

Morland HS. 1993a. Seasonal behavioral variation and its relationship to thermoregulation in ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). In: Kappeler PM, Ganzhorn JU, editors. Lemur social systems and their ecological basis. New York:Plenum Pr. p 193-203.

Morland HS. 1991a. Social organization and ecology of black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) in lowland rain forest, Nosy Mangabe, Madagascar. PhD dissertation, Yale University.

Overdorff DJ, Erhart EM, Mutschler T. 2005. Does female dominance facilitate feeding priority in black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) in southeastern Madagascar? Am J Primatol 66(1):7-22.

Pereira ME, Seeligson ML, Macedonia JM. 1988. The behavioral repertoire of the black-and-white ruffed lemur, Varecia variegata variegata (Primates: Lemuridae). Folia Primatol 51(1):1-32.

Pereira ME, Klepper A, Simons EL. 1987. Tactics of care for young infants by forest-living ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata): ground nests, parking, and biparental guarding. Am J Primatol 13:129-44.

Pollock J. 1986. Litter size, sex ratio, mortality and parity in Varecia variegata. Prim Rep 14:65-6.

Porton I. 1989. International studbook for the ruffed lemur Varecia variegata. St. Louis: St. Louis Zool Park.

Raps S, White FJ. 1995. Female social dominance in semi-free-ranging ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). Folia Primatol 65(3):163-8.

Rasmussen DT. 1985. A comparative study of breeding seasonality and litter size in eleven taxa of captive lemurs (Lemur and Varecia). Intl J Primatol 6(5):501-17.

Ratsimbazafy J. 2006. Diet composition, foraging, and feeding behavior in relation to habitat disturbance: implications for the adaptability of ruffed lemurs (Varecia v. editorium) in Manombo forest, Madagascar. In: Gould L, Sauther ML, editors. Lemurs: ecology and adaptation. New York: Springer p 403-422.

Ratsimbazafy J. 2002. On the brink of extinction and the process of recovery: responses of black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) to disturbance in Manombo forest, Madagascar. PhD thesis, State University of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook.

Rigamonti MM. 1993. Home range and diet in red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra) on the Masoala peninsula, Madagascar. In: Kappeler PM, Ganzhorn JU, editors. Lemur social systems and their ecological basis. New York:Plenum Pr. p 25-39.

Rowe N. 1996. The pictorial guide to the living primates. East Hampton (NY): Pogonias Pr. 263 p.

Schwitzer C, Kaumanns W. 2001. Body weights of ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) in European zoos with reference to the problem of obesity. Zoo Biol 20(4):261-9.

Simons HJ, Lindsay NBD. 1987. Survey work on ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) and other primates in the northeastern rain forests of Madagascar. Prim Conserv 8:88-91.

Tattersall I. 1982. The primates of Madagascar. New York:Columbia U Pr. 382p.

Terranova CJ, Coffman BS. 1997. Body weights of wild and captive lemurs. Zoo Biol 16(1):17-30.

Vasey N. 2005. Activity budgets and activity rhythms in red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) on the Masoala peninsula, Madagascar: seasonality and reproductive energetics. Am J Primatol 66(1):23-44.

Vasey N. 2007. The breeding system of wild red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra): a preliminary report. Primates 48(1):41-54.

Vasey N. 2004. Circadian rhythms in diet and habitat use in red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) and white-fronted brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus albifrons). Am J Phys Anth 124(4):353-63.

Vasey N. 1996. Clinging to life: Varecia variegata rubra and the Masoala coastal forests. Lemur News 2:7-9.

Vasey N. 1997a. Community ecology and behavior of Varecia variegata rubra and Lemur fulvus albifrons on the Masoala peninsula, Madagascar. PhD dissertation, Washington University, St. Louis.

Vasey N, Tattersall I. 2002. Do ruffed lemurs form a hybrid zone? Distribution and discovery of Varecia, with systematic and conservation implications. Am Mus Novit 3376(26):1-26.

Vasey N. 1997b. How many red ruffed lemurs are left? Intl J Primatol 18(2):207-16.

Vasey N. 2006. Impact of seasonality and reproduction on social structure, ranging patterns, and fission-fusion social organization in red ruffed lemurs. In: Gould L, Sauther ML, editors. Lemurs: ecology and adaptation. New York: Springer p 275-304.

Vasey N. 2000a. Niche separation in Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons: I.interspecific patterns. Am J Phys Anth 112(3):411-31.

Vasey N. 2002. Niche separation in Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons: II.intraspecific patterns. Am J Phys Anth 118(2):169-83.

Vasey N. 2000b. Plant species composition of diet in two sympatric lemurs: Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons [abstract]. Am J Phys Anth (Suppl 30):309-10.

Vasey N. 2003. Varecia, ruffed lemurs. In: Goodman SM, Benstead JP, editors. The natural history of Madagascar. Chicago: Univ Chicago Pr. p 1332-6.

Weigl R. 2005. Longevity of mammals in captivity; from the living collections of the world. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbartsche. 214p.

Weigler BJ, Feeser PL, Grant SM, Norris CA. 1994. Epidemiologic assessment of reproductive success and infant mortality in ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). Zoo Biol 13(6):527-36.

White FJ. 1989. Diet, ranging behavior and social organization of the black and white ruffed lemur, Varecia vareigata [variegata] vareigata [variegata], in southeastern Madagascar [abstract]. Am J Phys Anth 78(2):323.

White FJ, Overdorff DJ, Balko EA, Wright PC. 1995. Distribution of ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) in Ranomafana national park, Madagascar. Folia Primatol 64(3):124-31.

White FJ. 1991. Social organization, feeding ecology, and reproductive strategy of ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata. In: Ehara A, Kimura T, Takenaka O, Iwamoto M, editors. Primatology today: proceedings of the XIIIth congress of the international primatological society, Nagoya and Kyoto, 18-24 July 1990. New York: Elsevier Sci Pub p 81-4.

White FJ, Burton AS, Buchholz S, Glander KE. 1992. Social organization of free-ranging ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata variegata: mother-adult daughter relationship. Am J Primatol 28(4):281-7.

Content last modified: August 17, 2007