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Proboscis monkey
Nasalis larvatus

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Nasalis larvatus, search PrimateLit.


Agoramoorthy G. 2007. Conservation status of proboscis monkeys in disturbed mangrove forests in Sabah, northern Borneo. Tigerpaper 34(3):1-4.

Agoramoorthy G, Hsu MJ. 2004. Occurrence of infanticide among wild proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in Sabah, Northern Borneo. Folia Primatol 76(3):177-9.

Ankel-Simons F. 2007. Primate Anatomy: an introduction, 3rd Edition. San Diego: Elsevier Acad Pr. 724 p.

Bennett EL, Caldecott JO, Kavanagh M, Sebastian AC. 1987. Current status of primates in Sarawak. Primate Conserv 8:184-6.

Bennett EL. 1988. Proboscis monkeys and their swamp forests in Sarawak. Oryx 22(2):69-74.

Bennett EL, Gombek F. 1993. Proboscis monkeys of Borneo. Sabah (MY):Koktas Sabah Berhad Ranau. 75p.

Bennett EL, Sebastian AC. 1988. Social organization and ecology of Proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in mixed coastal forest in Sarawak. Int J Primatol 9(3):233-55.

Boonratana R, Sharma DS. 1992. Conservation of proboscis monkeys in the lower Kinabatangan, Sabah. In: Thierry B, Anderson JR, Roeder JJ, Herrenschmidt N, editors. Current primatology, volume I: ecology and evolution. Strasbourg (FR):Universite Louis Pasteur. p93-100.

Boonratana R. 1999. Dispersal in proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in the lower Kinabatangan, Northern Borneo. Tropic Biodiv 6(3):179-87.

Boonratana R. 1993. The ecology and behaviour of the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) in the lower Kinabatangan, Sabah. PhD dissertation, Mahidol University. 275p.

Boonratana R. 2003. Feeding ecology of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in the lower Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysia. Sabah Parks Nat J 6:1-26.

Boonratana R. 2000. Ranging behavior of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in the lower Kinabatangan, northern Borneo. Int J Primatol 21(3):497-518.

Boonratana R. 2002. Social ooranisation of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in the lower Kinabatangan, Sabah, Malaysia. Malay Nat J 56(1):57-75.

Brandon-Jones D, Eudey AA, Geissmann T, Groves CP, Melnick DJ, Morales JC, Shekelle M, Stewart C-B. 2004. Asian primate classification. Int J Primatol 25(1):97-164.

Ellis D. 1986. Proboscis monkey and aquatic ape. Sarawak Mus J 36(57):251-62.

Galdikas BMF. 1985. Crocodile predation on a proboscis monkey in Borneo. Primates 26(4):495-6.

Gorzitze AB. 1996. Birth-related behavior in wild proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus). Primates 37(1):75-8.

Griner LA. 1980. East Bornean proboscis monkey, Nasalis larvatus orientalis. Zool Gart 50:73-81.

Groves C. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington DC: Smithsonian Inst Pr. 350 p.

Hollihn U. 1973. Remarks on the breeding and maintenance of colobus monkeys Colobus guereza, proboscis monkeys Nasalis larvatus and douc langurs Pygathrix nemaeus in zoos. Int Zoo Yearb 13:185-8.

Kawabe M, Mano T. 1972. Ecology and behavior of the wild proboscis monkey, Nasalis larvatus (Wurmb) in Sabah, Malaysia. Primates 13(2):213-28.

Kern JA. 1964. Observations on the habits of the proboscis monkey, Nasalis larvatus (Wurmb), made in the Brunei Bay area, Borneo. Zoologica 49:183-92.

Macdonald DW. 1982. Notes on the size and composition of groups of proboscis monkey, Nasalis larvatus. Folia Primatol 37:95-8.

Matsuda I, Tuuga A, Higashi S. 2008a. Clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi) predation on proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in Sabah, Malaysia. Primates 49(3):227-31.

Matsuda I, Tuuga A, Akiyama Y, Higashi S. 2008b. Selection of river crossing location and sleeping site by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in Sabah, Malaysia. Am J Primatol 70(11):1097-101.

Meijaard E, Nijman V. 2000a. Distribution and conservation of the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biol Conserv 92(1):15-24.

Meijaard E, Nijman V. 2000b. The local extinction of the proboscis monkey Nasalis larvatus in Pulau Kaget Nature Reserve, Indonesia. Oryx 34(1):66-70.

Messeri P, Trombi M. 2000. Vocal repertoire of proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus, L.) in Sarawak. Folia Primatol 71(4):268-87.

Murai T, Mohamed M, Bernard H, Mahedi AP, Saburi R, Higashi S. 2007. Female transfer between one-male groups of proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus). Primates 48(2):117-21.

Murai T. 2006. Mating behaviors of the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus). Am J Primatol 68(8):832-7.

Murai T. 2004. Social behaviors of all-male proboscis monkeys when joined by females. Ecol Res 19(4):451-4.

Onuma M. 2002. Daily ranging patterns of the proboscis monkey, Nasalis larvatus, in coastal areas of Sarawak, Malaysia. Mammal Study 27(2):141-4.

Payne J, Francis CM, Phillips K. 1985. A field guide to the mammals of Borneo. Kuala Lumpur (MY): World Wildlife Fund Malaysia & The Sabah Society.

Pournelle GH. 1967. Observations on reproductive behaviour and early postnatal development of the proboscis monkey Nasalis larvatus orientalis. Int Zoo Yearb 7:90-2.

Rajanathan R, Bennett EL. 1990. Notes on the social behaviour of wild proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus). Malay Nat J 44(1):35-44.

Ruhiyat Y. 1986. Preliminary study of proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) in Gunung Palung Nature Reserve, West Kalimantan. Kyoto U Overseas Res Rep Studies Asian Non-Hum Prim 5:59-69.

Salter RE, MacKenzie NA, Nightingale N, Aken KM, Chai PK P. 1985. Habitat use, ranging behaviour, and food habits of the proboscis monkey, Nasalis larvatus (van Wurmb), in Sarawak. Primates 26(4):436-51.

Salter RE, Aken KM. 1983. The proboscis monkey in Bako National Park, Sarawak. Tigerpaper 10(3):6-8.

Schultz AH. 1942. Growth and development of the proboscis monkey. Bull Museum Comp Zool Harvard U 89:279-314.

Sebastian AC. 2000. Proboscis monkeys in Danau Sentarum National Park. Borneo Res Bull 31:359-71.

Soendjoto MA. 2004. A new record on habitat of the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) and its problems in south Kalimantan, Indonesia. Tigerpaper 31(2):17-8.

Tuen AA, Pandong JJAG. 2007. Habitat use and population density of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) at Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, Sarawal. Malay Nat J 59(3):269-79.

Weigl R. 2005. Longevity of mammals in captivity; from the living collections of the world. Stuttgart (DE): E. Schweizerbartsche. 214 p.

Yeager CP. 1992a. Changes in proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) group size and density at Tanjung Putting National Park, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. Trop Biodiv 1(1):49-55.

Yeager CP. 1995. Does intraspecific variation in social systems explain reported differences in the social structure of the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus)? Primates 36(4):575-82.

Yeager CP. 1989a. Feeding ecology of the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus). Int J Primatol 10(6):497-530.

Yeager CP. 1991. Possible antipredator behavior associated with river crossings by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus). Am J Primatol 24(1):61-6.

Yeager CP. 1989b. Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) social organization and ecology. PhD dissertation, University of California-Davis. 140p.

Yeager CP. 1990a. Notes on the sexual behavior of the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus). Am J Primatol 21(3):233-7.

Yeager CP. 1990b. Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) social organization: group structure. Am J Primatol 20(2):95-106.

Yeager CP. 1992b. Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) social organization: nature and possible functions of intergroup patterns of association. Am J Primatol 26(2):133-7.

Content last modified: February 25, 2009