Primate Info Net Banner Wisconsin PRC Logo

Patas monkey
Erythrocebus patas

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Erythrocebus patas, search PrimateLit.


Bercovitch F. 1996. Testicular function and scrotal coloration in patas monkeys. J Zool 239(1): 93-100.

Carlson A, Isbell L. 2001. Causes and consequences of single-male and multimale mating in free-ranging patas monkeys, Erythrocebus patas. Anim Behav 62(6): 1047-58.

Chism J. 1986. Development and mother-infant relations among captive patas monkeys. Int J Primatol 7(1): 49-81.

Erythrocebus patas
Photo: Anne & Ron Carlson

Chism J. 1999. Decoding patas social organization. In: Dolhinow P, Fuentes A, editors. The NonHuman Primates. Mountain View (CA): Mayfield Pub Co. p 86-92.

Chism J. 2005. Round up the usual suspects: conflict between monkeys and farmers in Ghana and Kenya. In: Paterson JD, Wallis J, editors. Commensalism and conflict: the human-primate interface. Norman (OK): Am Soc Primatol. p 339-49.

Chism J, Olson D, Rowell TE. 1983. Diurnal births and perinatal behavior among wild patas monkeys: evidence of an adaptive pattern. Int J Primatol 4(2): 167-84.

Chism J, Rogers W. 1997. Male competition, mating success and female choice in a seasonally breeding primate (Erythrocebus patas). Ethology 103(2):109-26.

Chism J, Rowell T. 1988. The natural history of patas monkeys. In: Gautier-Hion A, Bourlière F, Gautier J-P, Kingdon J, editors. A primate radiation: evolutionary biology of the African guenons. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge Univ Pr. p 412-38.

Chism JB, Rowell TE. 1986. Mating and residence patterns of male patas monkeys. Ethology 72(1): 31-9.

Chism J, Rowell T, Olson D. 1984. Life history patterns of female patas monkeys. In: Small M, editor. Female primates: studies by women primatologists. New York: AR Liss. p 175-90.

Enstam K, Isbell L. 2002. Comparison of responses to alarm calls by patas (Erythrocebus patas) and vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops) monkeys in relation to habitat structure. Am J Phys Anthro 119(1): 3-14.

Enstam K, Isbell L. 2004. Microhabitat preference and vertical use of space by patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in relation to predation risk and habitat structure. Folia Primatol 75(2): 70-84.

Enstam K, Isbell L, De Maar T. 2002. Male demography, female mating behavior, and infanticide in wild patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). Int J Primatol 23(1): 85-104.

Etter HF. 1973. Terrestrial adaptations in the hands of cercopithecinae. Folia Primatol 20: 331-50.

Galat-Luong A. 1991. Proies inhabituelles pour le patas d'afrique de l'ouest (Erythrocebus patas patas). Rev Ecol Terre Vie 46(1): 83-4.

Galat-Luong A, Galat G, Durand J-P, Pourrut X. 1996. Sexual weight dimorphism and social organization in green and patas monkeys in Senegal [abstract]. Folia Primatol 67(2): 92-3.

Gartlan J. 1974. Adaptive aspects of social structure in Erythrocebus patas. In: Kondo S, Kawai M, Ehara A, Kawamura S, editors. Proceedings from the symposia of the fifth congress of the International Primatological Society. Tokyo: Japan Sci Pr. p161-71.

Gonzáles-Martínez J. 1998. The ecology of the introduced patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) population of southwestern Puerto Rico. Am J Primatol 45(4): 351-65.

Groves C. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington DC: Smithsonian Inst Pr. 350 p.

Grubb P. 2006. English common names for subspecies and species of African primates. Prim Conserv 20: 65-73.

Grubb P, Butynski TM, Oates JF, Bearder SK, Disotell TR, Groves CP, Struhsaker TT. 2003. Assessment of the diversity of African primates. Int J Primatol 24(6): 1301-57.

Hall KRL. 1965. Behaviour and ecology of the wild patas monkey, Erythrocebus patas, in Uganda. J Zool 148: 15-87.

Hall KRL. 1967. Social interactions of the adult male and adult females of a patas monkey group. In: Altmann S, editor. Social communication among primates. Chicago: Univ Chicago Pr. p 261-80.

Hall KRL, Beolkins RC, Goswell MJ. 1965. Behaviour of patas monkeys, Erythrocebus patas, in captivity, with notes on the natural habitat. Folia Primatol 3: 22-49.

Hall KRL, Mayer B. 1967. Social interactions in a group of captive patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). Folia Primatol 5: 213-36.

Harding R, Olson D. 1986. Patterns of mating among male patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Kenya. Am J Primatol 11(4): 343-58.

Hrdy SB. 1974. Male-male competition and infanticide among the langurs (Presbytis entellus) of Abu, Rajasthan. Folia Primatol 22: 19-58.

Isbell L. 1998. Diet for a small primate: insectivory and gummivory in the (large) patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas pyrrhonotus). Am J Primatol 45(4): 381-98.

Jacobus S, Loy J. 1981. The grimace and gecker: a submissive display among patas monkeys. Primates 22(3): 393-8.

Kingdon J. 1971. East African mammals. New York: Academic Pr. 446 p.

Lee PC, Priston NEC. 2005. Perceptions of pests: human attitudes to primates, conflict and consequences for conservation. In: Paterson JD, Wallis J, editors. Commensalism and conflict: the human-primate interface. Norman (OK): Am Soc Primatol. p 1-23.

Loy J. 1974. Changes in facial color associated with pregnancy in patas monkeys. Folia Primatol 22: 251-7.

Loy J, Argo B, Nestell GL, Vallett S, Wanamaker G. 1993. A Reanalysis of patas monkeys' "grimace and gecker" display and a discussion of their lack of formal dominance. Int J Primatol 14(6): 879-93.

Loy J, Harnois M. 1988. An assessment of dominance and kinship among patas monkeys. Primates 29(3): 331-42.

Loy J, Head M, Loy K. 1978. Reproductive cycles of captive patas monkeys. Lab Prim News 17(1): 9-12.

Loy K, Loy J. 1987. Sexual differences in early social development among captive patas monkeys. In: Zucker E, editor. Comparative behavior of African monkeys. New York: AR Liss. p 23-37.

McNelis NL, Boatright-Horowitz SL. 1998. Social monitoring in a primate group: the relationship between visual attention and hierarchical ranks. Anim Cogn 1(1): 65-9.

Muroyama Y. 1994. Exchange of grooming for allomothering in female patas monkeys. Behaviour 128(1-2): 103-19.

Nakagawa N. 1989. Activity budget and diet of patas monkeys in Kala Maloue National Park, Cameroon: a preliminary report. Primates 30(1): 27-34.

Nakagawa N. 1992. Distribution of affiliative behaviors among adult females within a group of wild patas monkeys in a nonmating, nonbirth season. Int J Primatol 12(1): 73-96.

Nakagawa N. 1995. A case of infant kidnapping and allomothering by members of a neighbouring group in patas monkeys. Folia Primatol 64(1-2): 62-8.

Nakagawa N. 1998. Indiscriminate response to infant calls in wild patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). Folia Primatol 69(2): 93-9.

Nakagawa N. 1999. Differential habitat utilization by patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and tantalus monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops tantalus) living sympatrically in northern Cameroon. Am J Primatol 49(3): 243-64.

Nakagawa N. 2000. Foraging energetics in patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and tantalus monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops tantalus): implications for reproductive seasonality. Am J Primatol 52(4): 169-85.

Nakagawa N, Ohsawa H, Muroyama Y. 2003. Life-history parameters of a wild group of west African patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas patas). Primates 44(3): 281-90.

Oates JF, compiler. 1996. Status survey and conservation action plan: African primates (Revised edition). Gland (Switzerland ): IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Gp. 80 p.

Ohsawa H, Inoue M, Takenaka O. 1993. Mating strategy and reproductive success of male patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). Primates 34(4): 533-44.

Palmer AE, London WT, Brown RL, Rice JM. 1981. Color changes in the haircoat of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). Am J Primatol 1:371-8.

Ross C. 1991. Life history patterns of new world monkeys. Int J Primatol. 12(5): 481-502.

Rowell T. 1978. How female reproductive cycles affect interaction patterns in groups of patas monkeys. In: Chivers DJ, Herbert J, editors. Recent advances in primatology. Volume one: behaviour. New York: Academic Pr. p 489-90.

Rowell T, Chism J. 1986. The ontogeny of sex differences in the behavior of patas monkeys. Int J Primatol 7(1): 83-107.

Rowell TE, Hartwell KM. 1978. The interaction of behavior and reproductive cycles in patas monkeys. Behav Biol 24: 141-67.

Rowell TE, Olson DK. Alternative mechanisms of social organization in monkeys. Behaviour 86(1-2): 31-54.

Rowe N. 1996. The pictorial guide to the living primates. East Hampton (NY): Pogonias Pr. p 149-50.

Sly DL, Harbaugh SW, London WT, Rice JM. 1983. Reproductive performance of a laboratory breeding colony of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). Am J Primatol 4: 23-32.

Sodeinde OA, Soewu DA. 1999. Pilot study of the traditional medicine trade in Nigeria. Traff Bull 18(1): 35-40.

Struhsaker T, Gartlan JS. 1970. Observations on the behaviour and ecology of the patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) in the waza reserve, Cameroon. J Zool 161: 49-63.

Tappen NC. 1960. Problems of distribution and adaptation of the African monkeys. Curr Anthro 1(2): 102-3.

Wolfheim J. 1974. The status of wild primates. Draft copy, National fish and wildlife laboratory, Washington DC 2: 438-48.

Wolfheim J. 1983. Primates of the world; distribution, abundance, and conservation. Seattle (WA): Univ Washington Pr. p 457-62.

York A, Rowell TE. 1988. Reconciliation following aggression in patas monkeys, Erythrocebus patas. Anim Behav 36(2): 502-9.

Content last modified: December 18, 2006