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Orangutan
Pongo

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Pongo, search PrimateLit.

REFERENCES

Commitante R, Husson S, Morrogh-Bernard H, Chivers DJ. 2003. Where the wild things are not- the plight of the wild orangutan. Biologist 50(2): 75-80.

Courtenay J, Groves C, Andrews P. 1988. Inter- or intra-island variation? An assessment of the differences between Bornean and Sumatran orang-utans. In: Schwartz JH, editor. Orang-utan biology. p 19-29.

Delgado RA Jr., van Schaik CP. 2000. The behavioral ecology and conservation of the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus): a tale of two islands. Evol Anthro 9(1): 201-18.

Felton AM, Engrström LM, Felton A, Knott CD. 2003. Orangutan population density, forest structure and fruit availability in hand-logged and unlogged peat swamp forests in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biol Cons 114: 91-101.

Fox EA. 2002. Female tactics to reduce sexual harassment in the Sumatran orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 52: 93-101.

Fox EA, Sitompul AF, van Schaik CP. 1999. Intelligent tool use in wild Sumatran orangutans. In: Parker ST, Mitchell RW, Miles HL, editors. The mentalities of gorillas and orangutans: comparative perspectives. Cambridge (England): Cambridge Univ Pr. p 99-116.

Galdikas BMF. 1984. Adult female sociality among wild orangutans at Tanjung Puting Reserve. In: Small MF, editor. Female primates: studies by women primatologists. New York: Alan R. Liss. p 217-35.

Galdikas BMF. 1988. Orangutan diet, range, and activity at Tanjung Puting, Central Borneo. Int J Primatol 9(1): 1-35.

Galdikas BMF. 1995. Social and reproductive behavior of wild adolescent female orangutans. In: Nadler RD, Galdikas BFM, Sheeran LK, Rosen N, editors. The neglected ape. New York: Plenum Pr. p 163-82.

Galdikas BMF, Briggs N. 1999. Orangutan odyssey. New York: Harry N. Abrams. 144 p.

Galdikas BMF, Insley SJ. 1988. The fast call of the adult male orangutan. J Mammal 69(2): 371-82.

Groves C. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Inst Pr. 350 p.

Grundmann E, Lestel D, Boestani AN, Bomsel M-C. 2000. Learning to survive in the forest: what every orangutan should know. In: The apes: challenges for the 21st century. Conference proceedings; 2000 May 10-13; Brookfield, IL. Chicago: Chicago Zoo Soc. p 300-4.

Kaplan G, Rogers LJ. 1994. Orang-utans in Borneo. Armidale (Australia): Univ New England. 196 p.

Kilbourn AM, Karesh WB, Bosi EJ, Cook RA, Andau M, Woolfe ND. 1998. Disease evaluation of free-ranging orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) in Sabah, Malaysia. In: Baer CK, editor. Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians and American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians Joint Conference; 1998 Oct 17-22; Omaha, NE. p 417-21.

Knott CD. 1998. Changes in orangutan caloric intake, energy balance, and ketones in response to fluctuating fruit availability. Int J Primatol 19(6): 1061-79.

Knott C. 2001. Female reproductive ecology of the apes: implications for human evolution. In: Ellison PT, editor. Reproductive ecology and human evolution. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. p 429-63.

Lee LL, Phipps M, Chen PC. 1993. The orangutan in Taiwan. In: Tilson R, Traylor-Holzer K, Seal U, editors. Orangutan population and habitat viability analysis workshop: briefing book; 1993 Jan 18-20; Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Apple Valley (MN): IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group. p 105-11.

Lethmate J. 1982. Tool-using skills of orang-utans. J Hum Evol 11: 49-64.

Markham RM, Groves CP. Brief communication: weights of wild orang utans. Am J Phys Anthro 81: 1-3.

Miles HLW. 1990. The cognitive foundations for reference in a signing orangutan. In: Parker ST, Gibson KR, editors. "Language" and intelligence in monkeys and apes. Cambridge (England): Cambridge Univ Pr. p 511-39.

Mitani JC. 1985. Sexual selection and adult male orangutan long calls. Anim Behav 33: 272-83.

Mitani JC. 1989. Orangutan activity budgets: monthly variations and the effects of body size, parturition, and sociality. Am J Primatol 18: 87-100.

Mitani JC, Grether GF, Rodman PS, Priatna D. 1991. Associations among wild orang-utans: sociality, passive aggregations or chance? Anim Behav 42(1): 33-46.

Morrogh-Bernard H, Husson S, Page SE, Rieley JO. 2003. Population status of the Bornean orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus) in the Sebangau peat swamp forest, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biol Cons 110(1): 141-52.

Muller MN, Wrangham RW. 2001. Reproductive ecology of male hominoids. In: Ellison PT, editor. Reproductive ecology and human evolution. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. p 397- 427.

Munn C, Fernandez M. 1997. Infant development. In: Sodara C, editor. Orangutan species survival plan husbandry manual. Chicago (IL): Orangutan Species Survival Plan. p 59-66.

Rijksen HD. 1978. A field study on Sumatran orang utans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii Lesson 1827): ecology, behaviour and conservation. Wageningen (The Netherlands): H. Veenman Zonen BV. 420 p.

Rijksen HD. 1993. How to save the mysterious "man of the rain forest"?. In: Tilson R, Traylor-Holzer K, Seal U, editors. Orangutan population and habitat viability analysis workshop: briefing book; 1993 Jan 18-20; Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Apple Valley (MN): IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group. p 317-41.

Rijksen HD. 1995. The neglected ape? NATO and the imminent extinction of our close relative. In: Nadler RD, Galdikas BFM, Sheeran LK, Rosen N, editors. The neglected ape. New York: Plenum Pr. p 13-21.

Rijksen HD. 2001. The orangutan and the conservation battle in Indonesia. In: Beck BB, Stoinski TS, Hutchins M, Maple TL, Norton B, Rowan A, Stevens EF, Arluke A, editors. Great apes & humans: the ethics of coexistence. Washington DC: Smithsonian Inst Pr. p 57-70.

Rijksen HD, Meijaard E. 1999. Our vanishing relative: the status of wild orang-utans at the close of the twentieth century. Dordrecht (The Netherlands): Kluwer Acad. 480 p.

Rijksen HD, Ramono W, Sugardjito J, Lelana A, Leighton M, Karesh W, Shapiro G, Seal US, Traylor-Holzer K, Tilson R. 1995. Estimates of orangutan distribution and status in Borneo. In: Nadler RD, Galdikas BFM, Sheeran LK, Rosen N, editors. The neglected ape. New York: Plenum Pr. p 117-22.

Robertson JMY, van Schaik CP. 2001. Causal factors underlying the dramatic decline of the Sumatran orang-utan. Oryx 35(1): 26-38.

Rodman PS. 1988. Diversity and consistency in ecology and behavior. In: Schwartz JH, editor. Orang-utan biology. p 31-51.

Rodman PS. 1993. Diversity and consistency in ecology and behavior. In: Tilson R, Traylor-Holzer K, Seal U, editors. Orangutan population and habitat viability analysis workshop: briefing book; 1993 Jan 18-20; Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Apple Valley (MN): IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group. p 31-51.

Rosen N, Byers O, editors. 2002. Orangutan conservation and reintroduction workshop: final report; 2002 June 19-22; Palangka Raya, Kalimantan, Indonesia. Apple Valley (MN): IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group. 138 p.

Rowe N. 1996. The pictorial guide to the living primates. East Hampton (NY): Pogonias Pr. 263 p.

Russon AE, Erman A, Dennis R. 2001. The population and distribution of orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) in and around the Danau Sentarum Wildlife Reserve, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biol Cons 97(1): 21-8.

Schürmann CL, van Hooff JARAM. 1986. Reproductive strategies of the orang-utan: new data and a reconsideration of existing sociosexual models. Int J Primatol 7(3): 265-87.

Setchell JM. 2003. The evolution of alternative reproductive morphs in male primates. In: Jones CB, editor. Sexual selection and reproductive competition in primates: new perspectives and directions. Volume 3, Special topics in primatology. Norman (OK): American Society of Primatologists. p 410-35.

Siegert F, Ruecker G, Hinrichs A, Hoffmann AA. Increased damage from fires in logged forests during droughts caused by El Niño. Nature 414(6862): 437-40.

Singleton I, van Schaik CP. 2001. Orangutan home range size and its determinants in a Sumatran swamp forest. Int J Primatol 22(6): 877-911.

Singleton I, van Schaik CP. 2002. The social organisation of a population of Sumatran orang-utans. Folia Primatol 73: 1-20.

Singleton I, Wich S, Husson S, Stephens S, Utami Atmoko S, Leighton M, Rosen N, Traylor-Holzer K, Lacy R, Byers O, editors. 2004. Orangutan population and habitat viability assessment: final report. Apple Valley (MN): IUCN/SSC Cons Breed Spec Group. 257 p.

Smits WTM, Heriyanto, Ramono WS. 1995. A new method for rehabilitation of orangutans in Indonesia. In: Nadler RD, Galdikas BFM, Sheeran LK, Rosen N, editors. The neglected ape. New York: Plenum Pr. p 69-77.

Sodaro V. 1997. Distribution, conservation status, and causes of population decline. In: Sodara C, editor. Orangutan species survival plan husbandry manual. Chicago (IL): Orangutan Species Survival Plan. p 12-4.

Sugardjito J. 1995. Conservation of orangutans: threats and prospects. In: Nadler RD, Galdikas BFM, Sheeran LK, Rosen N, editors. The neglected ape. New York: Plenum Pr. p 45-9.

Sugardjito J, te Boekhorst IJA, van Hooff JARAM. 1987. Ecological constraints on the grouping of wild orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus) in the Gunung Leuser National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Int J Primatol 8(1): 17-41.

Sugardjito J, van Schaik CP. 1993. Orangutans: current population status, threats, and conservation measures. In: Tilson R, Traylor-Holzer K, Seal U, editors. Orangutan population and habitat viability analysis workshop: briefing book; 1993 Jan 18-20; Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Apple Valley (MN): IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group. p 142-52.

te Boekhorst IJA, Schürmann CL, Sugardjito J. 1990. Residential status and seasonal movements of wild orang-utans in the Gunung Leuser Reserve (Sumatera, Indonesia). Anim Behav 39(6): 1098-1109.

Utami SS, Goossens B, Bruford MW, de Ruiter JR, van Hooff JARAM. 2002. Male bimaturism and reproductive success in Sumatran orang-utans. Behav Ecol 13(5): 643-52.

van Schaik CP. 1999. The socioecology of fission-fusion sociality in orangutans. Primates 40(1): 69-86.

van Schaik CP, Monk KA, Robertson JMY. 2001. Dramatic decline in orang-utan numbers in the Leuser Ecosystem, Northern Sumatra. Oryx 35(1): 14-25.

van Schaik CP, Poniran S, Utami S, Griffiths M, Djojosudharmo S, Nitra Setia T, Sugardjito J, Rijksen HD, Seal US, Fast T, et al. 1995. Estimates of orangutan distribution and status in Sumatra. In: Nadler RD, Galdikas BFM, Sheeran LK, Rosen N, editors. The neglected ape. New York: Plenum Pr. p 109-16.

van Schaik CP, Preuschoft S, Watts DP. 2004. Great ape social systems. In: Russon AE, Begun DR, editors. The evolution of thought: evolutionary origins of great ape intelligence. Cambridge (England): Cambridge Univ Pr. p 190-209.

van Schaik, CP, van Hooff JARAM. 1996. Toward an understanding of the orangutan's social system. In: McGrew WC, Marchant LF, Nishida T, editors. Great ape societies. Cambridge (England): Cambridge Univ Pr. p 3-15.

Wich SA, Singleton I, Utami-Atmoko SS, Geurts ML, Rijksen HD, van Schaik CP. 2003. The status of the Sumatran orang-utan Pongo abelii: an update. Oryx 37(1): 49-54.

Woodford MH, Butynski TM, Karesh WB. 2002. Habituating the great apes: the disease risks. Oryx 36(2): 153-60.

Yeager C, editor. 1999. Orangutan Action Plan. Jakarta (Indonesia): WWF-Indonesia. 34 p.

Content last modified: June 13, 2005