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Olive baboon
Papio anubis


Alberts SC, Altmann J. 2001. Immigration and hybridization patterns of yellow and anubis baboons in and around Amboseli , Kenya . Am J Primatol 53(4): 139-54.

Aldrich-Blake FPG, Bunn TK, Dunbar RIM, Headley PM. 1971. Observations on baboons, Papio anubis, in an arid region in Ethiopia. Folia Primatol 15: 1-35.

Barton RA, Byrne RW, Whiten A. 1996. Ecology, feeding competition and social structure in baboons. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 38(5): 321-9.

Barton RA, Whiten A. 1993. Feeding competition among female olive baboons, Papio anubis. Anim Behav 46(4): 777-89.

Barton RA, Whiten A, Strum SC , Byrne RW, Simpson AJ. 1992. Habitat use and resource availability in baboons. Anim Behav 43(5): 831-44.

Bercovitch FB. 1983. Time budgets and consortships in olive baboons (Papio anubis). Folia Primatol 41(3-4): 180-90.

Bercovitch FB. 1987. Reproductive success in male savanna baboons. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 21(3): 163-72.

Bercovitch FB. 1989. Body size, sperm competition, and determinants of reproductive success in male savanna baboons. Evolution 43(7): 1507-21.

Bercovitch FB. 1991. Mate selection, consortship formation, and reproductive tactics in adult female savanna baboons. Primates 32(4): 437-52.

Bercovitch FB, Harding RSO. 1993. Annual birth patterns of savanna baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis) over a ten-year period at Gilgil, Kenya. Folia Primatol 61(3): 115-22.

Bergman TH, Beehner JC. 2004. Social system of a hybrid baboon group (Papio anubis x P. hamadryas). Int J Primatol 25(6): 1313-30.

Coelho AM. 1985. Baboon dimorphism: growth in weight, length and adiposity from birth to 8 years of age. In: Watts ES, editor. Nonhuman primate models for human growth and development. New York : Alan R. Liss. p 125-59.

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Dunbar RIM, Dunbar EP. 1974. Ecological relations and niche separation between sympatric terrestrial primates in Ethiopia . Folia Primatol 21: 36-60.

Easley SP, Coelho Jr. AM. 1991. Is lipsmacking an indicator of social status in baboons? Folia Primatol 56(4): 190-201.

Eley RM, Strum SC, Muchem G, Reid GDF. 1989. Nutrition, body condition, activity patterns, and parasitism of free-ranging troops of olive baboons (Papio anubis) in Kenya. Am J Primatol 18(3): 209-19.

Fa JE, Ryan SF, Bell DJ. 2005. Hunting vulnerability, ecological characteristics and harvest rates of bushmeat species in afrotropical forests. Biol Conserv 121(2): 167-76.

Farah I, Börjesson A, Kariuki T, Yole D, Suleman M, Hau J, Carlsson HE. 2003. Morbidity and immune response to natural schistosomiasis in baboons (Papio anubis). Parasitol Res 91(4): 344-8.

Forster D, Strum SC. 1994. Sleeping near the enemy: patterns of sexual competition in baboons. In: Roeder JJ, Thierry B, Anderson JR, Herrenschmidt N, editors. Current primatology, Vol. 2. Social development, learning and behaviour. Strasbourg (France): Univ Louis Pasteur. p 19-24.

Forthman Quick DL. 1986. Activity budgets and the consumption of human food in two troops of baboons, Papio anubis, at Gilgil , Kenya. In: Else JG, Lee PC, editors. Primate ecology and conservation, Volume 2. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge Univ Pr. p 221-8.

Gil Burmann C, Peláez F, Zinner D. 2002. The end of the free-ranging baboon group in Cádiz , Spain . Prim Rep 63: 49-54.

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Harding RSO. 1976. Ranging patterns of a troop of baboons (Papio anubis) in Kenya . Folia Primatol 25: 143-85.

Hassan A. 2001. Notes on olive baboons at Lake Manyara National Park . Ecol J 3: 192-5.

Hill CM. 2000. Conflict of interest between people and baboons: crop raiding in Uganda . Int J Primatol 21(2): 299-315.

Hrdy SB. 1974. Male-male competition and infanticide among langurs (Presbytis entellus) of Abu, Rajastan. Folia Primatol 22: 19-58.

Isabirye-Basuta G. 2004. The status and distribution of primates in Mubende-Toro woodlands and forests. Afr J Ecol 42(Suppl 1): 84-6.

Jolly CJ, Phillips-Conroy JE. 2003. Testicular size, mating system, and maturation schedules in wild anubis and hamadryas baboons. Int J Primatol 24(1): 125-42.

Lieberman D, Hall JB, Swaine MD. 1979. Seed dispersal by baboons in the Shai Hills, Ghana . Ecology 60(1): 65-75.

Nagel U. 1973. A comparison of anubis baboons, hamadryas baboons and their hybrids at a species border in Ethiopia . Folia Primatol 19: 104-65.

Nash LT. 1978. The development of the mother-infant relationship in wild baboons (Papio anubis). Anim Behav 26(3): 746-59.

Naughton-Treves L, Treves A, Chapman C, Wrangham R. 1998. Temporal patterns of crop-raiding by primates: linking food availability in croplands and adjacent forest. J Applied Ecol 35(4): 596-606.

Packer C. 1979a. Inter-troop transfer and inbreeding avoidance in Papio anubis. Anim Behav 27(1): 1-36.

Packer C. 1979b. Male dominance and reproductive activity in Papio anubis. Anim Behav 27(1): 37-45.

Packer C. 1980. Male care and exploitation of infants in Papio anubis. Anim Behav 28: 512-20.

Packer C, Pusey AE. 1979. Female aggression and male membership in troops of Japanese macaques and olive baboons. Folia Primatol 31(3): 212-18.

Palombit RA. 2003. Male infanticide in savanna baboons: adaptive significance and intraspecific variation. In: Jones CB, editor. Sexual selection and reproductive competition in primates: new perspectives and directions. Norman (OK): Am Soc Primatol. p 367-411.

Pfeyffers R. 1999-2000. Underwater swimming by baboons Papio anubis in Nigeria . Afr Prim 4(1&2): 72-4.

Phillips-Conroy JE, Jolly CJ, Brett FL. 1991. Characteristics of hamadryas-like male baboons living in anubis baboon troops in the Awash hybrid zone, Ethiopia. Am J Phys Anthro 86(3): 353-68.

Ransom TW. 1981. Beach troop of the Gombe. East Brunswick (NJ): Assoc Univ Pr. 319 p.

Ransom TW, Rowell TE. 1972. Early social development of feral baboons. In: Poirier FE, editor. Primate socialization. New York : Random House. p 105-44.

Ray JC, Sapolsky RM. 1992. Styles of male social behavior and their endocrine correlates among high-ranking wild baboons. Am J Primatol 28(4): 231-50.

Rowe N. 1996. The pictorial guide to the living primates. East Hampton (NY): Pogonias Pr. 263 p.

Rowell TE. 1966. Forest living baboons in Uganda . J Zool 149: 344-65.

Samuels A, Altmann J. 1986. Immigration of a Papio anubis male into a group of Papio cynocephalus baboons and evidence for an anubis-cynocephalus hybrid zone in Amboseli, Kenya . Int J Primatol 7(2): 131-8.

Sapolsky RM. 1986. Endocrine and behavioral correlates of drought in wild olive baboons (Papio anubis). Am J Primatol 11(3): 217-27.

Sapolsky RM. 1996. Why should an aged male baboon ever transfer troops? Am J Primtol 39(3): 149-55.

Sapolsky RM, Else JG. 1987. Bovine tuberculosis in a wild baboon population: epidemiological aspects. J Med Primatol 16(4): 229-35.

Sapolsky RM, Share LJ. 2004 [cited 2005 Oct 5]. A pacific culture among wild baboons: its emergence and transmission. Plos Biol [Internet] 2(4): 534-6. Available from:

Sinsin B, Tehou AC, Daouda I, Saidou A. 2002. Abundance and species richness of larger mammals in Pendjari National Park in Benin . Mammalia 66(3): 369-80.

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Smuts BB. 1985. Sex and friendship in baboons. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. 303 p.

Smuts B, Nicolson N. 1989. Reproduction in wild female olive baboons. Am J Primatol 19(4): 229-46.

Smuts BB, Watanabe JM. 1990. Social relationships and ritualized greetings in adult male baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis). Int J Primatol 11(2): 147-72.

Strum SC. 1981. Processes and products of change: baboon predatory behavior at Gilgil , Kenya. In: Harding RSO, Teleki G, editors. Omnivorous primates: gathering and hunting in human evolution. New York : Columbia Univ Pr. p 255-302.

Strum SC. 1983. Baboon cues for eating meat. J Hum Evol 12(4): 327-36.

Strum SC. 1987. Almost human: a journey into the world of baboons. Chicago (IL): Univ Chicago Pr. 308 p.

Strum SC. 1991. Weight and age in wild olive baboons. Am J Primatol 25(4): 219-37.

Strum SC. 1994. Prospects for management of primate pests. Rev Ecol 49(3): 295-306.

Strum SC, Southwick CH. 1986. Translocation of primates. In: Benirschke K, editor. Primates: the road to self-sustaining populations. New York: Springer-Verlag. p 949-58.

Whiten A, Byrne RW, Barton RA, Waterman PG, Henzi SP. 1991. Dietary and foraging strategies of baboons. Phil Trans R Soc Lond 334(1270): 187-97.

Zinner D, Peláez F, Torkler F. 2001. Distribution and habitat associations of baboons (Papio hamadryas) in central Ethiopia . Int J Primatol 22(3): 397-413.

Content last modified: April 18, 2006