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Mouse lemur

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Microcebus, search PrimateLit.


Andrès M, Gachot-Neveu H, Perret M. 2001. Genetic determination of paternity in captive grey mouse lemurs: pre-copulatory sexual competition rather than sperm competition in a nocturnal prosimian? Behaviour 138(8):1047-63.

Andriantompohavana R, Zaonarivelo JR, Engberg SE, Randriamampionona R, McGuire SM, Shore GD, Rakotonomenjanahary R, Brenneman RA, Louis EE Jr. 2006. Mouse lemurs of northwestern Madagascar with a description of a new species at Lokobe Special Reserve. Occas Pap Tex Tech Univ Mus 259:1-24.

Ankel-Simons F. 2007. Primate anatomy: an introduction, 3rd edition. San Diego: Elsevier. 724p.

Atsalis S. 1999. Diet of the brown mouse lemur (Microcebus rufus) in Ranomafana Nationsl Park, Madagascar. Int J Primatol 20(2):193-229.

Atsalis S. 1998. Feeding ecology and aspects of life history in Microcebus rufus (Family Cheirogaleidae, Order Primates). PhD dissertation, City University of New York.

Atsalis S. 2008. A natural history of the brown mouse lemur. Upper Saddle River (NJ):Prentice Hall. 230p.

Atsalis S. 2000. Spatial distribution and population composition of the brown mouse lemur (Microcebus rufus) in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar, and its implications for social organization. Am J Primatol 51(1):61-78.

Blanco MB. 2008. Reproductive schedules of female Microcebus rufus at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Int J Primatol 29(2):323-38.

Boulière F, Petter-Rousseaux A, Petter JJ. Regular breeding in captivity of the lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Intl Zoo Ybk 3:24-5.

Braune P, Schmidt S, Zimmermann E. 2008. Acoustic divergence in the communication of cryptic species of nocturnal primates (Microcebus ssp.). BMC Biol 6(1):19.

Braune P, Schmidt S, Zimmermann E. 2005. Spacing and group coordination in a nocturnal primate, the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis): the role of olfactory and acoustic signals. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 58(6):587-96.

Buesching CD, Heistermann M, Hodges JK, Zimmermann E. 1998. Multimodal oestrus advertisement in a small nocturnal prosimian, Microcebus murinus. Folia Primatol 69(suppl 1):295-308.

Cardiff SG, Goodman SM. 2008. Natural history of the red owl (Tyto soumagnei) in dry deciduous tropical forest in Madagascar. Wilson J Ornithol 120(4):891-7.

Cherry JA, Izard MK, Simons EL. 1987. Description of ultrasonic vocalizations of the mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) and the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius). Am J Primatol 13(2):181-5.

Colas S. 1999. Evidence for sex-biased behavioral maternal investment in the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Int J Primatol 20(6):911-26.

Craul M, Zimmermann E, Radespiel U. 2004. First experimental evidence for female mate choice in a nocturnal primate. Primates 45(4):271-4.

Dammhahn M, Kappeler PM. 2006. Feeding ecology and activity patterns of female Microcebus berthae and sympatric M. murinus (Cheirogaleidae) [abstract]. Int J Primatol 27(suppl 1):#44.

Dammhahn M, Kappeler PM. 2005. Social system of Microcebus berthae, the world's smallest primate. Int J Primatol 26(2):407-35.

Duckworth JW, Evans MI, Hawkins AFA, Safford RJ, Wilkinson RJ. 1995. The lemurs of Marojejy Strict Nature Reserve, Madagascar: a status overview with notes on ecology and threats. Int J Primatol 16(3):545-59.

Eberle M, Kappeler PM. 2003. Cooperative breeding in grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) [abstract]. Folia Primatol 74(5-6):367.

Eberle M, Kappeler PM. 2006. Family insurance: kin selection and cooperative breeding in a solitary primate (Microcebus murinus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 60(4):582-8.

Eberle M, Kappeler PM. 2002. Mouse lemurs in space and time: a test of the socioecological model. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 51(2):131-9.

Eberle M, Kappeler PM. 2008. Mutualism, reciprocity, or kin selection? Cooperative rescue of a conspecific from a boa in a nocturnal solitary forager the gray mouse lemur. Am J Primatol 70(4):410-4.

Eberle M, Kappeler PM. 2004a. Selected polyandry: female choice and inter-sexual conflict in a small nocturnal solitary primate (Microcebus murinus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 57(1):91-100.

Eberle M. Kappeler PM. 2004b. Sex in the dark: determinants and consequences of mixed male mating tactics in Microcebus murinus, a small solitary nocturnal primate. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 57(1):77-90.

Eberle M, Perret M, Kappeler PM. 2007. Sperm competition and optimal timing of matings in Microcebus murinus. Int J Primatol 28(6):1267-78.

Fietz J. 1995. Mating and social system of the lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, Cheirogaleidae; J. F. Miller 1777) in the dry deciduous forest of western Madagascar. Primate Rep 47:95-6.

Fietz J. 1999. Mating system of Microcebus murinus. Am J Primatol 48(2):127-33.

Ganzhorn JU, Schmid J. 1998. Different population dynamics of Microcebus murinus in primary and secondary deciduous dry forests of Madagascar. Int J Primatol 19(5):785-96.

Génin F. 2007. Energy-dependent plasticity of grey mouse lemur social systems: lessons from field and captive studies. Rev Ecol (Terre Vie) 62(2-3):245-56.

Génin F. 2008. Life in unpredictable environments: first investigation of the natural history of Microcebus griseorufus. Int J Primatol 29(2):303-21.

Glatston AR. 1983. Olfactory communication in the lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). In: Seth PK, editor. Perspectives in primate biology. New Delhi (IN): Today & Tomorrow's printers & publishers. p63-73.

Glatston ARH. 1979. Reproduction and behaviour of the lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, Miller 1777) in captivity. PhD dissertation, University of London-University College. 415p.

Goodman SM, Creighton GK, Raxworthy C. 1991. The food habits of the Madagascar long-eared owl Asio madagascariensis in southeastern Madagascar. Bonn Zool Beitr 42(1):21-6.

Goodman SM, O'Connor S, Langrand O. 1993. A review of predation on lemurs: implications for the evolution of social behavior in small, nocturnal primates. In: Kappeler PM, Ganzhorn JU, editors. Lemur social systems and their ecological basis. New York: Plenum Pr. p51-66.

Gould L, Sauther M. 2007. Lemuriformes. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Panger M, Bearder SK, editors. Primates in perspective. New York:Oxford U Pr. p46-72.

Hafen T, Neveu H, Rumpler Y, Wilden I, Zimmermann E. 1998. Acoustically dimorphic advertisement calls separate morphologically and genetically homogenous populations of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Folia Primatol 69(suppl 1):342-56.

Heckman KL, Rasoazanabary E, Machlin E, Godfrey LR, Yoder AD. 2006. Incongruence between genetic and morphological diversity in Microcebus griseorufus of Beza Mahafaly. BMC Evol Biol 6(1):98.

van Horn RN, Eaton GG. 1979. Reproductive physiology and behavior in prosimians. In: Doyle GA, Martin RD, editors. The study of prosimian behavior. New York: Academic Pr. p79-122.

Kappeler PM. 2000. Ecologie des microcèbes. Primatologie 3:145-71.

Kappeler PM, Rasoloarison RM. 2003. Microcebus, mouse lemurs, Tsidy. In: Goodman SM, Benstead JP, editors. The natural history of Madagascar. Chicago: U Chicago Pr. p1310-5.

Kappeler PM, Rasoloarison RM, Razafimanantsoa L, Walter L, Roos C. 2005. Morphology, behaviour and molecular evolution of giant mouse lemurs (Mirza spp.) Gray, 1870, with description of a new species. Primate Rep 71:3-26.

Karpanty SM, Goodman SM. 1999. Diet of the Madagascar harrier-hawk, Polyboroides radiatus, in southeastern Madagascar. J Raptor Res 33(4):313-6.

Lahann P. 2007. Feeding ecology and seed dispersal of sympatric cheirogaleid lemurs (Microcebus murinus, Cheirogaleus medius, Cheirogaleus major) in the littoral rainforest of south-east Madagascar. J Zool 271(1):88-98.

Louis EE Jr, Coles MS, Andriantompohavana R, Sommer JA, Engberg SE, Zaonarivelo RJ, Mayor MI, Brenneman RA. 2006. Revision of the mouse lemurs (Microcebus) of eastern Madagascar. Int J Primatol 27(2):347-89.

Lutermann H, Schmelting B, Radespiel U, Ehresmann P, Zimmermann E. 2006. The role of survival for the evolution of female philopatry in a solitary forager, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Proc R Soc Lond B 273(1600):2527-33.

Martin RD. 1975. Breeding tree-shrews Tupaia belangeri and mouse lemurs Microcebus murinus in captivity. Int Zoo Ybk 15:35-41.

Martin RD. 1972. A preliminary field-study of the lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus J. F. Miller 1777). Fortschr Verhaltensforsch 9:43-89.

Martin RD. 1973. A review of the behaviour and ecology of the lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus J. F. Miller 1777). In: Michael RP, Crook JH, editors. Comparative ecology and behaviour of primates: proceedings of a conference held at the zoological society London, November 1971. New York:Academic Pr. p1-68.

Mittermeier RA, Konstant WR, Hawkins F, Louis EE, Langrand O, Ratsimbazafy J, Rasoloarison R, Ganzhorn JU, Rajaobelina S, Tattersall I, Meyers DM. 2006. Lemurs of Madagascar: second edition. Washington, D.C.:Conservation Intl. 520p.

Olivieri G, Zimmermann E, Randrianambinina B, Rasoloharijaona S, Rakotondravony D, Guschanski K, Radespiel U. 2007. The ever-increasing diversity in mouse lemurs: three new species in north and northwestern Madagascar. Mol Phylogenet Evol 43(1):309-27.

Ortmann S, Heldmaier G, Schmid J, Ganzhorn JU. 1997. Spontaneous daily torpor in Malagasy mouse lemurs. Naturwissenschaften 84(1):28-32.

Pagès-Feuillade E. 1988. Modalités de l'occupation de l'espace et relations interindividuelles chez un prosimien nocturne malgache (Microcebus murinus). Folia Primatol 50(3-4):204-20.

Perret M. 1995. Chemocommunication in the reproductive function of mouse lemurs. In: Alterman L, Doyle GA, Izard MK, editors. Creatures of the dark: the nocturnal prosimians. New York: Plenum Pr. p377-92.

Perret M. 1992. Environmental and social determinants of sexual function in the male lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Folia Primatol 59(1):1-25.

Perret M. 1990. Influence of social factors on sex ratio at birth, maternal investment and young survival in a prosimian primate. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 27(6):447-54.

Perret M, Aujard F. 2001. Regulation by photoperiod of seasonal changes in body mass and reproductive function in gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus): differential responses by sex. Int J Primatol 22(1):5-24.

Petter-Rousseaux A. 1980. Seasonal activity rhythms, reproduction, and body weight variations in five sympatric nocturnal prosimians, in simulated light and climatic conditions. In: Charles-Dominique P, Cooper HM, Hladik A, Hladik CM, Pages E, Pariente GF, Petter-Rousseaux A, Schilling A, Petter JJ, editors. Nocturnal Malagasy primates: ecology, physiology, and behavior. New York:Academic Pr. p137-52.

Radespiel U, Ehresmann P, Zimmermann E. 2001a. Contest versus scramble competition for mates: the composition and spatial structure of a population of gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) in north-west Madagascar. Primates 42(3):207-20.

Radespiel U, Zimmermann E. 2001a. Dynamics of estrous synchrony in captive gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Int J Primatol 22(1):71-90.

Radespiel U. 2006. Ecological diversity and seasonal adaptations of mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.). In: Gould L, Sauther ML, editors. Lemurs: ecology and adaptation. New York:Springer. p211-33.

Radespiel U, Reimann W, Rahelinirina M, Zimmermann E. 2006. Feeding ecology of sympatric mouse lemur species in northwestern Madagascar. Int J Primatol 27(1):311-21.

Radespiel U, Zimmermann E. 2001b. Female dominance in captive gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Am J Primatol 54(4):181-92.

Radespiel U, Lutermann H, Schmelting B, Bruford MW, Zimmermann E. 2003a. Patterns and dynamics of sex-biased dispersal in a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus. Anim Behav 65(4):709-19.

Radespiel U, Dal Secco V, Drögemüller C, Braune P, Labes E, Zimmermann E. 2002. Sexual selection, multiple mating and paternity in grey mouse lemurs, Microcebus murinus. Anim Behav 63(2):259-68.

Radespiel U. 2000. Sociality in the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) in northwestern Madagascar. Am J Primatl 51(1):21-40.

Radespiel U, Sarikaya Z, Zimmermann E, Bruford MW. 2001. Sociogenetic structure in a free-living nocturnal primate population: sex-specific differences in the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 50(6):493-502.

Radespiel U, Ehresmann P, Zimmermann E. 2003b. Species-specific usage of sleeping sites in two sympatric mouse lemur species (Microcebus murinus and M. ravelobensis) in northwestern Madagascar. Am J Primatol 59(4):139-51.

Randrianambinina B, Rakotondravony D, Radespiel U, Zimmermann E. 2003. Seasonal changes in general activity, body mass and reproduction of two small nocturnal primates: a comparison of the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis) in northwestern Madagascar and the brown mouse lemur (Microcebus rufus) in eastern Madagascar. Primates 44(4):321-31.

Rasoazanabary E. 2006. Male and female activity patterns in Microcebus murinus during the dry season at Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar. Int J Primatol 27(2):437-64.

Rasoazanabary E. 2004. A preliminary study of mouse lemurs in the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, southwest Madagascar. Lemur News 9:4-7.

Rasoloarison RM, Goodman SM, Ganzhorn JU. 2000. Taxonomic revision of mouse lemurs (Microcebus) in the western portions of Madagascar. Int J Primatol 21(6):963-1019.

Rendigs A, Radespiel U, Wrogemann D, Zimmermann E. 2003. Relationship between microhabitat structure and distribution of mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) in northwestern Madagascar. Int J Primatol 24(1):47-62.

Richard AF. 1978. Behavioral variation: case study of a Malagasy lemur. Cranbury(NJ):Associated U Presses. 213p.

Roos C, Kappeler P. 2006. Distribution and conservation status of two newly described Cheirogaleid species, Mirza zaza and Microcebus lehilahytsara. Prim Conserv 21:51-3.

Rylands AB. 2007. Lemur diversity: a recent efflorescence of species. Lemur News 12:12-7.

Scheumann M, Zimmermann E, Deichsel G. 2007. Context-specific calls signal infants' needs in a strepsirrhine primate, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Dev Psychobiol 49(7):708-18.

Schilling A, Richard J-P, Servière J. 1999. Duration of activity and period of circadian activity-rest rhythm in a photoperiod-dependent primate, Microcebus murinus. C R Acad Sci 322(9):759-70.

Schilling A. 2000. Organes des sens et communication chez le microcèbe. Primatologie 3:85-143.

Schmid J. 2001. Daily torpor in free-ranging gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) in Madagascar. Int J Primatol 22(6):1021-31.

Schmid J. 2000. Daily torpor in the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) in Madagascar: energetic consequences and biological significance. Oecologia 123(2):175-83.

Schmid J. 1998. Tree holes used for resting by gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) in Madagascar: insulation capacities and energetic consequences. Int J Primatol 19(5):797-809.

Schmidt M. 2005. Hind limb proportions and kinematics: are small primates different from other small mammals? J Exp Biol 208(17):3367-83.

Schwab D, Ganzhorn JU. 2004. Distribution, population structure and habitat use of Microcebus berthae compared to those of other sympatric Cheirogalids. Int J Primatol 25(2):307-30.

Schwab D. 2000. A preliminary study of spatial distribution and mating system of pygmy mouse lemurs (Microcebus cf myoxinus). Am J Primatol 51(1):41-60.

Smith RJ, Leigh SR. 1998. Sexual dimorphism in primate neonatal body mass. J Hum Evol 34(2):173-201.

Tattersall I. 2007. Madagascar's lemurs: cryptic diversity or taxonomic inflation? Evol Anth 16(1):12-23.

Weidt A, Hagenah N, Randrianambinina B, Radespiel U, Zimmermann E. 2004. Social organization of the golden brown mouse lemur (Microcebus ravelobensis). Am J Phys Anthropol 123(1):40-51.

Weigl R. 2005. Longevity of mammals in captivity; from the living collections of the world. Stuttgart (DE): E. Schweizerbartsche. 214 p.

Wrogemann D, Zimmermann E. 2001. Aspects of reproduction in the eastern rufous mouse lemur (Microcebus rufus) and their implications for captive management. Zoo Biol 20(3):157-67.

Wrogemann D, Radespiel U, Zimmermann E. 2001. Comparison of reproductive characteristics and changes in body weight between captive populations of rufous and gray mouse lemurs. Int J Primatol 22(1):91-108.

Yoder AD, Rasoloarison RM, Goodman SM, Irwin JA, Atsalis S, Ravosa MJ, Ganzhorn JU. 2000. Remarkable species diversity in Malagasy mouse lemurs (primates, Microcebus). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(21):11325-30.

Zimmermann E, Lerch C. 1993. The complex acoustic design of an advertisement call in male mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus, Prosimii, Primates) and sources of its variation. Ethology 93(3):211-24.

Zimmermann E, Cepok S, Rakotoarison N, Zietemann V, Radespiel U. 1998. Sympatric mouse lemurs in north-west Madagascar: a new rufous mouse lemur species (Microcebus ravelobensis). Folia Primatol 69(2):106-14.

Zimmermann E, Vorobieva E, Wrogemann D, Hafen T. 1999. Use of vocal fingerprinting for specific discrimination of gray (Microcebus murinus) and rufous mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus). Int J Primatol 21(5):837-52.

Content last modified: February 11, 2009