Primate Info Net Banner Wisconsin PRC Logo
PIN Home > About the Primates > Primate Factsheets > Macaca fascicularis

Long-tailed macaque
Macaca fascicularis

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Macaca fascicularis, search PrimateLit.


Bonnotte S. 2001. Les helminthiases du macaque de l'Ile Maurice (Macaca fascicularis): une enquête. Primatologie 4: 411-33.

Cannon CH, Leighton M. 1994. Comparative locomotor ecology of gibbons and macaques: selection of canopy elements for crossing gaps. Am J Phys Anthro 93(4): 505-24.

Crockett CM, Wilson WL. 1980. The ecological separation of Macaca nemestrina and M. fascicularis in Sumatra. In: Lindburg DG, editor. The macaques: studies in ecology, behavior and evolution. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. p 148-81.

de Jong G, de Ruiter JR, Haring R. 1994. Genetic structure of a population with social structure and migration. In: Loeschcke V, Tomiuk J, Jain SK, editors. WXS 68, Conservation genetics. Basel (Switzerland): Birkhäuser Verlag. p 147-64.

de Ruiter J, van Hooff JARAM, Scheffrahn W. 1994. Social and genetic aspects of paternity in wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Behaviour 129(3-4): 203-24.

Dittus W. 2004. Demography: a window to social evolution. In: Thierry B, Singh M, Kaumanns W, editors. Macaque societies: a model for the study of social organization. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge Univ Pr. p 87-112.

Engelhardt A, Hodges JK, Niemitz C, Heistermann M. 2005. Female sexual behavior, but not sex skin swelling, reliably indicates the timing of the fertile phase in wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Horm Behav 47(5): 195-204.

Engelhardt A, Pfeifer JB, Heistermann M, Niemitz C, van Hoof JARAM, Hodges JK. 2004. Assessment of female reproductive status by male longtailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, under natural conditions. Anim Behav 67(5): 915-24.

Fa JE. 1989. The genus Macaca: a review of taxonomy and evolution. Mammal Rev 19(2): 45-81.

Fittinghoff Jr. NA, Lindburg DG. 1980. Riverine refuging in east Bornean Macaca fascicularis. In: Lindburg DG, editor. The macaques: studies in ecology, behavior and evolution. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. p 182-214.

Fooden J. 1995. Systematic review of southeast Asian longtail macaques, Macaca fascicularis (Raffles, [1821]). Field Zool 81: 1-206.

Groves C. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington DC: Smithsonian Inst Pr. 350 p.

Gurmaya KJ, Adiputra IMW, Saryatiman AB, Danardono SN, Sibuea TTH. 1994. A preliminary study on ecology and conservation of the Java primates in Ujung Kulon National Park, West Java, Indonesia. In: Thierry B, Anderson JR, Roeder JJ, Herrenschmidt N, editors. Current Primatology. Volume 1, Ecology and evolution. Strasbourg (France): Univ Louis Pasteur. p 87-92.

Hrdy SB. 1974. Male-male competition and infanticide among langurs (Presbytis entellus) of Abu, Rajasthan. Folia Primatol 22(1): 19-58.

Jones-Engel L, Engel GA, Schillaci MA, Rompis A, Putra A, Suaryana KM, Fuentes A, Beer B, Hicks S, White R, et al. 2005. Primate to human retroviral transmission in Asia. Emerg Infect Dis 11(7): 1028-35.

Kyes RC. 1993. Survey of the long-tailed macaques introduced onto Tinjil Island, Indonesia. Am J Primatol 31(1): 77-83.

Kyes RC, Sajuthi D, Iskandar E, Iskandriati D, Pamungkas J, Crockett CM. 1998. Management of a natural habitat breeding colony of longtailed macaques. Tropic Biodiv 5(2): 127-37.

Lucas PW, Corlett RT. 1991. Relationship between the diet of Macaca fascicularis and forest phenology. Folia 57(4): 201-15.

Lucas PW, Corlett RT. 1998. Seed dispersal by long-tailed macaques. Am J Primatol 45(1): 29-44.

Meishvili NV, Chalyan VG, Vancatova MA. 1991. Mother-infant relationships in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Prim Rep 29: 21-6.

Melisch R, Dirgayusa IWA. 1996. Notes on the grizzled leaf monkey (Presbytis comata) from two nature reserves in West Java, Indonesia. Asian Prim 6(1-2): 5-11.

Palombit RA. 1992. A preliminary study of vocal communication in wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). I. Vocal repertoire and call emission. Int J Primatol 13(2): 143-82.

Poirier FE, Smith EO. 1974. The crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis) of Angaur Island, Palau, Micronesia. Folia Primatol 22: 258-306.

Rodman PS. 1991. Structural differentiation of microhabitats of sympatric Macaca fascicularis and M. nemestrina in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Int J Primatol 12(4): 357-75.

Rowe N. 1996. The pictorial guide to the living primates. East Hampton (NY): Pogonias Pr. 263 p.

Son VD. 2003. Diet of Macaca fascicularis in a mangrove forest, Vietnam. Lab Prim News 42(4): 1-5.

Son VD. 2004. Time budgets of Macaca fascicularis in a mangrove forest, Vietnam. Lab Prim News 43(3): 1-4.

Stanley MA. 2003. The breeding of naturally occurring B virus-free cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) on the island of Mauritius. In: [Anonymous]. International perspectives: the future nonhuman primate resources; Apr 17-19; Bogor, Indonesia. Washington DC: Natl Acad Pr. p 46-8.

Supriatna J, Yanuar A, Martarinza, Wibisono HT, Sinaga R, Sidik I, Iskcandar S. 1996. A preliminary survey of long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis and Macaca nemestrina) in Lampung, Bengkulu, and Jampi provinces, Southern Sumatera, Indonesia. Tropic Biodiv 3(2): 131-40.

Sussman RW, Tattersall I. 1986. Distribution, abundance, and putative ecological strategy of Macaca fascicularis on the island of Mauritius, southwestern Indian Ocean. Folia Primatol 46(1): 28-43.

Umapathy G, Singh M, Mohnot SM. 2003. Status and distribution of Macaca fascicularis umbrosa in the Nicobar Islands, India. Int J Primatol 24(2): 281-93.

Ungar PS. 1996. Feeding height and niche separation in sympatric Sumatran monkeys and apes. Folia Primatol 67(3): 163-8.

van Noordwijk MA, van Schaik CP. 1987. Competition among female long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis. Anim Behav 35(2): 577-89.

van Noordwijk MA, van Schaik CP. 1999. The effects of dominance rank and group size on female lifetime reproductive success in wild long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis. Primates 40(1): 105-30.

van Noordwijk MA, van Schaik CP. 2001. Career moves: transfer and rank challenge decisions by male long-tailed macaques. Behaviour 138: 359-95.

van Schaik CP, van Amerongen A, van Noordwijk MA. 1996. Riverine refuging by wild Sumatran long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). In: Fa JE, Lindburg DG, editors. Evolution and ecology of macaque societies. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge Univ Pr. p 160-81.

van Schaik CP, van Noordwijk MA. 1985. Evolutionary effect of the absence of felids on the social organization of the macaques on the island of Simeulue (Macaca fascicularis, Miller 1903). Folia Primatol 44(3-4): 138-47.

van Schaik CP, van Noordwijk MA. 1988. Scramble and contest in feeding competition among female long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Behaviour 105: 77-98.

Varavudhi P, Suwanprasert K, Settheetham W. 1992. Reproductive endocrinology of free-ranging adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in Thailand. In: Matano S, Tuttle RH, Ishida H, Goodman M, editors. Topics in primatology, Volume 3: evolutionary biology, reproductive endocrinology, and virology. Tokyo (Japan): Univ Tokyo Pr. p 337-45.

Wheatley BP. 1980. Feeding and ranging of east Bornean Macaca fascicularis. In: Lindburg DG, editor. The macaques: studies in ecology, behavior, and evolution. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. p 215-46.

Wheatley BP. 1991. The role of femailes in inter-troop encounters and infanticide among Balinese Macaca fascicularis. Prim Today. P 169-72.

Wheatley BP. 1999. The sacred monkeys of Bali. Prospect Heights (IL): Waveland Pr. 189 p.

Wheatley BP, Stephenson R, Kurashina H. 1999. The effects of hunting on the longtailed macaques of Ngeaur Island, Palau. In: Dolhinow P, Fuentes A, editors. The nonhuman primates. Mountain View (CA): Mayfield. p 159-63.

Wich SA, Fredriksson G, Sterck EHM. 2002. Measuring fruit patch size for three sympatric Indonesian primate species. Primates 43(1): 19-27.

Yeager CP. 1996. Feeding ecology of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. Int J Primatol 17(1): 51-62.

Content last modified: January 6, 2006