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Lesser bushbaby

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Galago, search PrimateLit.


Albrechtsen L, Fa JE, Barry B, Macdonald DW. 2006. Contrasts in availability and consumption of animal protein in Bioko Island, West Africa: the role of bushmeat. Environ Conserv 32(4):340-8.

Ambrose L, Perkin AW. 1999-2000. A survey of nocturnal prosimians at Moca on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Afr Prim 4(1-2):4-10.

Ambrose L. 2006. A survey of prosimians in the national parks and forest reserves of Uganda. In: Newton-Fisher NE, Notman H, Paterson JD, Reynolds V, editors. New York: Springer p 329-43.

Galago moholi
Cave drawing found in South Africa
Photo: Gerald Doyle

Ambrose L. 2003. Three acoustic forms of Allen's galagos (Primates; Galagonidae) in the central African region. Primates 44(1):25-39.

Anderson MJ, Ambrose L, Bearder SK, Dixson AF, Pullen S. 2000. Intraspecific variation in the vocalizations and hand pad morphology of southern lesser bush babies (Galago moholi): a comparison with G. senegalensis. Intl J Primatol 21(3):537-55.

Anderson MJ. 2001. The use of hair morphology in the classification of galagos (Primates, subfamily Galagoninae). Primates 42(2):113-21.

Anderson MJ. 1999. The use of hand morphology in the taxonomy of galagos. Primates 40(3):469-78.

Ankel-Simons F. 2007. Primate Anatomy: an introduction, 3rd Edition. San Diego: Elsevier Acad Pr. 724 p.

Bearder SK, Martin RD. 1980. Acacia gum and its use by bushbabies, Galago senegalensis (Primates: Lorisidae). Intl J Primatol 1:103-28.

Bearder SK. 2007. Afterward. Am J Primatol 69(1):131-4.

Bearder SK, Nekaris KAI, Buzzell CA. 2002. Dangers in the night: are some nocturnal primates afraid of the dark? In: Miller LE, editor. Eat or be eaten: predator sensitive foraging among primates. Cambridge: Cambridge U Pr. p 21-43.

Bearder SK, Doyle GA. 1974a. Ecology of bushbabies Galago senegalensis and Galago crassicaudatus, with some notes on their behaviour in the field. In: Martin RD, Doyle GA, Walker AC, editors. Prosimian biology. Pittsburgh: U Pittsburgh Pr. p 109-30.

Bearder SK, Doyle GA. 1974b. Field and laboratory studies of social organization in bushbabies (Galago senegalensis). J Hum Evol 3:37-50.

Bearder SK. 1987. Lorises, bushbabies, and tarsiers: diverse societies in solitary foragers. In: Smuts BB, Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM, Wrangham RW, Struhsaker TT, editors. Primate societies. Chicago: U Chicago Pr. p 11-24.

Bearder SK. 1999. Physical and social diversity among nocturnal primates: a new view based on long term research. Primates 40(1):267-82.

Bearder SK, Martin RD. 1980. The social organization of a nocturnal primate revealed by radio tracking. In: Amlaner Jr., CJ, Macdonald DW, editors. A handbook on biotelemetry and radio tracking. Oxford: Pergamon Pr. p 633-48.

Bearder SK, Honess PE, Ambrose L. 1995. Species diversity among galagos with special reference to mate recognition. In: Alterman L, Doyle GA, Izard MK, editors. Creatures of the dark: the nocturnal prosimians. New York: Plenum Pr. p 331-52.

Bearder SK, Ambrose L, Harcourt C, Honess P, Perkin A, Pimley E, Pullen S, Svoboda N. 2003. Species-typical patterns of infant contact, sleeping site use and social cohesion among nocturnal primates in Africa. Folia Primatol 74(5-6):337-54.

Bowen-Jones E, Pendry S. 1999. The threat to primates and other mammals from the bushmeat trade in Africa, and how this threat could be diminished. Oryx 33(3):233-46.

Butler H. 1967. Seasonal breeding of the Senegal galago (Galago senegalensis senegalensis) in the Nuba Mountains, Republic of the Sudan. Folia Primatol 5:165-75.

Butynski TM. 1996/1997. African primate conservation-the species and the IUCN/SSC primate specialist group network. Prim Conserv 17:87-100.

Butynski TM. 1982. Blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni) predation on galagos. Primates 23(4):563-6.

Butynski TM, de Jong. 2004. Natural history of the Somali lesser galago (Galago gallarum). J East Afr Nat Hist 93(1-2):23-38.

Butynski TM, Ehardt CL, Struhsaker TT. 1998. Notes on two dwarf galagos (Galagoides udzungwensis and Galagoides orinus) in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Prim Conserv 18:69-75.

Butynski TM, de Jong YA, Perkin AW, Bearder SK, Honess PE. 2006. Taxonomy, distribution, and conservation status of three species of dwarf galagos (Galagoides) in eastern Africa. Prim Conserv 21:63-79.

Byrne RW. 2007. Animal cognition: bring me my spear. Curr Biol 17(5):R164-5.

Charles-Dominique P. 1972. Ecologie et vie sociale de Galago demidovii (Fisher 1808; Prosimii). Fortschritte Der Verhal Tensforschung 9:7-41.

Charles-Dominique P. 1977a. Ecology and behaviour of nocturnal primates: prosimians of equatorial West Africa. New York: Colombia U Pr. 277p.

Charles-Dominique P. 1974. Ecology and feeding behaviour of five sympatric lorisids in Gabon. In: Martin RD, Doyle GA, Walker AC, editors. Prosimian biology. London: Duckworth Co. Ltd. p 131-50.

Charles-Dominique P, Bearder SK. 1979. Field studies of Lorisid behavior: methodological aspects. In: Doyle GA, Martin RD, editors. The study of prosimian behavior. New York: Academic Pr. p 567-629.

Charles-Dominique P. 1977b. Urine marking and territoriality in Galago alleni (Waterhouse, 1837-Lorisoidea, Primates)-a field study by radio-telemetry. Z Tierpsychol 43:113-38.

Courtenay DO, Bearder SK. 1989. The taxonomic status and distribution of bushbabies in Malawi with emphasis on the significance of vocalizations. Intl J Primatol 10(1):17-34.

Crompton RW. 1983. Age differences in locomotion of two subtropical Galaginae. Primates 24(2): 241-59.

Crompton RH. 1984. Foraging, habitat structure, and locomotion in two species of Galago. In: Rodman PS, Cant JGH, editors. Adaptations for foraging in nonhuman primates: contributions to an organismal biology of prosimians, monkeys, and apes. New York: Columbia U Pr. p 73-111.

Doyle GA. 1974. The behaviour of the lesser bushbaby. In: Martin RD, Doyle GA, Walker AC, editors. Prosimian biology. Pittsburgh: U Pittsburgh Pr. p 213-31.

Doyle GA. 1979. Development of behavior in Prosimians with special reference to the lesser bushbaby, Galago senegalensis moholi. In: Doyle GA, Martin RD, editors. The study of prosimian behavior. New York: Academic Pr. p 157-206.

Doyle GA, Bearder SK. 1977. The Galagines of South Africa. In: Rainier III (Grimaldi) Prince of Monaco, Bourne GH, editors. Primate conservation. New York: Academic Pr. p 1-35.

Doyle GA, Andersson A, Bearder SK. 1969. Maternal behaviour in the lesser bushbaby (Galago senegalensis moholi) under semi-natural conditions. Folia Primatol 11:215-38.

Doyle GA, Andersson A, Bearder SK. 1971. Reproduction in the lesser bushbaby (Galago senegalensis moholi) under semi-natural conditions. Folia Primatol 14:15-22.

Garcia JE, Mba J. 1997. Distribution, status and conservation of primates in Monte Alen National Park, Equatorial Guinea. Oryx 31(1):67-76.

Gonzalez-Kirchner JP. 1995. The diet of sympatric prosimians in Equatorial Guinea. Folia Zool 44(1):13-8.

Groves C. 2005. Order primates. In: Wilson DE, Reeder DM, editors. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, third edition, volume 1. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins U Pr. p 111-84.

Gucwinska H, Gucwinski A. 1968. Breeding the Zanzibar galago Galago senegalensis zanzibaricus. Intl Zoo Ybk 8:111-4.

Haddow AJ, Ellice JM. 1964. Studies on bush-babies (Galago spp.) with special reference to the epidemiology of yellow fever. Trans Royal Soc Trop Med Hyg 58(6):521-38.

Harcourt CS, Bearder SK. 1989. A comparison of Galago moholi in South Africa with Galago zanzibaricus in Kenya. Intl J Primatol 10(1):35-45.

Harcourt CS. 1981. An examination of the function of urine washing in Galago senegalensis. Z Tierpsychol 55:119-28.

Harcourt C. 1986a. Galago zanzibaricus: birth seasonality, litter size and perinatal behaviour of females. J Zool Lond 210(3):451-7.

Harcourt C. 1986b. Seasonal variation in the diet of South African galagos. Intl J Primatol 7(5):491-506.

Harcourt CS, Nash LT. 1986. Species differences in substrate use and diet between sympatric galagos in two Kenyan coastal forests. Primates 27(1):41-52.

Harvey PH, Clutton-Brock TH. 1985. Life history variation in primates. Evolution 39(3):559-81.

Honess PE, Bearder S. 1996. Descriptions of the dwarf galago species of Tanzania. Afr Prim 2(2):75-9

Izard MK, Nash LT. 1988. Contrasting reproductive parameters in Galago senegalensis braccatus and G. s. moholi. Intl J Primatol 9(6):519-27.

Izard MK, Simons EL. 1986. Infant survival and litter size in primigravid and multigravid galagos. J Med Primatol 15(1):27-35.

Izard MK. 1987. Lactation length in three species of Galago. Am J Primatol 13(1):73-6.

Jørgensbye H. 2007. Mountain galago Galagoides orinus in the evergreen forest fragments on the Dabaga plateau, Tanzania. Nat East Afr: EANHS Bull 35(2):7-12.

Kingdon J. 2004. The Kingdon pocket guide to African mammals. Princeton(NJ):Princeton U Pr. 272 p.

Lipschitz DL. 1996a. Male copulatory patterns in the lesser bushbaby (Galago moholi) in captivity. Intl J Primatol 17(6):987-1000.

Lipschitz DL. 1996b. A preliminary investigation of the relationship between ovarian steroids, LH, reproductive behaviour and vaginal changes in lesser bushbabies (Galago moholi). J Reprod Fert 107(2):167-74.

Lipschitz DL, Galpin JS, Meyer D. 2001. Reproductive behavioral changes during the ovarian cycle of lesser bushbabies (Galago moholi) in captivity. Am J Primatol 55(2):101-15.

Llorente M, Pi JS, Houle A. 2003. Association between Galago thomasi and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. Folia Primatol 74(2):80-4.

Mascagni O, Doyle GA. 1993. Infant distress vocalizations in the southern African lesser bushbaby (Galago moholi). Intl J Primatol 14(1):41-60.

Milikazi N, Masters JC, Lovegrove BG. 2006. Lack of torpor in free-ranging southern lesser galagos, Galago moholi: ecological and physiological considerations. Folia Primatol 77(6):465-76.

Mittermeier RA, Ratsimbazafy J, Rylands AB, Williamson L, Oates JF, Mbora D, Ganzhorn JU, Rodríguez-Luna E, Palacios E, Heymann EW, Kierulff MCM, Yongcheng L, Supriatna J, Roos C, Walker S, Aguiar JM. 2007. Primates in peril: the world's 25 most endangered primates, 2006-2008. Prim Conserv 22:1-40.

Molez N. 1976. Adaptation alimentaire du galago d'Allen aux milieux forestiers secondaires. Terre Et La Vie 30:210-28.

Nash LT, Flinn L. 1978. Group formation in captive lesser galagos (Galago senegalensis). Primates 19(3):493-503.

Nash LT. 1986. Influence of moonlight level on traveling and calling patterns in two sympatric species of Galago in Kenya. In: Taub DM, King FA, editors. Current perspectives in primate social dynamics. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. p 357-67.

Nash LT. 1993. Juveniles in nongregarious primates. In: Pereira ME, Fairbanks LA, editors. Juvenile primates: life history, development, and behavior. New York: Oxford U Pr. p 119-37.

Nash LT, Whitten PL. 1989. Preliminary observations on the role of Acacia gum chemistry in Acacia utilization by Galago senegalensis in Kenya. Am J Primatol 17(1):27-39.

Nash LT. 1983. Reproductive patterns in galagos (Galago zanzibaricus and Galago garnettii) in relation to climatic variability. Am J Primatol 5(3):181-96.

Nash LT. 2003. Sex differences in the behavior and the social interactions of immature Galago senegalensis braccatus. Folia Primatol 74(5-6):285-300.

Nash LT. 1984. Social organization of two sympatric galagos at Gedi, Kenya. In: Else JG, Lee PC, editors. Primate ecology and conservation. Cambridge: Cambridge U Pr. p 125-31.

Nash LT, Bearder SK, Olson TR. 1989. Synopsis of Galago species characteristics. Intl J Primatol 10(1):57-80.

Nekaris A, Bearder SK. 2007. The lorisiform primates of Asia and mainland Africa: diversity shrouded in darkness. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Panger M, Bearder SK, editors. Primates in perspective. New York: Oxford U Pr. p 24-45.

Olson TR, Nash LT. 2002-2003. Galago (Galagidae) body measurements and museum collections data. Afr Prim 6(1-2):50-3.

Off EC, Gebo DL. 2005. Galago locomotion in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Am J Primatol 66(2):189-95.

Perkin A. 2007. Comparative penile morphology of east African galagos of the genus Galagoides (Family Galagidae): implications for taxonomy. Am J Primatol 69(1):16-26.

Perkin A, Bearder S, Butynski TM, Agwanda B, Bytebier B. 2002. The Taita Mountain dwarf galago Galagoides sp: a new primate for Kenya. J East Afr Nat Hist 91(1-2):1-13.

Perkin A. 2001. The taxonomic status and distribution of bushbabies (Galagos) in the Uluguru Mountains. Miombo 23:11-3.

Pimley ER, Bearder SK, Dixon AF. 2005. Home range analysis of Perodicticus potto edwardsi and Sciurocheirus cameronensis. Intl J Primatol 26(1):191-206.

Pitts RS. 1988. Classical heinrothian intimidation displays exhibited by Galago demidoff demidoff: a paradigm for pinpointing Galagine species diversity. Intl J Primatol 9(6):529-56.

Poulsen JR, Clark CJ. 2001. Predation on mammals by the grey-cheeked mangabey Lophocebus albigena. Primates 42(4):391-4.

Pruetz JD, Bertolani P. 2007. Savanna chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, hunt with tools. Curr Biol 17(5):412-7.

Pullen SL, Bearder SK, Dixson AF. 2000. Preliminary observations on sexual behavior and the mating system in free-ranging lesser galagos (Galago moholi). Am J Primatol 51(1):79-88.

Riordan DV. 1971. Reproductive variation in Galago senegalensis sub-species (lesser bush baby). Ann Rep Jersey Wildl Preserv Trust 8:15-8.

Ross C. 1988. The intrinsic rate of natural increase and reproductive effort in primates. J Zool London 214(2):199-219.

Struhsaker TT. 1970. Notes on Galagoides demidovii in Cameroon. Mammalia 34:207-11.

Vinyard CJ. 2007. Interspecific analysis of covariance structure in the masticatory apparatus of galagos. Am J Primatol 69(1):46-58.

Ward JP, Scott S. 1970. Observations of two infant bushbabies, Galago senegalensis. Lab Prim News 9(4):3-6.

Weisenseel K, Chapman CA, Chapman LJ. 1993. Nocturnal primates of Kibale forest: effects of selective logging on prosimian densities. Primates 34(4):445-50.

Wickings EJ, Ambrose L, Bearder SK. 1998. Sympatric populations of Galagoides demidoff and Galagoides thomasi in the Haut-Ogooué region of Gabon. Folia Primatol 69(suppl 1):389-93.

Zimmermann E. 1989. Aspects of reproduction and behavioral and vocal development in Senegal bushbabies (Galago senegalensis). Intl J Primatol 10(1):1-16.

Zimmermann E. 1990. Differentiation of vocalizations in bushbabies (Galaginae, Prosimiae, Primates) and the significance for assessing phylogenetic relationships. Z Zool Syst Evol Forsch 28(3):217-39.

Zimmermann E. 1995. Loud calls in nocturnal prosimians: structure, evolution and ontogeny. In: Zimmermann E, Newman JD, Jürgens U, editors. Current topics in primate vocal communication. New York: Plenum Pr. p 47-72.

Zimmermann E, Bearder SK, Doyle GA, Andersson AB. 1988. Variations in vocal patterns of Senegal and South African lesser bushbabies and their implications for taxonomic relationships. Folia Primatol 51(2-3):87-105.

Content last modified: December 8, 2008