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Lar gibbon
Hylobates lar

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for H. lar, search PrimateLit.


Ankel-Simons F. 2007. Primate Anatomy: an introduction, 3rd Edition. San Diego: Elsevier Acad Pr. 724 p.

Baldwin LA, Teleki G. 1976. Patterns of gibbon behavior on Hall's Island, Bermuda. Gibb Siam 4:21-105.

Barelli C, Boesch C, Heistermann M, Reichard UH. 2008a. Female white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) lead group movements and have priority of access to food resources. Behaviour 145(7):965-81.

Barelli C, Heistermann M, Boesch C, Reichard UH. 2008b. Mating patterns and sexual swellings in pair-living and multimale groups of wild white-handed gibbons, Hylobates lar. Anim Behav 75(3):991-1001.

Barelli C, Heistermann M, Boesch C, Reichard UH. 2007. Sexual swellings in wild white-handed gibbon females (Hylobates lar) indicate the probability of ovulation. Horm Behav 51(2):221-30.

Bartlett TQ. 1999. Feeding and ranging behavior of the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. PhD dissertation, Washington University, St. Louis. 193p.

Bartlett TQ. 2009. The gibbons of Khao Yai: seasonal variation in behavior and ecology. Upper Saddle River (NJ):Pearson Prentice Hall. 170p.

Bartlett TQ. 2007. The Hylobatidae: small apes of Asia. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Panger M, Bearder SK, editors. Primates in perspective. New York:Oxford U Pr. p274-89.

Bartlett TQ. 2003. Intragroup and intergroup social interactions in white-handed gibbons. Int J Primatol 24(2):239-59.

Brandon-Jones D, Eudey AA, Geissmann T Groves CP, Melnick DJ, Morales JC, Shekelle M, Stewart C-B. 2004. Asian primate classification. Int J Primatol 25(1):97-164.

Brockelman WY, Reichard U, Treesucon U, Raemaekers JJ. 1998. Dispersal, pair formation and social structure in gibbons (Hylobates lar). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 42(5):329-39.

Brockelman W, Geissmann T. 2008. Hylobates lar [Internet]. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [cited 2009 Jan 8]. Available from:

Brockelman WY. 2004. Inheritance and selective effects of color phase in white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) in central Thailand. Mamm Biol 69(2):73-80.

Caldecott JO. 1980. Habitat quality and populations of two sympatric gibbons (Hylobatidae) on a mountain in Malaya. Folia Primatol 33:291-309.

Carpenter CR. 1940. A field study in Siam of the behavior and social relations of the gibbon (Hylobates lar). Comp Psychol Mono 16(5):1-212.

Carpenter CR. 1976. Suspensory behavior of gibbons Hylobates lar. Gibb Siam 4:1-20.

Chivers DJ. 1972. The siamang and the gibbon in the Malay Peninsula. Gibb Siam 1:103-35.

Clarke E, Reichard UH, Zuberbühler K. 2006. The syntax and meaning of wild gibbon songs. PLoS One 1(1):e73.

Clemens Z, Merker B, Ujhelyi M. 2008. Observations on paternal care in a captive family of white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar). Gibb J 4:46-50.

Crandall LS. 1964. The management of wild mammals in captivity. Chicago:The University of Chicago Pr. 761p.

Dahl JF, Nadler RD. 1992. Genital swelling in females of the monogamous gibbon, Hylobates (H.) lar. Am J Phys Anthropol 89(1):101-8.

Edwards A-MAR, Todd JD. 1991. Homosexual behaviour in wild white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar). Primates 32(2):231-6.

Ellefson JO. 1974. A natural history of white-handed gibbons in the Malayan peninsula. Gibb Siam 3:1-136.

Eudey AA. 1991-1992. Captive gibbons in Thailand and the option of reintroduction to the wild. Prim Conserv 12-13:34-40.

Eudey AA. 1994. Temple and pet primates in Thailand. Rev Ecol Terre Vie 49(3):273-80.

Geissmann T. 2008. Auf der suche nach Chinas letzten weisshandgibbons: ein projektbericht aus dem Nangunhe-Naturreservat in der provinz Yunnan. Gibb Cons Allian Jahresbericht 4:10-21.

Geissmann T. 1995. Gibbon systematics and species identification. Int Zoo News 42(8):467-501.

Geissmann T, Orgeldinger M. 1995. Neonatal weight in gibbons (Hylobates spp.). Am J Primatol 37(3):179-89.

Geissmann T. 2007. Status reassessment of the gibbons: results of the Asian primate red list workshop 2006. Gibb J 3:5-15.

Geissmann T. 1991. Sympatry between white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) and pileated gibbons (H. pileatus) in southeastern Thailand. Primates 32(3):357-63.

Groves CP. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington, D.C.:Smithsonian Institution Pr. 350p.

Harding JL. 1998. The first stage of rehabilitation of a family of white handed gibbons Hylobates lar. Australas Primatol 12(2):2-8.

Johns AD. 1985. Behavioral responses of two Malaysian primates (Hylobates lar and Presbytis melalophos) to selective logging: vocal behavior, territoriality, and nonemigration. Int J Primatol 6(4):423-33.

MacKinnon JR. 1984. The distribution and status of gibbons in Indonesia. In: Preuschoft H, Chivers DJ, Brockelman WY, Creel N, editors. The lesser apes: evolutionary and behavioural biology. Edinburgh (UK):Edinburgh U Pr. p16-8.

MacKinnon JR, MacKinnon KS. 1980. Niche differentiation in a primate community. In: Chivers DJ, editor. Malayan forest primates: ten years' study in tropical rain forest. New York:Plenum Pr. p167-90.

Marshall J, Sugardjito J. 1986. Gibbon systematics. In: Swindler DR, Erwin J, editors. Comparative primate biology, volume 1: systematics, evolution, and anatomy. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc. p137-85.

Mootnick AR. 2006. Gibbon (Hylobatidae) species identification recommended for rescue or breeding centers. Prim Conserv 21:103-38.

Nettelbeck AR. 1998. Observations on food sharing in wild lar gibbons (Hylobates lar). Folia Primatol 69(6):386-91.

Norhayati A, Saiful AA, Shahrolnizah A, Md-Zain BM, Shukor MN, Hazimin H, Nordin M. 2004. Diversity and density of mammals in the peat swamp forests of the Langat Basin, Selangor, Malaysia. Malays Appl Biol 33(2):7-17.

Nwe DT, San AM, Min NWW, Thu MK, Oi T, Hamada Y. 2005. Species diversity and distribution of primates in Myanmar. Nat Hist J Chulalongkorn U Suppl 1:47-53.

Palombit R. 1994. Dynamic pair bonds in Hylobatids: implications regarding monogamous social systems. Behaviour 128(1-2):65-101.

Palombit RA. 1997. Inter- and intraspecific variation in the diets of sympatric siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) and la ribbons (Hylobates lar). Folia Primatol 68(6):321-37.

Palombit RA. 1993. Lethal territorial aggression in a white-handed gibbon. Am J Primatol 31(4):311-8.

Palombit RA.1992. Pair bonds and monogamy in wild siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) and white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) in northern Sumatra. PhD dissertation, University of California-Davis. 453p.

Palombit RA. 1996. The siamang and white-handed gibbon of Gunung Leuser National Park. In: van Schaik C, Supriatna J, editors. Leuser: a Sumatran sanctuary. Jakarta (ID): Yayasan Bina Sains Hayati Indonesia. p269-79.

Raemaekers J. 1979. Ecology of sympatric gibbons. Folia Primatol 31:227-45.

Raemaekers JJ, Raemaekers PM. 1985. Field playback of loud calls to gibbons (Hylobates lar): territorial, sex-specific and species-specific responses. Anim Behav 33(3):481-93.

Raemaekers JJ, Raemaekers PM, Haimoff EH. 1984. Loud calls of the gibbon (Hylobates lar): repertoire, organization and context. Behaviour 91(1-3):146-89.

Raemaekers JJ, Raemaekers PM. 1984b. The ooaa duet of the gibbon (Hylobates lar). Folia Primatol 42(3-4):209-15.

Raemaekers JJ, Raemaekers PM. 1984. Vocal interaction between two male gibbons, Hylobates lar. Nat Hist Bull Siam Soc 32(2):95-106.

Reichard U. 1995. Extra-pair copulations in a monogamous gibbon (Hylobates lar). Ethology 100(2):99-112.

Reichard U, Sommer V. 1994. Grooming site preferences in wild white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar). Primates 35(3):369-74.

Reichard U, Sommer V. 1997. Group encounters in wild gibbons (Hylobates lar): agonism, affiliation, and the concept of infanticide. Behaviour 134(15-16):1135-74.

Reichard UH, Barelli C. 2008. Life history and reproductive strategies of Khao Yai Hylobates lar: implications for social evolution in apes. Int J Primatol 29(4):823-44.

Reichard U. 1998. Sleeping sites, sleeping places, and presleep behavior of gibbons (Hylobates lar). Am J Primatol 46(1):35-62.

Reichard UH. 2003. Social monogamy in gibbons: the male perspective. In: Reichard UH, Boesch C, editors. Monogamy: mating strategies and partnerships in birds, humans and other mammals. Cambridge(UK):Cambridge U Pr. p190-213.

Roberts R. 1983. The birth and development of a lar or white handed gibbon. Anim Keep Forum 10(12):392-7.

Roonwal ML, Mohnot SM. 1977. Primates of south Asia: ecology, sociobiology, and behavior. Cambridge (MA):Harvard U Pr. 421p.

Savini T, Boesch C, Reichard UH. 2008. Home-range characteristics and the influence of seasonality on female reproduction in white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Am J Phys Anthropol 135(1):1-12.

Tangtham N. Khao Yai ecosystem: the hydrological role of Khao Yai National Park. Proceedings of international workshop on conservation and sustainable development, 22-26 April 1991. AIT/Bangkok and Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. p345-63.

Uhde NL, Sommer V. 2002. Antipredatory behavior in gibbons (Hylobates lar, Khao Yai/Thailand). In: Miller LE, editor. Eat or be eaten: predator sensitive foraging among primates. Cambridge (UK):Cambridge U pr. p268-9.

Ungar PS. 1996. Feeding height and niche separation in sympatric Sumatran monkeys and apes. Folia Primatol 67(3):163-8.

Ungar PS. 1995. Fruit preferences of four sympatric primate species at Ketambe, northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Int J Primatol 16(2):221-45.

Vereecke EE, D'Août K, Aerts P. 2006. Locomotor versatility in the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar): a spatiotemporal analysis of the bipedal, tripedal, and quadrupedal gaits. J Hum Evol 50(5):552-67.

Weigl R. 2005. Longevity of mammals in captivity; from the living collections of the world. Stuttgart (DE): E. Schweizerbartsche. 214 p.

Whitington CL. 1992. Interactions between lar gibbons and pig-tailed macaques at fruit sources. Am J Primatol 26(1):61-4.

Yimkao P, Srikosamatara S. 2006. Ecology and site-based conservation of the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar L.) in human-use forests in Mae Hong Son province, northern Thailand. Nat Hist Bull Siam Soc 54(1):109-38.

Content last modified: November 17, 2010