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Japanese macaque
Macaca fuscata

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Macaca fuscata, search PrimateLit.


Aetsuma N, Nakagawa N. 1998. Effects of habitat differences on feeding behaviors of Japanese monkeys: comparison between Yakushima and Kinkazan. Primates 39(3):275-89.

Bardi M, Shimizu K, Fujita S, Borgognini-Tarli S, Huffman MA. 2001. Social behavior and hormonal correlates during the perinatal period in Japanese macaques. Horm Behav 39(3):239-46.

Blount B. 1985. "Girney" vocalizations among Japanese macaque females: context and function. Primates 26(4):424-35.

Chatani K. 2003. Positional behavior of free-ranging Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Primates 44(1):13-23.

Eaton G. 1972. Snowball construction by a feral troop of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living under seminatural conditions. Primates 13(4):411-4.

Macaca fuscata
Photo: Alisha Eisert

Fedigan LM, Griffin L. Determinants of reproductive seasonality in the Arashiyama west Japanese macaques. In: Fa JE, Lindburg DG, editors. Evolution and ecology of macaque societies. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge U Pr. p 369-88.

Fedigan LM, Pavelka MSM. 2001. Is there adaptive value to reproductive termination in Japanese macaques? A test of maternal investment hypotheses. Int J Primatol 22(2):109-25.

Fedigan LM. 1991. History of the Arashiyama west Japanese macaques in Texas. In: Fedigan LM & Asquith PJ, editors. The monkeys of Arashiyama: thirty-five years of research in Japan and the west. Albany (NY): SUNY Pr. p54-69.

Fedigan L. 1991. Life span and reproduction in Japanese macaque females. In: Fedigan LM & Asquith PJ, editors. The monkeys of Arashiyama: thirty-five years of research in Japan and the west. Albany (NY): SUNY Pr. p140-54.

Fedigan LM, Zohar S. 1997. Sex differences in mortality of Japanese macaques: twenty-one years of data from the Arashiyama west population. Am J Phys Anth 102(2):161-75.

Fooden J, Aimi M. 2003. Birth-season variation in Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata. Primates 44(2):109-17.

Fooden J, Aimi M. 2005. Systematic review of Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata (Gray, 1870). Fieldiana: Zoology 104:1-200.

Fujita S, Sugiura H, Mitsunaga F, Shimizu K. 2004. Hormone profiles and reproductive characteristics in wild female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Am J Primatol 64(4):367-75.

Fukuda F. 2004. Dispersal and environmental disturbance in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Prim Rep 68:53-69.

Fukuda F. 1982. Relationship between age and troop shifting in male Japanese monkeys. Jap J Ecol 32(4): 491-8.

Furuya Y. 1969. On the fission of troops of Japanese monkeys: II. General view of troop fission of Japanese monkeys. Primates 10:47-69.

Glick BB, Eaton GG, Johnson DF, Worlein J. Social behavior of infant and mother Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): effects of kinship, partner sex, and infant sex. Intl J Primatol 7(2):139-55.

Gouzoules H, Goy RW. 1983. Physiological and social influences on mounting behavior of troop-living female monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Am J Primatol 5(1):39-49.

Gouzoules H. 1984. Social relations of males and infants in a troop of Japanese monkeys: a consideration of causal mechanisms. In: Taub DM, editor. Primate paternalism. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. p127-45.

Groves C. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington DC: Smithsonian Inst Pr. 350 p.

Hamada Y, Watanabe T, Iwamoto M. 1996. Morphological variations among local populations of Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata). In: Shotake T, Wada K, editors. Variations in the asian macaques. Tokyo: Tokai Univ Pr. p97-115.

Hanby JP, Brown CE. 1974. The development of sociosexual behaviours in Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata. Behaviour 49:152-96.

Hanby JP, Robertson LT, Phoenix CH. 1971. The sexual behavior of a confined troop of Japanese macaques. Folia Primatol 16:123-43.

Hanya G. 2004. Diet of a Japanese macaque troop in the coniferous forest of Yakushima. Intl J Primatol 25(1):55-69.

Hanya G, Kiyono M, Yamada A, Suzuki K, Furukawa M, Yoshida Y, Chijiiwa A. 2006. Not only annual food abundance but also fallback food quality determines the Japanese macaque density: evidence from seasonal variations in home range size. Primates 47(3):275-8.

Hashiba K. 1989. Population estimation of Japanese macaques for conservation. Reichorui Kenkyu (Primate Research) 5(1):22-35.

Hill DA, Maruhashi T. 1996/1997. Conservation of Japanese macaques in Yakushima: the effectiveness of UNESCO's natural world heritage designation. Prim Conserv (17):160-3

Hiraiwa M. 1981. Maternal and alloparental care in a troop of free-ranging Japanese monkeys. Primates 22(3):309-29.

Hori T, Nakayama T, Tokura H, Hara F, Suzuki M. 1977. Thermoregulation of the Japanese macaque living in a snowy mountain area. Jap J Physiol 27:305-19.

Huffman MA. 1991a. History of the Arashiyama Japanese macaques in Kyoto, Japan. In: Fedigan LM, Asquith PJ, editors. The monkeys of Arashiyama: thirty-five years of research in Japan and the west. Albany (NY):SUNY Pr. p21-53.

Huffman MA. 1992. Influences of female partner preference on potential reproductive outcome in Japanese macaques. Folia Primatol 59(2):77-88.

Huffman MA. 1991b. Mate selection and partner preferences in female Japanese macaques. In: Fedigan LM, Asquith PJ, editors. The monkeys of Arashiyama: thirty-five years of research in Japan and the west. Albany (NY): SUNY Pr. p101-22.

Huffman MA, Quiatt D. 1986. Stone handling by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): implications for tool use of stone. Primates 27(4):413-23.

Iida T. 1999. Predation of Japanese macaque Macaca fuscata by mountain hawk eagle Spizaetus nipalensis. Jap J Ornithol 47(3):125-7.

Iguchi M, Izawa K. 1990. Digging and eating of underground plant-parts by wild Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Primates 31(4):621-4.

Itani J. 1959. Paternal care in the wild Japanese monkey, Macaca fuscata fuscata. Primates 2:61-93.

Itoigawa N, Tanaka T, Ukai N, Fujii H, Kurokawa T, Koyama T, Ando A, Watanabe Y, Imakawa S. 1992. Demography and reproductive parameters of a free-ranging group of Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata) at Katsuyama. Primates 33(1):49-68.

Iwamoto T. 1974. A bioeconomic study on a provisioned troop of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata) at Koshima islet, Miyazaki. Primates 15(2-3):241-62.

Izawa K, Nishida T. 1963. Monkeys living in the northern limits of their distribution. Primates 4(2):67-88.

Izumiyama S, Mochizuki T, Shiraishi T. 2003. Troop size, home range area and seasonal range use of the Japanese macaque in the northern Japan alps. Ecol Res 18(5):465-74.

Kawai M, Azuma S, Yoshiba K. 1967. Ecological studies of reproduction in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata): I. Problems of the birth season. Primates 8:35-74.

Kawai M. 1965. Newly-acquired pre-cultural behavior of the natural troop of Japanese monkeys on Koshima islet. Primates 6(1):1-30.

Kawanaka K. 1973. Intertroop relationships among Japanese monkeys. Primates 14(2-3):113-59.

Koganezawa M. 1974. Food habits of Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) in the Boso mountains. In: Kondo S, Kawai M, Ehara A, editors. Contemporary primatology, proceedings of the 5th International Congress of Primatology. Basel(CH):S. Karger. p380-3.

Koganezawa M. 1986. Winter movement and spatial distribution of Japanese monkeys in Nikko, Japan. Prim Rep (15):31-9.

Koyama N. 1991. Grooming relationships in the Arashiyama group of Japanese monkeys. In: Fedigan LM, Asquith PJ, editors. The monkeys of Arashiyama: thirty-five years of research in Japan and the west. Albany (NY): SUNY Pr. p211-26.

Koyama NF. 2003. Matrilineal cohesion and social networks in Macaca fuscata. Intl J Primatol 24(4):797-811.

Koyama N. 1967. On dominance rank and kinship of a wild Japanese monkey troop in Arashiyama. Primates 8:189-216.

Koyama N, Takahata Y, Huffman MA, Norikoshi K, Suzuki H. 1992. Reproductive parameters of female Japanese macaques: thirty years data from the Arashiyama troops, Japan. Primates 33(1):33-47.

Machida S. 1990. Threat calls in alliance formation by members of a captive group of Japanese monkeys. Primates 31(2):205-11.

Majolo B, Schino G, Troisi A. 2005. Towards thirty years of ethological research on the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) colony of the Rome zoo: a review. J Anth Sci 83:43-60.

Maruhashi T. 1981. Activity patterns of a troop of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima island, Japan. Primates 22(1):1-14.

Maruhashi T. 1980. Feeding behavior and diet of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima island, Japan. Primates 21(2):141-60.

Maruhashi T. 1992. Fission, takeover, and extinction of a troop of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima island, Japan. In: Itoigawa N, Sugiyama Y, Sackett GP, Thompson RKR, editors. Topics in primatology, volume 2: behavior, ecology, and conservation. Tokyo: U Tokyo Pr. p47-65.

Maruhashi T. 1979. Natural life of the yakuzaru (Macaca fuscata yakui), group-movement and sub-grouping. Monkey 23(4):6-15.

Masataka N, Fujii H. 1980. An experimental study on facial expressions and interindividual distance in Japanese macaques. Primates 21(3):340-9.

Masataka N. 1989. Motivational referents of contact calls in Japanese monkeys. Ethology 80(1-4):265-73.

Matsubara M, Sprague DS. 2004. Mating tactics in response to costs incurred by mating with multible males in wild female Japanese macaques. Intl J Primatol 25(4):901-17.

Minami T. 1974. Early mother-infant relations in Japanese monkeys. In: Kondo S, Kawai M, Ehara A, editors. Contemporary primatology, proceedings of the 5th International Congress of Primatology. Basel(CH):S. Karger. p334-340.

Mitani M. 1986. Voiceprint identification and its application to sociological studies of wild Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata yakui). Primates 27(4):397-412.

Mito S. 1980. Bosuzaru heno Michi. Tokyo: Popura-sha. 166 p.

Miyamoto M. 1976. New wolves? Feral dogs in Omote Nikko. Anima 45:6-11.

Muroyama Y. 1995. Developmental changes in mother-offspring grooming in Japanese macaques. Am J Primatol 37(1):57-64.

Nakamichi M, Shizawa Y. 2003. Distribution of grooming among adult females in a large, free-ranging group of Japanese macaques. Intl J Primatol 24(3):607-25.

Nakamichi M, Kojima Y, Itoigawa N, Imakawa S, Machida S. 1995. Interactions among adult males and females before and after the death of the alpha male in a free-ranging troop of Japanese macaques. Primates 36(3):385-96.

Nakamichi M, Imakawa S, Kojima Y, Natsume A. 1992. Parturition in a free-ranging Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata). Primates 33(3):413-8.

Nakamichi M. 1989. Sex differences in social development during the first 4 years in a free-ranging group of Japanese monkeys, Macaca fuscata. Anim Behav 38(5):737-48.

Negayama K, Kondo K, Itoigawa N. 1983. Development of locomotor behaviour in infant Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Annal Sci Nat, Zool, Paris. (Ser. 13)5(3):169-80.

Nigi H. 1982. The Japanese monkey-its physiology of sex. Tokyo:Dobutsu-sha. 309 p.

Nigi H. 1975. Menstrual cycle and some other related aspects of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Primates 16(2):207-16.

O'Neill AC, Fedigan LM, Ziegler TE. 2004. Ovarian cycle phase and same-sex mating behavior in Japanese macaque females. Am J Primatol 63(1):25-31.

Ôta K, Makino Y, Kimura M, Suzuki J. 1991. Lactation in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata): yield and composition of milk and nipple preference of young. Primates 32(1):35-48.

Pereira ME. 1986. Maternal recognition of juvenile offspring coo vocalizations in Japanese macaques. Animal Behaviour 34(3):935-7.

Perloe SI. 1992. Male mating competition, female choice and dominance in a free ranging group of Japanese macaques. Primates 33(3):289-304.

Rowe N. 1996. The pictorial guide to the living primates. East Hampton (NY): Pogonias Pr. p124-5.

Saito C, Sato S, Suzuki S, Sugiura H, Agetsuma N, Takahata Y, Sasaki C, Takahashi H, Tanaka T, Yamagiwa J. 1998. Aggressive intergroup encounters in two populations of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Primates 39(3):303-12.

Sakura O. 1989. Variability in contact calls between troops of Japanese macaques: a possible case of neutral evolution of animal culture. Anim Behav 38(5):900-2.

Shizawa Y, Nakamichi M, Hinobayashi T, Minami T. 2005. Playback experiment to test maternal responses of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) to their own infantŐs call when the infants were four to six months old. Behav Process 68:41-6.

Soltis J. 1999. Measuring male-female relationships during the mating season in wild Japanese macaques. Primates 40(3):453-67.

Sprague DS, Suzuki S, Takahashi H, Sato S. 1998. Male life history in natural populations of Japanese macaques: migration, dominance rank, and troop participation of males in two habitats. Primates 39(3):351-63.

Sprague DS. 1991. Mating by nontroop males among the Japanese macaques of Yakushima island. Folia Primatol 57(3):156-8.

Sprague DS. 2002. Monkeys in the backyard: encroaching wildlife and rural communities in Japan. In: Fuentes A, Wolfe LD, editors. Primates face to face: conservation implications of human-nonhuman primate interconnections. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge U Pr. p254-72.

Sprague DS, Suzuki S, Tsukahara T. 1996. Variation in social mechanisms by which males attained the alpha rank among Japanese macaques. In: Fa JE, Lindburg DG, editors. Evolution and ecology of macaque societies. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge U Pr. p 444-58.

Sugiura H. 2001. Vocal exchange of coo calls in Japanese macaques. In:Matsuzawa T, editor. Primate origins of human cognition and behavior. Tokyo: Springer. p135-54.

Sugiyama Y. 1976. Life history of male Japanese monkeys. Adv Stud Behav 7:255-84.

Sugiyama Y, Ohsawa H. 1988. Population dynamics and management of baited Japanese monkeys at Takasakiyama. Reichorui Kenkyu (Primate Research) 4(1):33-43.

Suzuki A. 1965. An ecological study of wild Japanese monkeys in snowy areas-focused on their food habits. Primates 6(1):31-72.

Takahashi H. 2002. Changes of dominance rank, age, and tenure of wild Japanese macaque males in the Kinkazan A troop during seven years. Primates 43(2):133-8.

Takahashi H. 1997. Huddling relationships in night sleeping groups among wild Japanese macaques in Kinkazan island during winter. Primates 38(1):57-68.

Takahata Y. Diachronic changes in the dominance relations of adult female Japanese monkeys of the Arashiyama B group. In: Fedigan LM & Asquith PJ, editors. The monkeys of Arashiyama: Thirty-five years of research in Japan and the west. Albany(NY): SUNY Pr. p123-39.

Takahata Y, Suzuki S, Agetsuma N, Okayasu N, Sugiura H, Takahashi H, Yamagiwa J, Izawa K, Furuichi T, Hill DA, Maruhashi T, Saito C, Sato S, Sprague DS. 1998. Reproduction of wild Japanese macaque females of Yakushima and Kinkazan islands: a preliminary report. Primates 39(3):339-349.

Takahata Y, Huffman MA, Suzuki S, Koyama N, Yamagiwa J. 1999. Why dominants do not consistently attain high mating and reproductive success: a review of longitudinal Japanese macaque studies. Primates 40(1):143-58.

Tanaka I. 1995. Matrilineal distribution of louse egg-handling techniques during grooming in free-ranging Japanese macaques. Am J Phys Anth 98(2):197-201.

Tanaka I, Hayama S-I, Nigi H. 1993. Milk secretion in pregnancy among free-ranging Japanese macaques. Am J Primatol 30(2):169-74.

Thomsen R. 1997. Observation of periparturitional behaviour in wild Yakushima macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). Folia Primatol 68(6):338-41.

Tsuji Y, Fujita S, Sugiura H, Saito C, Takatsuki S. 2006. Long-term variation in fruiting and the food habits of wild Japanese macaques on Kinkazan island, northern Japan. Am J Primatol 68(11):1068-80.

Tsukahara T. 1990. Initiation and solicitation in male-female grooming in a wild Japanese macaque troop on Yakushima island. Primates 31(2):147-56.

Uehara S. 1975. The importance of the temperate forest elements among woody food plants utilized by Japanese monkeys and its possible historical meaning for the establishment of the monkeys' range: a preliminary report. In: Kondo S, Kawai M, Ehara A, editors. Contemporary primatology, proceedings of the 5th International Congress of Primatology. Basel(CH):S. Karger. p392-400.

Vasey PL, Foroud A, Duckworth N, Kovacovsky SD. 2006. Male-female and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques: a comparative study of posture and movement. Arch Sex Behav 35(2):117-29.

Ventura R, Majolo B, Schino G, Hardie S. 2005. Differential effects of ambient temperature and humidity on allogrooming, self-grooming, and scratching in wild Japanese macaques. Am J Phys Anth 126(4):453-7.

Wada K, Tokida E. 1985. Sleeping site cluster of Japanese monkeys in Shiga A1 troop. In: Wada K, Kawamura S, Matsuzawa T, editors. The studies of spatial distribution of the Japanese monkey troops in Shiga Heights. Kyoto: Prim Res Inst, Kyoto U, Inuyama. p2-10.

Watanabe K. 1989. Fish: a new addition to the diet of Japanese macaques on Koshima island. Folia Primatol 52(3-4):124-31.

Watanabe K, Muroyama Y. 2005. Recent expansion of the range of Japanese macaques, and associated management problems. In: Paterson JD, Wallis J, editors. Commensalism and conflict: the human-primate interface. Norman (OK): Am Soc Primatol. p400-19.

Wolfe L. 1981. Display behavior of three troops of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Primates 22(1):24-32.

Wolfe L. 1979. Sexual maturation among members of a transported troop of Japanese macaques. Primates 20(3):411-8.

Yamada K, Nakamichi M. 2006. A fatal attack on an unweaned infant by a non-resident male in a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) at Katsuyama. Primates 47(2):165-9.

Yamagiwa J, Hill DA. 1998. Intraspecific variation in the social organization of Japanese macaques: past and present scope of field studies in natural habitats. Primates 39(3):257-73.

Yamagiwa J, Izawa K, Maruhashi T. 1998. Long-term studies on wild Japanese macaques in natural habitats at Kinkazan and Yakushima: preface. Primates 39(3):255-6.

Yoshida A. 1988a. Response to experimental playbacks of conspecific alarm call in free-ranging Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Bull Fac Hum Sci Osaka Univ:91-100.

Yoshida A. 1988b. Alarm and estrous calls of a female Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata): A case study. In: Anonymous, editor. Research reports of the Arashiyama west and east groups of Japanese monkeys. Suita, Japan: Lab Ethol Stud, Fac Hum Sci, Osaka Univ. p57-65.

Yoshimi I, Takasaki H. 2003. Long distance mobility of male Japanese macaques evidenced by mitochondrial DNA. Primates 44(1):71-4.

Yotsumoto N. 1976. The daily activity rhythm in a troop of wild Japanese monkey. Primates 17(2):183-204.

Content last modified: April 26, 2007