Primate Info Net Banner Wisconsin PRC Logo

Gray langur

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Semnopithecus, search PrimateLit.


Agoramoorthy G. 1994. Adult male replacement and social change in two troops of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) at Jodhpur, India. Int J Primatol 15(2):225-38.

Agoramoorthy G. 1993. Infant survival and mortality in free-ranging Hanuman langurs, Presbytis entellus Jodhpur, western India. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 91(1):133-6.

Agoramoorthy G. 1986. A note on Hanuman langur, Presbytis entellus swimming. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 83(2):419.

Agoramoorthy G. 1992. Reproductive biology of the Hanuman langur Presbytis entellus in Jodhpur, western India. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 89(1):84-93.

Ahmed A. 2001. Illegal trade, and utilization of primates in India. ENVIS Bull:Wildl Protec Area 1(1):177-84.

Ahsan MF, Khan MAR. 2006. Eco-ethology of the common langur Semnopithecus entellus (Dufresne) in Bangladesh. U J Zool Rajshahi U 25:3-10.

Andheria AP, Karanth KU, Kumar NS. 2007. Diet and prey profiles of three sympatric large carnivores in Bandipur Tiger Reserve, India. J Zool 273(2):169-75.

Bennett EL, Davies AG. 1994. The ecology of Asian colobines. In: Davies AG, Oates JF, editors. Colobine monkeys: their ecology, behaviour and evolution. Cambridge (UK):Cambridge U Pr. p129-71.

Bhaker NR, Rajpurohit RS, Rajpurohit LS. 2003. Sex differential vocalization in Hanuman langur, Semnopithecus entellus entellus. Him J Env Zool 17(1):1-7.

Bhaker NR, Rajpurohit DS, Rajpurohit LS. 2004. Vocalization in Hanuman langur, Semnopithecus entellus around Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Uttar Pradesh J Zool 24(3):227-33.

Bishop NH. 1979. Himalayan langurs: temperate colobines. J Hum Evol 8:251-81.

Boggess JE. 1976. Social behavior of the Himalayan langur (Presbytis entellus) in eastern Nepal. PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 247p.

Borries C, Sommer V, Srivastava A. 1991. Dominance, age, and reproductive success in free-ranging female Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Int J Primatol 12(3):231-57.

Borries C, Koenig A. 2000. Infanticide in hanuman langurs: social organization, male migration, and weaning age. In: van Schaik CP, Janson CH, editors. Infanticide by males and its implications. Cambridge(UK):Cambridge U Pr. p99-122.

Borries C. 2000. Male dispersal and mating season influxes in Hanuman langurs living in multi-male groups. In: Kappeler PM, editor. Primate males: causes and consequences of variation in group composition. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge U Pr. p146-58.

Borries C, Launhardt K, Epplen C, Epplen JT, Winkler P. 1999. Males as infant protectors in Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) living in multimale groups-defence pattern, paternity and sexual behaviour. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 46(5):350-6.

Borries C, Sommer V, Srivastava A. 1994. Weaving a tight social net: allogrooming in a free-ranging female langurs (Presbytis entellus). Int J Primatol 15(3):421-43.

Borries C, Koenig A, Winkler P. 2001. Variation of life history traits and mating patterns in female langur monkeys (Semnopithecus entellus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 50(5):391-402.

Brandon-Jones D, Eudey AA, Geissmann T, Groves CP, Melnick DJ, Morales JC, Shekelle M, Stewart CB. 2004. Asian primate classification. Int J Primatol 25(1):97-164.

Brandon-Jones D. 2004. A taxonomic revision of the langurs and leaf monkeys (Primates: colobinae) of south Asia. Zoos Print J 19(8):1552-94.

Chalise MK. 1994-1995. List of plants used as food by Ramnagar langurs. Nahson Bull 3-4(1-4):26-8.

Chaudhuri S, Murmu A, Talukder B, Alfred JRB. 2004. A population survey of Hanuman langurs in the district of Purulia, west Bengal. Rec Zool Surv India 103(3-4):47-54.

Chhangani AK. 2002a. Group composition and sex ration in Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) in the Aravali Hills of Rajasthan, India. Zoos' Print J 17(8):848-52.

Chhangani AK. 2004. Killing of Hanuman langur (Semnopithecus entellus) in road accidents in Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India. Prim Rep 69:49-57.

Chhangani AK, Mohnot SM. 2006. Ranging behaviour of Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) in three different habitats. Prim Conserv 21:171-7.

Chhangani AK. 2002b. Sleeping trees and survival of langurs in Kumbhalgarh wildlife sanctuary in Aravalli Hills, India. Asian Prim 8(1-2):14-7.

Choudhury A. 2001. Primates in northeast India: an overview of their distribution and conservation status. ENVIS Bull: Wildl Protec Area 1(1):92-101.

Choudhury A. 2008. Primates of Bhutan and observations of hybrid langurs. Prim Conserv 23:online.

Curtin RA. 1982. Range use of gray langurs in highland Nepal. Folia Primatol 38(1-2):1-18.

Das SM, Sharma BD. 1980. Observations on a remarkable association of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta villosa) with the Himalayan langur (Presbytis entellus schistaceus) in the Kumaun Himalayas, India. Z Saugetierkd 45:124-5.

Dolhinow P, Krusko N. 1984. Langur monkey females and infants: the female's point of view. In: Small MF, editor. Female Primates: studies by women primatologists. New York: Alan R. Liss. p37-57.

Dolhinow P, Murphy G. 1982. Langur monkey (Presbytis entellus) development: the first 3 months of life. Folia Primatol 39(3-4):305-31.

Dunbar DC, Badam GL. 1998. Development of posture and locomotion in free-ranging primates. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 22(4):541-6.

Grand TI. 1976. Differences in terrestrial velocity in Macaca and Presbytis. Am J Phys Anth 45:101-8.

Groves C. 2005. Order Primates. In: Wilson DE, Reeder DM, editors. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, third edition: volume 1. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins U Pr. p111-84.

Groves C. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington, D.C.:Smithsonian Institution Pr. 350p.

Hohmann G. 1989. Comparative study of vocal communication in two Asian leaf monkeys, Presbytis johnii and Presbytis entellus. Folia Primatol 52(1-2):27-57.

Khan MAR. 1984. Ecology and conservation of the common langur, Presbytis entellus, in Bangladesh. In: Roonwal ML, Mohnot SM, Rathore NS, editors. Current primate researches. Jodhpur (IN): U Jodhpur. p33-9.

Kirkpatrick RC. 2007. The Asian colobines: diversity among leaf-eating monkeys. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Panger M, Bearder SK, editors. Primates in perspective. New York: Oxford U Pr. p186-200.

Koenig A. 2000. Competitive regimes in forest-dwelling Hanuman langur females (Semnopithecus entellus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 48(2):93-109.

Koenig A, Borries C. 2001. Socioecology of Hanuman langurs: the story of their success. Evol Anth 10(4):122-37.

Kumara HN, Singh M. 2004. The influence of differing hunting practices on the relative abundance of mammals in two rainforest areas of the Western Ghats, India. Oryx 38(3):321-7.

Launhardt K, Borries C, Hardt C, Epplen JT, Winkler P. 2001. Paternity analysis of alternative male reproductive routes among the langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) of Ramnagar. Anim Behav 61(1):53-64.

Manohar BR. 1999. Jaipur monkeys-perspective of ecology and management. Sharma BD, editor. Indian wildlife resources ecology and development. Delhi (IN):Daya Pub House. p153-7.

Mathur R. 1996. City dwelling rhesus and langurs. In: Ghosh AK, Baqri QH, Prakash I, editors. Faunal diversity in the Thar desert: gaps in research. Jodhpur (IN): Scientific Publ. p353-63.

Mathur R, Manohar BR. 1990. Density of Macaca mulatta and Presbytis entellus in the old city of Jaipur: a three year survey. Appl Anim Behav Sci 27(4):351-61.

Mathur R, Manohar BR. 1986. Group number and composition of Hanuman langur (Presbytis entellus) in Jaipur, India. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 84(1):193-9.

Mathur R, Manohar BR. 1993. Home range of Hanuman langur (Presbytis entellus) in four habitats in Jaipur, India. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 90(3):494-5.

Mathur R, Manohar BR. 1994. Number and size of groups of Presbytis entellus in four different habitats in and around Jaipur, Rajasthan. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 91(2):275-81.

Mathur R, Lobo A. 1987. Reaction towards sick animals by conspecifics in the common grey langur (Presbytis entellus). J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 84(2):421-2.

Mathur R, Manohar BR. 1990. Splitting in Presbytis entellus groups. Behav Process 22(1-2):1-11.

Mathur R, Bhatnagar PS. 1993. Study of activity pattern in Presbytis entellus at Ambagarh Reserve Forest, Jaipur. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 90:495-7.

Mohnot SM, Srivastava A. 1992. Evolution of langurs' social organization. Prim Rep 34:53-63.

Mohnot SM. 1980. Intergroup infant kidnapping in Hanuman langur. Folia Primatol 43:259-77.

Mukherjee RP. Status and conservation of non-human primates in India. ENVIS Bull: Wildl Protec Area 1(1):136-7.

Napier PH. 1985. Catalogue of primates in the British museum (natural history) and elsewhere in the British Isles, part III: Family Cercopithecidae, Subfamily Colobinae. London: British museum (natural history). 111p.

Newton P. 1992. Feeding and ranging patterns of forest Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Int J Primatol 13(3):245-85.

Newton PN. 1984. A feeding association between a heteropteran bug and langurs. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 81(1):180-1.

Newton PN. 1985. A note on golden jackals (Canis aureus) and their relationship with langurs (Presbytis entellus) in Kanha Tiger Reserve. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 82(3):633-6.

Newton PN. 1987. The social organization of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Int J Primatol 8(3):199-232.

Newton P. 1994. Social stability and change among forest Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Primates 35(4):489-98.

Newton PN. 1988. The variable social organization of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus), infanticide, and the monopolization of females. Int J Primatol 9(1):59-77.

Nikolei J, Borries C. 1997. Sex differential behavior of immature Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) in Ramnagar, South Nepal. Int J Primatol 18(3):415-37.

Oppenheimer JR. 1977. Presbytis entellus, the Hanuman langur. In: Rainier III (Grimaldi) Prince of Monaco, Bourne GH, editors. Primate conservation. New York: Academic Pr. p 469-512.

Ostner J, Chalise MK, Koenig A, Launhardt K, Nikolei J, Podzuweit D, Borries C. 2006. What hanuman langur males know about female reproductive status. Am J Primatol 68(7):701-12.

Pirta RS, Gadgil M, Kharshikar AV. 1997. Management of the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta and Hanuman langur Presbytis entellus in Himachal Pradesh, India. Biol Conserv 79(1):97-106.

Pirta RS. 1982. Socioecology and conservation of macaques and langurs in Varanasi, India. Am J Primatol 2(4):401-3.

Punekar SA. 2002. Some food plants of Hanuman langur Semnopithecus entellus (Dufresne) in the western Ghats of Maharashtra, India. Zoos' Print J 17(6):797-801.

Rajpurohit LS. 2004. Age at first delivery in Hanuman langur, Semnopithecus entellus around Jodhpur, Rajasthan (India). Proc Nat Acad Sci India 74B(3-4):229-35.

Rajpurohit RS, Rajpurohit LS. 2002. Changes observed in daily activities of Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus entellus) troops due to provisioning. J Nat Con 14(2):245-9.

Rajpurohit DS, Rajpurohit LS. 2005. Displacement interactions-the determinants of dominance hierarchy in Hanuman langur, Semnopithecus entellus around Jodhpur (India). J Adv Zool 26(2):64-8.

Rajpurohit DS. 2008. Dominance hierarchy and Hanuman langur (Semnopithecus entellus) [abstract]. Am J Primatol 70(suppl):38-9.

Rajpurohit RS, Bhaker NR, Rajpurohit DS, Rajpurohit LS. 2006. Habitat quality and play in Hanuman langur, Semnopithecus entellus around Jodhpur, India. Uttar Pradesh J Zool 26(3):335-8.

Rajpurohit LS, Srivastava A. 1994. Note on abortion following resident male change in a bisexual troop of free-ranging Hanuman langur (Presbytis entellus) around Jodhpur (India). J Natcon 6(2):139-42.

Rajpurohit LS, Chhangani AK, Rajpurohit RS, Mohnot SM. 2003. Observation of a sudden resident-male replacement in a unimale bisexual troop of Hanuman langurs, Semnopithecus entellus, around Jodhpur (India). Folia Primatol 74(2):85-7.

Rajpurohit LS, Chhangani AK, Rajpurohit RS, Rajpurohit DS. 2004. Observation of isolated/solitary male Hanuman langurs, Semnopithecus entellus in semi-arid region. Prim Rep 69:29-34.

Rajpurohit LS. 1992. Origin and composition of the unisexual unit-an all-male band in Hanuman langur, Presbytis entellus, around Jodhpur, India. Prim Rep 34:47-52.

Rajpurohit LS. 1993. Ousting of resident male and take over by new one in a unimale bisexual troop of free ranging Hanuman langur, Presbytis entellus around Jodhpur. Geobios New Rep 12(2):120-3.

Rajpurohit LS, Mohnot SM. 1991. The process of weaning in Hanuman langurs Presbytis entellus entellus. Primates 32(2):213-8.

Rajpurohit LS, Chhangani AK, Rajpurohit RS, Bhaker NR, Rajpurohit DS, Sharma G. 2008. Recent observation on resident male change followed by infanticide in Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) around Jodhpur. Prim Rep 75:33-40.

Rajpurohit DS, Rajpurohit LS. 2006. Rank order and resource utilization in Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) around Jodhpur, Rajasthan (India). J Nat Con 18(1):91-6.

Rajpurohit LS. 1995. Temporary splitting or subgrouping in male bands of Hanuman langurs, Presbytis entellus around Jodhpur, western India. Mammalia 59(1):3-8.

Rajpurohit LS, Sommer V, Mohnot SM. 1995. Wanderers between harems and bachelor bands: male hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) at Jodhpur in Rajasthan. Behaviour 132(3-4):255-99.

Ramakrishnan U, Coss RG. 2001. A comparison of the sleeping behavior of three sympatric primates. Folia Primatol 72(1):51-3.

Rao RJ, Bhatnagar A. 2001. Primates of the Amarkantak forests, Madhya Pradesh. ENVIS Bull: Wildl Protec Area 1(1):120-3.

Ray EM. 2000. Hierarchy theory and the emergence of social organization: structure and power in an all-male group of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 245p.

Ripley S. 1967. The leaping of langurs: a problem in the study of locomotor adaptation. Am J Phys Anth 26:149-70.

Roonwal ML. 1979. Field observations on the distribution and tail carriage in the central Himalayan langur, Presbytis entellus schistaceus (Primates). Proc India Natl Sci Acad B45(1):45-55.

Roonwal ML, Prita RS, Saha SS. 1984. Geographical boundary between the northern and southern tail styles in the common south Asian langur, Presbytis entellus (Primates). J Zool Soc India 36(1-2):15-26.

Roonwal ML. 1981. Intraspecific variation in size, proportion of body parts and weight in the Hanuman langur, Presbytis entellus (Primates), in south Asia with remarks on subspeciation. Rec Zool Surv India 79:125-58.

Roonwal ML, Mohnot SM. 1977. Primates of south Asia: ecology, sociobiology, and behavior. Cambridge (MA):Harvard U Pr. 421p.

Ross C. 1993a. Predator mobbing by an all-male band of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Primates 34(1):105-7.

Ross C. 1993b. Take-over and infanticide in south Indian Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Am J Primatol 30(1):75-82.

Sayers K, Norconk MA. 2008. Himalayan Semnopithecus entellus at Langtang National Park, Nepal: diet, activity patterns, and resources. Int J Primatol 29(2):509-30.

Schülke O. 2001. Differential energy budget and monopolization potential of harem holders and bachelors in Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus): preliminary results. Am J Primatol 55(1):57-63.

Sharma SK. 2001. Food habits of Hanuman langur (Semnopithecus entellus) during dry season at Mount Abu wildlife sanctuary. Zoos' Print J 16(12):669.

Sharma SK. 2002. High-tension electric poles used as a night roost by troops of Hanuman langur Presbytes [sic] entellus at Nahargarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Jaipur. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 99(1):103.

Singh M, Kumara HN, Ananda Kumar M, Sharma AK, Defalco K. 2000. Status and conservation of lion-tailed macaques and other arboreal mammals in tropical rainforests of Sringeri Forest Range, Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. Prim Rep 58:5-16.

Sommer V, Srivastava A, Borries C. 1992. Cycles, sexuality, and conception in free-ranging langurs (Presbytis entellus). Am J Primatol 28(1):1-27.

Sommer V, Rajpurohit LS. 1989. Male reproductive success in harem troops of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Int J Primatol 10(4):293-317.

Sommer V, Denham A, Little K. 2002. Postconflict behaviour of wild Indian langur monkeys: avoidance of opponents but rarely affinity. Anim Behav 63(4):637-48.

Sommer V, Schauer P, Kyriazis D. 2006. A wild mixture of motivations: same-sex mounting in Indian langur monkeys. In: Sommer V, Vasey PL, editors. Homosexual behaviour in animals: an evolutionary perspective. Cambridge (UK):Cambridge U Pr. p238-72.

Srinivasulu C, Nagulu V. 2001. Status of primates in Andhra Pradesh. ENVIS Bull: Wildl Protec Area 1(1):109-12.

Srivastava A. 1991. Cultural transmission of snake-mobbing in free-ranging Hanuman langurs. Folia Primatol 56(2):117-20.

Srivastava A, Mohnot SM. 1992. Existence of multimale troops and their transformation into unimale troops in Hanuman langurs. Prim Rep 34:71-5.

Srivastava A. 1991. Insectivory and its significance to langur diets. Primates 32(2):237-41.

Starin ED. 1978. A preliminary investigation of home range use in the Gir Forest langur. Primates 19(3): 551-68.

Sugiyama Y. 1965. Behavioral development and social structure in two troops of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Primates 6(2):213-47.

Sugiyama Y. 1976. Characteristics of the ecology of the Himalayan langurs. J Hum Evol 5:249-77.

Vasudev D, Kumar A, Sinha A. 2008. Resource distribution and group size in the common langur Semnopithecus entellus in southern India. Am J Primatol 70(7):680-9.

Vogel C. 1977 Ecology and sociology of Presbytis entellus. In: Prasad MRN, Anand Kumar TC, editors. Use of non-human primates in biomedical research, international symposium held in New Delhi, India, November 308, 1975. New Delhi (IN):Indian Natl Sci Acad. p24-45.

Waite TA, Chhangani AK, Campbell LG, Rajpurohit LS, Mohonot SM. 2007. Sanctuary in the city: urban monkeys buffered against catastrophic die-off during ENSO-related drought. EcoHealth 4(3):278-86.

Wang YX, Jiang XL, Feng Q. 1999. Taxonomy, status and conservation of leaf monkeys in China. Zool Res 20(4):306-15.

Weigl R. 2005. Longevity of mammals in captivity; from the living collections of the world. Stuttgart (DE): E. Schweizerbartsche. 214 p.

Winkler P, Loch H, Vogel C. 1984. Life history of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Folia Primatol 43(1):1-23.

Winkler P, Wrogemann D, Prestel H. 1989. Twins in free-ranging Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Primates 30(2):255-9.

Zhang Y, Chen L, Qu W, Coggins C. 2002. The primates of China: biogeography and conservation status. Asian Prim 8(1-2):20-2.

Ziegler T, Hodges K, Winkler P, Heistermann M. 2000. Hormonal correlates of reproductive seasonality in wild female Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Am J Primatol 51(2):119-34.

Content last modified: October 28, 2008