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Gray langur
Semnopithecus

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Semnopithecus, search PrimateLit.

REFERENCES

Agoramoorthy G. 1994. Adult male replacement and social change in two troops of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) at Jodhpur, India. Int J Primatol 15(2):225-38.

Agoramoorthy G. 1993. Infant survival and mortality in free-ranging Hanuman langurs, Presbytis entellus Jodhpur, western India. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 91(1):133-6.

Agoramoorthy G. 1986. A note on Hanuman langur, Presbytis entellus swimming. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 83(2):419.

Agoramoorthy G. 1992. Reproductive biology of the Hanuman langur Presbytis entellus in Jodhpur, western India. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 89(1):84-93.

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Bhaker NR, Rajpurohit RS, Rajpurohit LS. 2003. Sex differential vocalization in Hanuman langur, Semnopithecus entellus entellus. Him J Env Zool 17(1):1-7.

Bhaker NR, Rajpurohit DS, Rajpurohit LS. 2004. Vocalization in Hanuman langur, Semnopithecus entellus around Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Uttar Pradesh J Zool 24(3):227-33.

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Borries C, Sommer V, Srivastava A. 1991. Dominance, age, and reproductive success in free-ranging female Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Int J Primatol 12(3):231-57.

Borries C, Koenig A. 2000. Infanticide in hanuman langurs: social organization, male migration, and weaning age. In: van Schaik CP, Janson CH, editors. Infanticide by males and its implications. Cambridge(UK):Cambridge U Pr. p99-122.

Borries C. 2000. Male dispersal and mating season influxes in Hanuman langurs living in multi-male groups. In: Kappeler PM, editor. Primate males: causes and consequences of variation in group composition. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge U Pr. p146-58.

Borries C, Launhardt K, Epplen C, Epplen JT, Winkler P. 1999. Males as infant protectors in Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) living in multimale groups-defence pattern, paternity and sexual behaviour. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 46(5):350-6.

Borries C, Sommer V, Srivastava A. 1994. Weaving a tight social net: allogrooming in a free-ranging female langurs (Presbytis entellus). Int J Primatol 15(3):421-43.

Borries C, Koenig A, Winkler P. 2001. Variation of life history traits and mating patterns in female langur monkeys (Semnopithecus entellus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 50(5):391-402.

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Chalise MK. 1994-1995. List of plants used as food by Ramnagar langurs. Nahson Bull 3-4(1-4):26-8.

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Chhangani AK. 2002a. Group composition and sex ration in Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) in the Aravali Hills of Rajasthan, India. Zoos' Print J 17(8):848-52.

Chhangani AK. 2004. Killing of Hanuman langur (Semnopithecus entellus) in road accidents in Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India. Prim Rep 69:49-57.

Chhangani AK, Mohnot SM. 2006. Ranging behaviour of Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) in three different habitats. Prim Conserv 21:171-7.

Chhangani AK. 2002b. Sleeping trees and survival of langurs in Kumbhalgarh wildlife sanctuary in Aravalli Hills, India. Asian Prim 8(1-2):14-7.

Choudhury A. 2001. Primates in northeast India: an overview of their distribution and conservation status. ENVIS Bull: Wildl Protec Area 1(1):92-101.

Choudhury A. 2008. Primates of Bhutan and observations of hybrid langurs. Prim Conserv 23:online.

Curtin RA. 1982. Range use of gray langurs in highland Nepal. Folia Primatol 38(1-2):1-18.

Das SM, Sharma BD. 1980. Observations on a remarkable association of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta villosa) with the Himalayan langur (Presbytis entellus schistaceus) in the Kumaun Himalayas, India. Z Saugetierkd 45:124-5.

Dolhinow P, Krusko N. 1984. Langur monkey females and infants: the female's point of view. In: Small MF, editor. Female Primates: studies by women primatologists. New York: Alan R. Liss. p37-57.

Dolhinow P, Murphy G. 1982. Langur monkey (Presbytis entellus) development: the first 3 months of life. Folia Primatol 39(3-4):305-31.

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Hohmann G. 1989. Comparative study of vocal communication in two Asian leaf monkeys, Presbytis johnii and Presbytis entellus. Folia Primatol 52(1-2):27-57.

Khan MAR. 1984. Ecology and conservation of the common langur, Presbytis entellus, in Bangladesh. In: Roonwal ML, Mohnot SM, Rathore NS, editors. Current primate researches. Jodhpur (IN): U Jodhpur. p33-9.

Kirkpatrick RC. 2007. The Asian colobines: diversity among leaf-eating monkeys. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Panger M, Bearder SK, editors. Primates in perspective. New York: Oxford U Pr. p186-200.

Koenig A. 2000. Competitive regimes in forest-dwelling Hanuman langur females (Semnopithecus entellus). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 48(2):93-109.

Koenig A, Borries C. 2001. Socioecology of Hanuman langurs: the story of their success. Evol Anth 10(4):122-37.

Kumara HN, Singh M. 2004. The influence of differing hunting practices on the relative abundance of mammals in two rainforest areas of the Western Ghats, India. Oryx 38(3):321-7.

Launhardt K, Borries C, Hardt C, Epplen JT, Winkler P. 2001. Paternity analysis of alternative male reproductive routes among the langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) of Ramnagar. Anim Behav 61(1):53-64.

Manohar BR. 1999. Jaipur monkeys-perspective of ecology and management. Sharma BD, editor. Indian wildlife resources ecology and development. Delhi (IN):Daya Pub House. p153-7.

Mathur R. 1996. City dwelling rhesus and langurs. In: Ghosh AK, Baqri QH, Prakash I, editors. Faunal diversity in the Thar desert: gaps in research. Jodhpur (IN): Scientific Publ. p353-63.

Mathur R, Manohar BR. 1990. Density of Macaca mulatta and Presbytis entellus in the old city of Jaipur: a three year survey. Appl Anim Behav Sci 27(4):351-61.

Mathur R, Manohar BR. 1986. Group number and composition of Hanuman langur (Presbytis entellus) in Jaipur, India. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 84(1):193-9.

Mathur R, Manohar BR. 1993. Home range of Hanuman langur (Presbytis entellus) in four habitats in Jaipur, India. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 90(3):494-5.

Mathur R, Manohar BR. 1994. Number and size of groups of Presbytis entellus in four different habitats in and around Jaipur, Rajasthan. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 91(2):275-81.

Mathur R, Lobo A. 1987. Reaction towards sick animals by conspecifics in the common grey langur (Presbytis entellus). J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 84(2):421-2.

Mathur R, Manohar BR. 1990. Splitting in Presbytis entellus groups. Behav Process 22(1-2):1-11.

Mathur R, Bhatnagar PS. 1993. Study of activity pattern in Presbytis entellus at Ambagarh Reserve Forest, Jaipur. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 90:495-7.

Mohnot SM, Srivastava A. 1992. Evolution of langurs' social organization. Prim Rep 34:53-63.

Mohnot SM. 1980. Intergroup infant kidnapping in Hanuman langur. Folia Primatol 43:259-77.

Mukherjee RP. Status and conservation of non-human primates in India. ENVIS Bull: Wildl Protec Area 1(1):136-7.

Napier PH. 1985. Catalogue of primates in the British museum (natural history) and elsewhere in the British Isles, part III: Family Cercopithecidae, Subfamily Colobinae. London: British museum (natural history). 111p.

Newton P. 1992. Feeding and ranging patterns of forest Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Int J Primatol 13(3):245-85.

Newton PN. 1984. A feeding association between a heteropteran bug and langurs. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 81(1):180-1.

Newton PN. 1985. A note on golden jackals (Canis aureus) and their relationship with langurs (Presbytis entellus) in Kanha Tiger Reserve. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 82(3):633-6.

Newton PN. 1987. The social organization of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Int J Primatol 8(3):199-232.

Newton P. 1994. Social stability and change among forest Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Primates 35(4):489-98.

Newton PN. 1988. The variable social organization of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus), infanticide, and the monopolization of females. Int J Primatol 9(1):59-77.

Nikolei J, Borries C. 1997. Sex differential behavior of immature Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) in Ramnagar, South Nepal. Int J Primatol 18(3):415-37.

Oppenheimer JR. 1977. Presbytis entellus, the Hanuman langur. In: Rainier III (Grimaldi) Prince of Monaco, Bourne GH, editors. Primate conservation. New York: Academic Pr. p 469-512.

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Pirta RS, Gadgil M, Kharshikar AV. 1997. Management of the rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta and Hanuman langur Presbytis entellus in Himachal Pradesh, India. Biol Conserv 79(1):97-106.

Pirta RS. 1982. Socioecology and conservation of macaques and langurs in Varanasi, India. Am J Primatol 2(4):401-3.

Punekar SA. 2002. Some food plants of Hanuman langur Semnopithecus entellus (Dufresne) in the western Ghats of Maharashtra, India. Zoos' Print J 17(6):797-801.

Rajpurohit LS. 2004. Age at first delivery in Hanuman langur, Semnopithecus entellus around Jodhpur, Rajasthan (India). Proc Nat Acad Sci India 74B(3-4):229-35.

Rajpurohit RS, Rajpurohit LS. 2002. Changes observed in daily activities of Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus entellus) troops due to provisioning. J Nat Con 14(2):245-9.

Rajpurohit DS, Rajpurohit LS. 2005. Displacement interactions-the determinants of dominance hierarchy in Hanuman langur, Semnopithecus entellus around Jodhpur (India). J Adv Zool 26(2):64-8.

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Rajpurohit RS, Bhaker NR, Rajpurohit DS, Rajpurohit LS. 2006. Habitat quality and play in Hanuman langur, Semnopithecus entellus around Jodhpur, India. Uttar Pradesh J Zool 26(3):335-8.

Rajpurohit LS, Srivastava A. 1994. Note on abortion following resident male change in a bisexual troop of free-ranging Hanuman langur (Presbytis entellus) around Jodhpur (India). J Natcon 6(2):139-42.

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Rajpurohit LS. 1992. Origin and composition of the unisexual unit-an all-male band in Hanuman langur, Presbytis entellus, around Jodhpur, India. Prim Rep 34:47-52.

Rajpurohit LS. 1993. Ousting of resident male and take over by new one in a unimale bisexual troop of free ranging Hanuman langur, Presbytis entellus around Jodhpur. Geobios New Rep 12(2):120-3.

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Content last modified: October 28, 2008