Primate Info Net Banner Wisconsin PRC Logo
PIN Home > About the Primates > Primate Factsheets > Theropithecus gelada

Gelada baboon
Theropithecus gelada

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Theropithecus gelada, search PrimateLit.


Aich H, Zimmermann E, Rahmann H. 1987. Social position reflected by contact call emission in gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada). Z Saugetierkunde 52(1):58-60.

Aich H, Moos-Heilen R, Zimmermann E. 1990. Vocalizations of adult gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada): acoustic structure and behavioural context. Folia Primatol 55(3-4):109-32.

Ankel-Simons F. 2007. Primate Anatomy: an introduction, 3rd Edition. San Diego: Elsevier Acad Pr. 724 p.

Barrett L, Dunbar RIM, Dunbar P. 1992. Environmental influences on play behaviour in immature gelada baboons. Anim Behav 44(1):111-5.

Barrett L, Dunbar RIM, Dunbar P. 1995. Mother-infant contact as contingent behaviour in gelada baboons. Anim Behav 49(3):805-10.

Belay G, Shotake T. 1998. Blood protein variation of a new population of gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada), in the southern rift valley, Arsi Region, Ethiopia. Primates 39(2):183-98.

Bernstein IS. 1975. Activity patterns in a gelada monkey group. Folia Primatol 23:50-71.

Crook JH, Aldrich-Blake P. 1968. Ecological and behavioural contrast between sympatric ground dwelling primates in Ethiopia. Folia Primatol 8:192-227.

Crook JH. 1966. Gelada baboon herd structure and movement: a comparative report. Symp Zool Soc Lond 18:237-58.

Delson E. 1993. Theropithecus fossils from Africa and India and the taxonomy of the genus. In: Jablonski NG, editor. Theropithecus: the rise and fall of a primate genus. Cambridge: Cambridge U Pr. p 157-89.

Dunbar RIM, Bose U. 1991. Adaptation to grass-eating in gelada baboons. Primates 32(1):1-7.

Dunbar RIM. 1977a. Age-dependent changes in sexual skin colour and associated phenomena of female gelada baboons. J Hum Evol 6:667-72.

Dunbar RIM. 1993a. Appendix II: conservation status of the gelada. In: Jablonski NG, editor. Theropithecus: the rise and fall of a primate genus. Cambridge: Cambridge U Pr. p 527-31..

Dunbar RIM. 1976. Australopithecine diet based on a baboon analogy. J Hum Evol 5:161-7.

Dunbar RIM, Dunbar P. 1974a. Behaviour related to birth in wild gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada). Behaviour 50(1-2):185-91.

Dunbar RIM. 1978a. Competition and niche separation in a high altitude herbivore community in Ethiopia. E Afr Wildl J 16:183-99.

Dunbar RIM. 1980a. Demographic and life history variables of a population of gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada). J Anim Ecol 49(2):485-506.

Dunbar RIM. 1980b. Determinants and evolutionary consequences of dominance among female gelada baboons. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 7:253-65.

Dunbar RIM, Dunbar EP. 1974b. Ecological relations and niche separation between sympatric terrestrial primates in Ethiopia. Folia Primatol 21:36-60.

Dunbar RIM. 1977b. Feeding ecology of gelada baboons: a preliminary report. In: Clutton-Brock TH, editor. Primate ecology: studies of feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs, monkeys and apes. London: Academic Pr. p 251-73.

Dunbar RIM, Hannah-Stewart L, Dunbar P. 2002. Forage quality and the costs of lactation for female gelada baboons. Anim Behav 64(5):801-5.

Dunbar RIM. 1977c. The gelada baboon: status and conservation. In: Rainier III (Grimaldi) Prince of Monaco, Bourne GH, editors. Primate conservation. New York: Academic Pr. p 363-83.

Dunbar RIM. 1998. Impact of global warming on the distribution and survival of the gelada baboon: a modeling approach. Glob Chan Biol 4(3):293-304.

Dunbar RIM. 1984a. Infant-use by male gelada in agonistic contexts: agonistic buffering, progeny protection or soliciting support? Primates 25(1):28-35.

Dunbar RIM. 1992. A model of the gelada socio-ecological system. Primates 33(1):69-83.

Dunbar RIM, Dunbar P. 1974c. The reproductive cycle of the gelada baboon. Anim Behav 22:203-10.

Dunbar RIM. 1984b. Reproductive decisions: an economic analysis of gelada baboon social strategies. Princeton (NJ):Princeton U Pr. 265 p.

Dunbar RIM. 1978b. Sexual behaviour and social relationships among gelada baboons. Anim Behav 26:167-78.

Dunbar RIM. 1986. The social ecology of gelada baboons. In: Rubenstein DI, Wrangham RW, editors. Ecological aspects of social evolution: birds and mammals. Primceton (NJ):Princeton U Pr. p 332-51.

Dunbar R, Dunbar P. 1975. Social dynamics of gelada baboons. Contrib Primatol 6:1-157.

Dunbar RIM. 1993b. Social organization of the gelada. In: Jablonski NG, editor. Theropithecus: the rise and fall of a primate genus. Cambridge: Cambridge U Pr. p 425-39..

Dunbar RIM. 1983a. Structure of gelada baboon reproductive units. II. Social relationships between reproductive females. Anim Behav 31(2):556-64.

Dunbar RIM. 1979. Structure of gelada baboon reproductive units. I. stability of social relationships. Behaviour 69:72-87.

Dunbar RIM. 1983b. Theropithecines and hominids: contrasting solutions to the same ecological problem. J Hum Evol 12(7):647-58.

Groves C. 2005. Order primates. In: Wilson DE, Reeder DM, editors. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, third edition, volume 1. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins U Pr. p 111-84.

Grüter CC, Zinner D. 2004. Nested societies. Convergent adaptations of baboons and snub-nosed monkeys? Prim Rep 70:1-98.

Hill WCO. 1970. Primates: comparative anatomy and taxonomy. VIII. Cynopithecinae, Papio, Mandrillus, Theropithecus. New York: Wiley-Interscience. 680 p.

Hunter C. 2007. Splendor in the grass: the gelada monkeys of Ethiopia. IPPL News 34(3):3-5.

Iwamoto T, Mori A, Kawai M, Bekele A. 1996. Anti-predator behavior of gelada baboons. Primates 37(4):389-97.

Iwamoto T. 1993. The ecology of Theropithecus gelada. In: Jablonski NG, editor. Theropithecus: the rise and fall of a primate genus. Cambridge: Cambridge U Pr. p 441-52.

Iwamoto T. 1979. Feeding ecology. Contrib Primatol 16:279-330.

Iwamoto T, Dunbar RIM. 1983. Thermoregulation, habitat quality and the behavioural ecology of gelada baboons. J Anim Ecol 52(2):357-66.

Jablonski NG. 1994. Convergent evolution in the dentitions of grazing macropodine marsupials and the grass-eating cercopithecine primate Theropithecus gelada. J Roy Soc West Aust 77(2):37-43.

Jablonski NG. 1993. The phylogeny of Theropithecus. In: Jablonski NG, editor. Theropithecus: the rise and fall of a primate genus. Cambridge: Cambridge U Pr. p 209-24..

Jolly CJ. 2007. Baboons, mandrills, and mangabeys: afro-papionin socioecology in a phylogenetic perspective. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Panger M, Bearder SK, editors. Primates in perspective. New York: Oxford U Pr. p 240-51.

Kawai M. 1979. Auditory communication and social relations. Contrib Primatol 16:219-41.

Kawai M, Iwamoto T. 1979. Nomadism and activities. Contrib Primatol 16:251-78.

Kawai M, Dunbar R, Ohsawa H, Mori U. 1983. Social organization of gelada baboons: social units and definitions. Primates 24(1):13-24.

Klecha F, McCann C, Scheffler G, Wittwer D. 1998. Monitoring hormonal and morphological changes during pregnancy in a female gelada baboon (Theropithecus gelada). AZA Reg Conf Proc 1998:468.

Krentz HB. 1993. Postcranial anatomy of extant and extinct species of Theropithecus. In: Jablonski NG, editor. Theropithecus: the rise and fall of a primate genus. Cambridge: Cambridge U Pr. p 383-422.

Leutenegger W. 1973. Maternal-fetal weight relationships in primates. Folia Primatol 20:280-93.

McCann C. 1995. Social factors affecting reproductive success in female gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada). PhD dissertation, City University of New York.

Moos R, Rock J, Salzert W. 1985. Infanticide in gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada). Primates 26(4):497-500.

Moos-Heilen R, Sossinka R. 1990. The influence of oestrus on the vocalization of female gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada). Ethology 84(1):35-46.

Mori A, Iwamoto T, Bekele A. 1997. A case of infanticide in a recently found gelada population in Arsi, Ethiopia. Primates 38(1):79-88.

Mori U, Dunbar RIM. 1985. Changes in the reproductive condition of female gelada baboons following the takeover of one-male units. Z Tierpsychol 67(1-4):215-24.

Mori A, Belay G, Iwamoto T. 2003. Changes in unit structures and infanticide observed in Arsi geladas. Primates 44(3):217-23.

Mori A, Belay G. 1990. The distribution of baboon species and a new population of gelada baboons along the Wabi-Shebeli River, Ethiopia. Primates 31(4):495-508.

Mori U. 1979a. Development of sociability and social status. Contrib Primatol 16:125-54.

Mori U. 1979b. Individual relationships within a unit. Contrib Primatol 16:93-124.

Mori U. 1979c. Inter-unit relationships. Contrib Primatol 16:83-92.

Mori U. 1979d. Reproductive behaviour. Contrib Primatol 16:183-97.

Mori A, Iwamoto T, Mori U, Bekele A. 1999. Sociological and demographic characteristics of a recently found Arsi gelada population in Ethiopia. Primates 40(2):365-81.

Napier PH. 1981. Catalogue of primates in the British museum (natural history) and elsewhere in the British Isles. part II: family Cercopithecidae, subfamily Cercopithecinae. London: British Museum (Natural History). 203 p.

Napier JR, Napier PH. 1967. A handbook of living primates: morphology, ecology and behaviour of nonhuman primates. London: Academic Pr. 456 p.

Oates JF. 1996. African primates: status survey and conservation action plan, revised edition. Gland (CH): IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. 80p.

Ohsawa H. 1979. The local gelada population and environment of the Gich area. Contrib Primatol 16:4-45.

Ohsawa H, Kawai M. 1975. Social structure of gelada baboons: studies of the gelada society (I). Contemp Primatol 5th Intl Cong Primatol 464-69.

Pickford M. 1993. Climatic change, biogeography, and Theropithecus. In: Jablonski NG, editor. Theropithecus: the rise and fall of a primate genus. Cambridge: Cambridge U Pr. p 227-43..

Swedell L. 1997. Patterns of reconciliation among captive gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada): a brief report. Primates 38(3):325-30.

Weigl R. 2005. Longevity of mammals in captivity; from the living collections of the world. Stuttgart (DE): E. Schweizerbartsche. 214 p.

Yalden DW, Largen MJ, Kock D. 1977. Catalogue of the mammals of Ethiopia. III. Primates. Monitore Zoologico Italiano Supplement 9(1):1-52.

Content last modified: September 3, 2008