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The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Mandrillus sphinx, search PrimateLit. To find current references for M. leucophaeus, search PrimateLit.


Abernethy KA, White LJT, Wickings EJ. 2002. Hordes of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx): extreme group size and seasonal male presence. J Zool (Lond.) 258(1):131-7.

Albrechtsen L, Fa JE, Barry B, Macdonald DW. 2006. Contrasts in availability and consumption of animal protein in Bioko Island, West Africa: the role of bushmeat. Environ Conserv 32(4):340-8.

Ankel-Simons F. 2007. Primate Anatomy: an introduction, 3rd Edition. San Diego: Elsevier Acad Pr. 724 p.

M. sphinx
Primates in Art & Illustration Collection

Astaras C, Mühlenberg M, Waltert M. 2008. Note on drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) ecology and conservation status in Korup National Park, southwest Cameroon. Am J Primatol 70(3):306-10.

Bettinger T, Wallis J, Morris A. 1995. Reproductive parameters of mandrills at the Tulsa Zoo. Zoo Biol 14(2):115-21.

Blom A, Alers MPT, Feistner ATC, Barnes RFW, Barnes KL. 1992. Primates in Gabon-current status and distribution. Oryx 26(4):223-34.

Böer M. 1987. Recent advances in drill research and conservation. Prim Cons 8:55-7.

Bout N, Thierry B. 2005. Peaceful meaning for the silent bared-teeth displays of mandrills. Int J Primatol 26(6):1215-28.

Carman M. 1979. The gestation and rearing periods of the mandrill Mandrillus sphinx at the London Zoo. Int Zoo Ybk 19:159-60.

Chang TR, Forthman DL, Maple TL. 1999. Comparison of confined mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) behavior n traditional and "ecologically representative" exhibits. Zoo Biol 18(3):163-76.

Cousins D. 1984. Notes on the genus Mandrillus. Int Zoo News 31(1):15-21.

Cox CR. 1997. Drills (Mandrillus leucophaeus): research and conservation initiatives, 1986-1996. In: Wallis J, editor. Primate conservation: the role of zoological parks. American Society of Primatology. p151-75.

Dixson AF, Bossi T, Wickings EJ. 1993. Male dominance and genetically determined reproductive success in the mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx). Primates 34(4):525-32.

Dunn A, Okon D. 2003. Monitoring the abundance of diurnal primates and duikers in Korup National Park, Cameroon 2001-2003. Mundemba(CM): Korup Project Report.

Elton S, Morgan BJ. 2006. Muzzle size, paranasal swelling size and body mass in Mandrillus leucophaeus. Primates 47(2):151-7.

Feistner ATC. 1992. Aspects of reproduction of female mandrills Mandrillus sphinx. Int Zoo Yb 31:170-8.

Feistner ATC. 1991. Scent marking in mandrills, Mandrillus sphinx. Folia Primatol 57(1):42-7.

Forthman DL, Chang TR, Elder SD. 1992. Behavioral comparison of captive drills (Papio leucophaeus) and mandrills (Papio sphinx). In: Roeder JJ, Thierry B, Anderson JR, Herrenschmidt N, editors. Current primatology, volume II: social development, learning and behaviour. Strasbourg(FR):Universite Louis Pasteur. p193-8.

Gadsby EL, Jenkins Jr PD. 1997-1998. The drill-integrated in situ and ex situ conservation. Afr Primates 3(1-2):12-8.

Gadsby EL. 1992. Drill survey in Cameroon. Oryx 26(3):177-8.

Gartlan JS. 1970. Preliminary notes on the ecology and behavior of the drill, Mandrillus leucophaeus Ritgen, 1824. In: Napier JR, Napier PH, editors. Old world monkeys: evolution, systematics, and behavivor. New York:Academic Pr. p445-80.

Gonzalez-Kirchner JP, de la Maza MS. 1996. Preliminary notes on the ecology of the drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) on Bioko island, Rep. Equatorial Guinea. Garcia de Orta Sér Zool 21(1):1-5.

Groves C. 2005. Order primates. In: Wilson DE, Reeder DM, editors. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, third edition, volume 1. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins U Pr. p111-84.

Groves C. Primate taxonomy. Washington, D.C.:Smithsonian Institution Pr. 350p.

Grubb P. 1973. Distribution, divergence and speciation of the drill and mandrill. Folia Primatol 20:161-77.

Harrison MJS. 1988. The mandrill in Gabon's rain forest-ecology, distribution and status. Oryx 22(4):218-28.

Harvey PH, Clutton-Brock TH. 1985. Life history variation in primates. Evolution 29(3):559-81.

Hearn GW, Weikel EC, Schaaf CD. 1988. A preliminary ethogram and study of social behavior in captive drills, Mandrillus leucophaeus. Prim Rep 19:11-7.

Henschel P, Abernethy KA, White LJT. 2005. Leopard food habits in the Lopé National Park, Gabon, Central Africa. Afr J Ecol 43(1):21-8.

Hill WCO. 1970. Primates: comparative anatomy and taxonomy, VIII; Cynopithecinae, Papio, Mandrillus, Theropithecus. New York:Wiley-Interscience. 680p.

Hill WCO. 1955. A note on integumental colours with special reference to the genus Mandrillus. Saeugetierkundliche Mitteilungen 3:145-51.

Hoshino J. 1985. Feeding ecology of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) in Campo Animal Reserve, Cameroon. Primates 26(3):248-73.

Hoshino J, Mori A, Kudo H, Kawai M. 1984. Preliminary report on the grouping of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) in Cameroon. Primates 25(3):295-307.

Jolly CJ. 2007. Baboons, mandrills, and mangabeys: afro-papionin socioecology in a phylogenetic perspective. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Panger M, Bearder SK, editors. Primates in perspective. New York:Oxford U Pr. p240-51.

Jouventin P. 1975. Observations sur la socio-ecologie du mandrill. Terre et la Vie 29:493-532.

Kudo H, Mitani M. 1985. New record of predatory behavior by the mandrill in Cameroon. Primates 26(2):161-7.

Kudo H. 1987. The study of vocal communication of wild mandrills in Cameroon in relation to their social structure. Primates 28(3):289-308.

Lahm SA. 1986. Diet and habitat preferences of Mandrillus sphinx in Gabon: implications of foraging strategy. Am J Primatol 11(1):9-26.

Laidre ME, Yorzinski JL. 2005. The silent bared-teeth face and the crest-raise of the mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx): a contextual analysis of signal function. Ethology 111(2):143-57.

Leigh SR, Setchell JM, Charpentier M, Knapp LA, Wickings EJ. 2008. Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx). J Hum Evol 55(1):75-85.

Marty JS, Higham JP, Gadsby EL, Ross C. In Press. Dominance, coloration and social and sexual behavior in male drills (Mandrillus leucophaeus). Int J Primatol.

Matthews A, Matthews A, Niemitz C. 1998. Preliminary report on the distribution of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) in southwestern Cameroon. Prim Rep 50:105-13.

Mellen JD, Littlewood AP, Barrow BC, Stevens VJ. 1981. Individual and social behavior in a captive troop of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx). Primates 22(2):206-20.

Mitani M. 1990. A note on the present situation of the primate fauna found from south-eastern Cameroon to Northern Congo. Primates 31(4):625-34.

Napier PH. 1981. Catalogue of primates in the British Museum (natural history) and elsewhere in the British Isles, part II: family cercopithecidae, subfamily cercopithecinae. London: British Museum (Natural History). 203p.

Oates JF, Butynski TM. 2008a. Mandrillus leucophaeus. In: IUCN 2008, editor. 2008 IUCN red list of threatened species. downloaded May 18, 2009.

Oates JF, Butynski TM. 2008b. Mandrillus sphinx. In: IUCN 2008, editor. 2008 IUCN red list of threatened species. downloaded May 18, 2009.

Otovic P. 2007. Reconciliation in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx). MA Thesis, University of South Florida.

Peignot P, Charpentier MJE, Bout N, Bourry O, Massima U, Dosimont O, Terramorsi R, WIckings EJ. 2008. Learning from the first release project of captive-bred mandrills Mandrillus sphinx in Gabon. Oryx 32(1):122-31.

Rogers ME, Abernethy KA, Fontaine B, Wickings EJ, White LJT, Tutin CEG. 1996. Ten days in the life of a mandrill horde in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon. Am J Primatol 40(4):297-313.

Sabater Pí J. 1972. Contribution to the ecology of Mandrillus sphinx Linnaeus 1758 of Rio Muni (Republic of Equatorial Guinea). Folia Primatol 17:304-19.

Setchell JM, Dixson AF. 2001a. Arrested development of secondary sexual adornments in subordinate adult male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx). Am J Phys Anth 115(3):245-52.

Setchell JM, Dixson AF. 2001b. Changes in the secondary sexual adornments of male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) are associated with gain and loss of alpha status. Horm Behav 39(3):177-84.

Setchell JM, Wickings EJ. 2005. Dominance, status signals and coloration in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx). Ethology 111(1):25-50.

Setchell JM, Lee PC, Wickings EJ, Dixon AF. 2001. Growth and ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism in the mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx). Am J Phys Anth 115(4):349-60.

Setchell JM, Wickings EJ. 2006. Mate choice in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx). Ethology 112(1):91-9.

Setchell JM, Charpentier M, Wickings EJ. 2005a. Mate guarding and paternity in mandrills: factors influencing alpha male monopoly. Anim Behav 70(5):1105-20.

Setchell JM, Lee PC, Wickings EJ, Dixson AF. 2002. Reproductive parameters and maternal investment in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx). Int J Primatol 23(1):51-68.

Setchell JM, Charpentier M, Wickings EJ. 2005. Sexual selection and reproductive careers in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 58(5):474-85.

Setchell JM, Wickings EJ, Knapp LA. 2006a. Signal content of red facial coloration in female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx). Proc R Soc B 273(1599):2395-400.

Setchell JM, Smith T, Wickings EJ, Knapp LA. 2008. Social correlates of testosterone and ornamentation in male mandrills. Horm Behav 54(3):365-72.

Setchell JM, Wickings EJ. 2004. Social and seasonal influences on the reproductive cycle in female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx). Am J Phys Anth 125(1):73-84.

Setchell JM, Knapp LA, Wickings EJ. 2006b. Violent coalitionary attack by female mandrills against an injured alpha male. Am J Primatol 68(4):411-8.

Smith RJ, Jungers WL. 1997. Body mass in comparative primatology. J Hum Evol 32(6):523-59.

Smith RS, Leigh SR. 1998. Sexual dimorphism in primate neonatal body mass. J Hum Evol 34(2):173-201.

Steiner C, Waltert M, Mühlenberg M. 2002-2003. Hunting pressure on the drill Mandrillus leucophaeus in Korup Project Area, Cameroon. Afr Prim 6(1-2):10-9.

Tutin CEG, Ham RM, White LJT, Harrison MJS. 1997a. The primate community of the Lopé Reserve, Gabon: diets, responses to fruit scarcity, and effects on biomass. Am J Primatol 42(1):1-24.

Tutin CEG, White LJT, Mackanga-Missandzou A. 1997. The use by rain forest mammals of natural forest fragments in an Equatorial African savanna. Conserv Biol 11(5):1190-203.

Weigl R. 2005. Longevity of mammals in captivity; from the living collections of the world. Stuttgart (DE): E. Schweizerbartsche. 214 p.

Wickings EJ, Dixson AF. 1992. Development from birth to sexual maturity in a semi-free-ranging colony of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) in Gabon. J Reprod Fert 95(1):129-38.

Wild C, Morgan BJ, Dixson A. 2005. Conservation of drill populations in Bakossiland, Cameroon: historical trends and current status. Int J Primatol 26(4):759-73.

Willcox AS, Nambu DM. 2007. Wildlife hunting practices and bushmeat dynamics of the Banyangi and Mbo people of southwestern Cameroon. Biol Conserv 134(2):251-61.

Content last modified: October 14, 2009