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Diademed sifaka
Propithecus diadema

This sheet covers all eastern sifakas, or the P. diadema group, including P. candidus, P. diadema, P. edwardsi, P. perrieri and P. tattersalli

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Propithecus, search PrimateLit.


Andrianandrasana LH, Patel ER, Wright PC. 2007. A comparison of scent overmarking in two species of wild rainforest sifakas: silky sifakas (Propithecus candidus) and Milne-Edwards' sifakas (Propithecus edwardsi). Prosimian Congress 2007 Abstracts: 54-5.

Banks MA, Ellis ER, Antonio, Wright PC. 2007. Global population size of a critically endangered lemur, Perrier's sifaka. Anim Conserv 10(2):254-62.

Demes B, Jungers WL, Fleagle JG, Wunderlich RE, Richmond BG, Lemelin P. 1996. Body size and leaping kinematics in Malagasy vertical clingers and leapers. J Hum Evol 31(4): 367-88.

Digweed SM, Fedigan LM, Rendall D. 2005. Variable specificity in the anti-predator vocalizations and behaviour of the white-faced capuchin, Cebus capucinus. Behaviour 142(8):997-1021.

Erhart EM, Overdorff DJ. 1998. Infanticide in Propithecus diadema edwardsi: an evaluation of the sexual selection hypothesis. Intl J Primatol 19(1):73-81.

Fichtel C, Kappeler PM. 2002. Anti-predator behavior of group-living Malagasy primates: mixed evidence for a referential alarm call system. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 51(3):262-75.

Garbutt N. 1999. Mammals of Madagascar. Sussex (UK): Pica Pr. 320 p.

Propithecus tattersalli
Propithecus tattersalli
Photo: David Haring

Glander KE, Wright PC, Daniels PS, Merenlender AM. 1992. Morphometrics and testicle size of rain forest lemur species from southeastern Madagascar. J Hum Evol 22(1):1-17.

Grieser B. 1992. Infant development and parental care in two species of sifakas. Primates 33(3):305-14.

Gross M. 2006. Leaves clue to lemur peril. Curr Biol 16(21):R900.

Groves C. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington DC: Smithsonian Inst Pr. 350 p.

Hayes RA. Morelli TL, Wright PC. 2006. Volatile components of lemur scent secretions vary throughout the year. Am J Primatol 68(12):1202-7.

Hemingway CA. 1996. Morphology and phenology of seeds and whole fruit eaten by Milne-Edwards' sifaka, Propithecus diadema edwardsi, in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Int J Primatol 17(5): 637-59.

Hemingway CA. 1998. Selectivity and variability in the diet of Milne-Edwards' sifakas (Propithecus diadema edwardsi): implications for folivory and seed-eating. Int J Primatol 19(2): 355-77.

Hemingway CA. 1999. Time budgets and foraging in a Malagasy primate: do sex differences reflect reproductive condition and female dominance? Behav Ecol Sociobiol 45:311-22.

Irwin MT, Smith TM, Wright PC. 2000. Census of three eastern rainforest sites north of Ranomafana national park: preliminary results and implications for lemur conservation. Lemur News 5:20-2.

Irwin MT, Raharison FJ-L, Rakotoarimanana H, Razanadrakoto E, Ranaivoson E, Rakotofanala J, Randrianarimanana C. 2007. Diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema) use olfaction to forage for the inflorescences of subterranean parasitic plants (Balanophoraceae: Langsdorffia sp., and Cytinaceae: Cytinus sp.). Am J Primatol 69(4):471-6.

Irwin MT. 2006a. Ecological impacts of forest fragmentation on diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema) at Tsinjoarivo, eastern Madagascar: implications for conservation in fragmented landscapes. PhD dissertation, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY.

Irwin MT. 2006b. Ecologically enigmatic lemurs: the sifakas of the eastern forests (Propithecus candidus, P. diadema, P. edwardsi, P. perrieri, and P. tattersalli). In: Gould L, Sauther ML, editors. Lemurs: ecology and adaptation. New York: Springer Pr. p 305-26.

Irwin MT. 2004. Illegal rum production threatens health of lemur populations at Tsinjoarivo, eastern central Madagascar: brief report and request for information. Lemur News 9:16-7.

Irwin MT. 2007. Living in forest fragments reduces group cohesion in diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema) in eastern Madagascar by reducing food patch size. Am J Primatol 69(4):434-47.

Irwin MT, Johnson SE, Wright PC. 2005. The state of lemur conservation in south-eastern Madagascar: population and habitat assessments for diurnal and cathemeral lemurs using surveys, satellite imagery and GIS. Oryx 39(2):204-18.

Jolly A. 1966. Lemur behavior: a Madagascar field study. Chicago:U Chicago Pr.

Junge RE, Sauther ML. 2006. Overview on the health and disease ecology of wild lemurs: conservation implications. In: Gould L, Sauther ML, editors. Lemurs: ecology and adaptation. New York: Springer Pr. p 423-40.

Kappeler PM. 1990. The evolution of sexual size dimorphism in prosimian primates. Am J Primatol 21(3): 201-14.

Kelley E, Mayor MI. 2002. Preliminary study of the silky sifaka (Propithecus diadema candidus) in northeast Madagascar. Lemur News 7: 16-8.

Lehman SM, Mayor M. 2004. Dietary patterns in Perrier's sifakas (Propithecus diadema perrieri): a preliminary study. Am J Primatol 62(2): 115-22.

Lehman SM, Mayor M, Wright PC. 2005. Ecogeographic size variations in sifakas: a test of the resource seasonality and resource quality hypotheses. Am J Phys Anthro 126(3): 318-28.

Mayor MI, Lehman SM. 1999. Conservation of Perrier's sifaka (Propithecus diadema perrieri) in Analamera Special Reserve, Madagascar. Lemur News 4:21-3.

Mayor MI, Sommer JA, Houck ML, Zaonarivelo JR, Wright PC, Ingram C, Engel SR, Louis Jr. EE. 2004. Specific status of Propithecus spp. Int J Primatol 25(4): 875-900.

Meyers DM. 1993a. Conservation status of the golden-crowned sifaka, Propithecus tattersalli. Lemur News 1(1):6-8.

Meyers DM. 1993b. The effects of resource seasonality on behavior and reproduction in the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli, Simons, 1988) in three Malagasy forests. PhD dissertation, Duke Univeristy, Durham, N.C. 231 p.

Meyers DM, Ratsirarson J. 1989. Distribution and conservation of two endangered sifakas in northern Madagascar. Prim Cons 10: 81-6.

Meyers DM, Wright PC. 1993. Resource tracking: food availability and Propithecus seasonal reproduction. In: Kappeler PM, Ganzhorn JU, editors. Lemur social systems and their ecological basis. New York: Plenum Pr. p 179-92.

Meyers DM. 1996. Update on the endangered sifaka of the north. Lemur News 2:13-4.

Mittermeier RA, Konstant WR, Nicoll ME, Langrand O. 1992. Lemurs of Madagascar: an action plan for their conservation 1993-1999. Gland (CH):IUCN. 58 p.

Mittermeier RA, Konstant WR, Hawkins F, Louis EE, Langrand O, Ratsimbazafy J, Rasoloarison R, Ganzhorn JU, Rajaobelina S, Tattersall I. 2006a. Lemurs of Madagascar, second edition. Washington DC: Cons Int. 520 p.

Mittermeier RA, Valladares-Pádua, Rylands AB, Eudey AA, Butynski TM, Ganzhorn JU, Kormos R, Aguiar JM, Walker S. 2006b. Primates in peril: the world's 25 most endangered primates, 2004-2006. Prim Conserv 20:1-28.

Patel ER. 2006a. Activity budget, ranging, and group size in silky sifakas (Propithecus candidus). Lemur News 11:42-5.

Patel ER, Coke CS, Ritchie A, Santorelli C. 2003a. Alloparental care (including allonursing) in free-ranging silky sifakas (Propithecus diadema candidus) in a primary northeastern montane rainforest in Madagascar [abstract]. Am J Primatol 60(Suppl 1):71.

Patel ER, Coke CS, Ritchie A, Santorelli C. 2003b. Assessing production specificity of free ranging silky sifaka (Propithecus diadema candidus) "antipredator" vocalizations: weak evidence for "aerial predator" but not "terrestrial predator" calls. Am J Primatol 60(Suppl 1):71-2.

Patel ER, Anderson JD, Owren MJ. 2006. Exploring the function of "Zzuss" alarm vocalizations in wild silky sifakas (Propithecus candidus): moderate evidence for individual distinctiveness [abstract]. Intl J Primatol 27(suppl 1):504.

Patel ER. 2007a. Logging of rare rosewood and palisandre (Dalbergia spp.) within Marojejy National Park, Madagascar. Madag Conserv Develop 2:11-6.

Patel ER. 2007b. Non-maternal infant care in wild silky sifakas (Propithecus candidus). Lemur News 12:39-42.

Patel ER, Anderson JD, Irwin MT, Owren MJ. 2005b. Quantifying the vocal repertoire of wild adult diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema diadema) in Madagascar. Am J PRimatol 66(suppl 1):48.

Patel ER. 2006b. Scent-marking in wild silky sifakas (Propithecus candidus) in Madagascar: sex differences and seasonal effects in usage and response across multiple scent-mark types [abstract]. Intl J Primatol 27(suppl 1):496.

Patel ER, Anderson JD, Owren MJ. 2005c. Sex differences in the acoustic structure of an alarm vocalization in a monoporphic primate: wild silky sifakas (Propithecus candidus) of northeastern Madagascar. Am J Primatol 66(suppl 1):46-7.

Patel ER, Meyers D, Hawkins F. 2007. Silky sifaka, Propithecus candidus, 1871. In: Mittermeier RA, Ratsimbazafy J, Rylands AB, Williamson L, Oates JF, Mbora D, Ganzhorn JU, Rodríguez-Luna E, Palacios E, Heymann EW, Kierulff MCM, Yongcheng L, Supriatna J, Roos C, Walker S, Aguiar JM. Primates in peril: the world's 25 most endangered primates, 2006-2008. Prim Conserv 22:1-40.

Patel ER, Marshall JJ, Parathian H. 2005. Silky sifaka (Propithecus candidus) conservation education in northeastern Madagascar. Lab Prim News 44(3):8-11.

Patel ER. 2005. Silky sifaka predation (Propithecus candidus) by a fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox). Lemur News 10: 25-7.

Pochron ST, Tucker WT, Wright PC. 2004. Demography, life history, and social structure in Propithecus diadema edwardsi from 1986-2000 in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Am J Phys Anthro 125(1): 61-72.

Pochron ST, Wright PC. 2002. Dynamics of testes size compensates for variation in male body size. Evol Ecol Res 4(4):577-85.

Pochron ST, Wright PC, Schaentzler E, Ippolito M, Rakotonirina G, Ratsimbazafy R, Rakotosoa R. 2002. Effect of season and age on the gonadosomatic index of Milne-Edwards' sifakas (Propithecus diadema edwardsi) in Ranomafana national park, Madagascar. Intl J Primatol 23(2):355-64.

Pochron ST, Morelli TL, Terranova P, Scirbona J, Cohen J, Kunapareddy G, Rakotonirina G, Ratsimbazafy R, Rakotosoa R, Wright PC. 2005a. Patterns of male scent-marking in Propithecus edwardsi of Ranomafana national park, Madagascar. Am J Primatol 65(2):103-15.

Pochron ST, Morelli TL, Scribona J, Wright PC. 2005b. Sex differences in scent marking in Propithecus edwardsi of Ranomafana national park, Madagascar. Am J Primatol 66(2):97-110.

Pochron ST, Wright PC. 2003. Variability in adult group compositions of a prosimian primate. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 54(3): 285-93.

Powzyk JA, Mowry CB. 2003. Dietary and feeding differences between sympatric Propithecus diadema diadema and Indri indri. Int J Primatol 24(6): 1143-62.

Powzyk JA. 2001. Social organisation and food partitioning in two large bodied indrids: Propithecus diadema diadema and Indri indri [abstract]. The XVIIIth congress of the International Primatological Society. Primates in the new millennium. Adelaide (Australia): Int Primatol Soc. p 322.

Powzyk JA. 1997. The socio-ecology of two sympatric indriids: Propithecus diadema diadema and Indri indri, a comparison of feeding strategies and their possible repercussions on species-specific behavior. PhD dissertation, Duke University, Durham, NC. 307 p.

Richard AF. 2003. Propithecus: sifakas. In: Goodman SM, Benstead JP, editors. The natural history of Madagascar. Chicago: U Chicago Pr. p 1344-8.

Ritchie A, Patel ER. 2006. The existence and potential function of "totem-tree" scent-marking in silky sifakas (Propithecus candidus). Intl J Primatol 27(Suppl 1):Abstract #359.

Rowe N. 1996. The pictorial guide to the living primates. East Hampton (NY): Pogonias Pr. 263 p.

Schilling A. 1979. Olfactory communication in prosimians. In: Doyle GA, Martin RA. The study of prosimian behavior. New York: Academic Pr. p 461-542.

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Schwitzer C, Arnould O, Rakotosamimanana B. 2006. An international conservation and research programme for Perrier's sifaka (Propithecus perrieri Lavauden, 1931) in northern Madagascar. Lemur News 11:12-21.

Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL, Marler P. 1980. Vervet monkey alarm calls: semantic communication in a free-ranging primate. Anim Behav 28:1070-94.

Sterling E, McFadden K. 2000. Rapid census of lemur populations in the Parc National de Marojejy, Madagascar. Field Zool 97: 265-74.

Tattersall I. 1982. The primates of Madagascar. New York: Columbia Univ Pr. 382 p.

Tattersall I. 1986. Notes on the distribution and taxonomic status of some subspecies of Propithecus in Madagascar. Folia Primatol 46(1): 51-63.

Vargas A, Jiménez I, Palomares F, Palacios MJ. 2002. Distribution, status, and conservation needs of the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli). Biol Conserv 108(3): 325-34.

Welch C, Katz A. 1992. Survey and census work on lemurs in the natural reserve of Betampona in eastern Madagascar with a view to restocking. Dodo, J Wild Preserv Trusts 28:45-58.

Wright PC. 1995. Demography and life history of free-ranging Propithecus diadema edwardsi in Ranomafana national park, Madagascar. Intl J Primatol 16(5):835-54.

Wright PC. 1987. Diet and ranging patterns of Propithecus diadema edwardsi in Madagascar [abstract]. Am J Phys Anth 72:271

Wright PC. 1998. Impact of predation risk on the behaviour of Propithecus diadema edwardsi in the rain forest of Madagascar. Behaviour 135(4): 483-512.

Wright PC. 1992. Primate ecology, rainforest conservation, and economic development: building a national park in Madagascar. Evol Anth 1(1):25-33.

Wright PC, Heckscher SK, Dunham AE. 1997. Predation on Milne-Edward's sifaka (Propithecus diadema edwardsi) by the fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) in the rain forest of southeastern Madagascar. Folia Primatol 68(1): 34-43.

Content last modified: February 4, 2008