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Black spider monkey
Ateles paniscus

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Ateles paniscus, search PrimateLit.


Collins AC, Dubach JM. 2000. Biogeographic and ecological forces responsible for speciation in Ateles. Int J Primatol 21(3): 421-44.

de Boer LEM, de Bruijn M. 1990. Chromosomal distinction between the red-faced and black-faced black spider monkeys (Ateles paniscus paniscus and A. p. chamek). Zoo Biol 9(4): 307-16.

Ateles paniscus
Primates in Art & Illustration Collection

de Thoisy B, Renoux F, Julliot C. 2005. Hunting in northern French Guiana and its impact on primate communities. Oryx 39(2): 149-57.

Di Fiore A. 2002. Predator sensitive foraging in ateline primates. In: Miller LE, editor. Eat or be eaten: predator sensitive foraging among primates. Cambridge (England): Cambridge Univ Pr. p 242-67.

Di Fiore A, Campbell CJ. 2007. The atelines: variation in ecology, behavior, and social organization. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Panger M, Bearder SK, editors. Primates in perspective. New York: Oxford U Pr. p 155-85.

Erikson GE. 1963. Brachiation in New World monkeys and in anthropoid apes. Symp Zool Soc London 10: 135-64.

Fleagle JG. 1988. Primate adaptation and evolution. San Diego (CA): Academic Pr. 596 p.

Groves CP. 1989. A theory of human and primate evolution. Oxford (England): Clarendon Pr. 375 p.

Groves C. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington DC: Smithsonian Inst Pr. 350 p.

Guillotin M, Dubost G, Sabatier D. 1994. Food choice and food competition among three major primate species of French Guiana. J Zool 233(3): 551-79.

Hernández-López L, Mayagoitia L, Esquivel-Lacroix C, Rojas-Maya S, Mondragón-Ceballos R. 1998. The menstrual cycle of the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi). Am J Primatol 44(3): 183-95.

Julliot C. 1994. Predation of a young spider monkey (Ateles paniscus) by a crested eagle (Morphnus guianensis). Folia Primatol 63(2): 75-7.

Kessler P. 1998. Primate densities in the Natural Reserve of Nourages, French Guiana. Neotrop Prim 6(2): 45-6.

Kinzey WG. 1997. Synopsis of New World primates (16 genera). In: Kinzey WG, editor. New World primates: ecology, evolution, and behavior. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. p 169-324.

Kinzey WG, Norconk MA. 1990. Hardness as a basis of fruit choice in two sympatric primates. Am J Phys Anthro 81(1): 5-15.

Konstant W, Mittermeier RA, Nash SD. 1985. Spider monkeys in captivity and in the wild. Prim Cons 5:82-109.

Lehman SM. 2000. Primate community structure in Guyana: a biogeographic analysis. Int J Primatol 21(3): 333-51.

Lehman SM. 2004b. Biogeography of the primates of Guyana: effects of habitat use and diet on geographic distribution. Int J Primatol 25(6): 1225-42.

Lehman SM. 2004a. Distribution and diversity of primates in Guyana: species-area relationships and riverine barriers. Int J Primatol 25(1): 73-95.

Lemelin P. 1995. Comparative and functional mycology of the prehensile tail in New World monkeys. J Morph 224(3): 351-68.

McFarland Symington M. 1987. Sex ratio and maternal rank in wild spider monkeys: when daughters disperse. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 20(4): 421-5.

McFarland Symington M. 1988. Demography, ranging patterns, and activity budgets of black spider monkeys (Ateles paniscus chamek) in the Manu National Park, Peru. Am J Primatol 15(1): 45-67.

Milton K. 1993. Diet and social organization of a free-ranging spider monkey population: the development of species-typical behavior in the absence of adults. In: Pereira ME, Fairbanks LA, editors. Juvenile primates: life history, development, and behavior. New York: Oxford Univ Pr. p 173-81.

Mittermeier RA. 1978. Locomotion and posture in Ateles geoffroyi and Ateles paniscus. Folia Primatol 30: 161-93.

Mittermeier RA, van Roosmalen MGM. 1981. Preliminary observations on habitat utilization and diet in eight Surinam monkeys. Folia Primatol 36: 1-39.

Newland K. 1994. 1994 North American regional studbook for South American spider monkeys Ateles belzebuth, A. fusciceps, A. paniscus - all subspecies. Wichita (KS): Sedgwick County Zoo. 121 p.

Norconk MA, Kinzey WG. 1994. Challenge of neotropical frugivory: travel patterns of spider monkeys and bearded sakis. Am J Primatol 34(2): 171-83.

Nunes A, Chapman CA. 1997. A re-evaluation of factors influencing the sex ratio of spider monkey populations with new data from Maraca Island, Brazil. Folia Primatol 68(1): 31-3.

Ross C. 1991. Life history patterns of new world monkeys. Int J Primatol 12(5): 481-502.

Rowe N. 1996. The pictorial guide to the living primates. East Hampton (NY): Pogonias Pr. 263 p.

Russo SE, Campbell CJ, Dew JL, Stevenson PR, Suarez SA. 2005. A multi-forest comparison of dietary preferences and seed dispersal by Ateles spp. Int J Primatol 26(5): 1017-37.

Rylands AB, Keuroghlian A. 1988. Primate populations in continuous forest and forest fragments in central Amazonia. Acta Amazon 18(3-4): 291-307.

Rylands AB, Mittermeier RA, Rodriguez Luna E. 1995. A species list for the New World primates (Platyrrhini): distribution by country, endemism, and conservation status according to the Mace-Land system. Neotrop Prim 3(Suppl.): 113-60.

Schmitt D, Rose MD, Turnquist JE, Lemelin P. 2005. Role of the prehensile tail during Ateline locomotion: experimental and osteological evidence. Am J Phys Anthro 126(4): 435-46.

Simmen B, Sabatier D. 1996. Diets of some French Guianan primates: food composition and food choices. Int J Primatol 17(5): 661-93.

Smith RJ. 1996. Sexual dimorphism in Ateles paniscus body mass. J Hum Evol 31(1): 69-73.

Sussman RW. 2000. Primate ecology and social structure. Volume 2, New World monkeys. Needham Heights (MA): Pearson Custom. 207 p.

Tague RG. 1997. Variability of a vestigial structure: first metacarpal in Colobus guereza and Ateles geoffroyi. Evolution 51(2): 595-605.

Trolle M. 2003. Mammal survey in the Rio Jauaperi region, Rio Negro Basin, the Amazon, Brazil. Mammalia 67(1): 75-83.

van Roosmalen MGM. 1985. Habitat preferences, diet, feeding strategy and social organization of the black spider monkey (Ateles paniscus paniscus Linnaeus 1758) in Surinam. Acta Amazon 15(3/4, suppl): 1-238.

van Roosmalen MGM, Klein LL. 1988. The spider monkeys, Genus Ateles. In: Mittermeier RA, Rylands AB, Coimbra-Filho AF, da Fonseca GAB, editors. Ecology and behavior of neotropical primates, Volume 2. Washington DC: World Wildl Fund. p 455-539.

Youlatos D. 1994. Maitrise de l'espace et acces aux ressources chez le singe hurleur roux (Alouatta seniculus) en Guyane francaise. Etude morpho-fonctionnelle. PhD dissertation, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.

Youlatos D. 2002. Positional behavior of black spider monkeys (Ateles paniscus) in French Guiana. Int J Primatol 23(5): 1071-93.

Zhang SY. 1995. Activity and ranging patterns in relation to fruit utilization by brown capuchins (Cebus apella) in French Guiana. Int J Primatol 16(3): 489-507.

Content last modified: April 10, 2007