Life span: <20 years
Total population: Unknown
Gestation: 5 months
Height: 39.0 to 42.7 cm (M), 36.6 to 41.8 cm (F)
Weight: 3.06 kg (M), 2.56 kg (F)
Species: C. albinasus, C. chiropotes, C. israelita, C. satanas, C. utahicki
Other names: C. albinasus: white-nosed saki, red-nosed saki,
white-nosed bearded saki, red-nosed bearded saki; hvidnæset saki (Danish);
witneussaki (Dutch); valkonenäpartasaki (Finnish); saki à nez blanc
(French), weißnasensaki (German); saki dal naso bianco (Italian);
cuxiú, cuxiú-de-nariz-branco (Portuguese); saki de nariz blanca, saki
nariblanco (Spanish); vitnäst saki, vitnosad satansapa, vitnossaki
(Swedish); C. chiropotes: C. israelita, red-backed bearded
saki; C. israelita: brown-backed bearded saki, bearded saki; cuxiú (Portuguese);
capuchinos del Orinoco, mono barbudo (Spanish); C. satanas: C. s.
satanas, black bearded saki, bearded saki, black saki, brown-bearded saki;
satansaap (Dutch); saki nori (French); cuxiú-preto (Portuguese),
rödryggad saki, svartskäggig saki, sydamerikansk satansapa (Swedish);
C. utahicki: C. utahickae, C. s. utahicki, Uta Hick's bearded saki;
The taxonomy of the genus Chiropotes is debated. The IUCN Red List
recognizes four species within the genus (C. albinasus, C. chiropotes, C.
satanas, and C. utahicki) with C. israelita considered to be a synonym of C.
chiropotes (http://www.redlist.org). The taxonomy proposed by Bonvicino et al.
(2003) and accepted by Groves (2005) elevates former subspecies of C. satanas
and formerly synonymous types of the genus to five full species (C. albinasus,
C. chiropotes, C. israelita, C. satanas, C. utahicki) and is used here.
Photo: Luiz Claudio Marigo
The bearded saki is a medium-sized primate with a bushy, foxlike
non-prehensile tail (Hershkovitz 1985; Peetz 2001). However, during the first
two months of life, the tail of the infant is prehensile even though the tail of
adults is not (van Roosmalen et al. 1988). On the head there are tufts of hair
(coronal tufts) on both sides, and the species has a thick beard (Hershkovitz
1985). The tufts and beard are longer and thicker in males than in females
(Hershkovitz 1985). The ears are generally not visible as the fur is thick and
the shoulders and upper arms have longer hair than the rest of the body, often
looking like a cape (Ankel-Simons 2007).
C. albinasus males have a head and body length of 42.7cm (16.8 in)
and females measure 41.8cm (16.5 in). C. chiropotes males measure 39.9
cm (15.7 in) while females are 39.0 cm (15.4 in) long. C. satanas
males measure 40.6 cm (16.0 in) while females are 36.9 cm (14.5 in) long.
C. utahicki males have a head and body length averaging 39.0 cm (15.4 in)
while females measure 36.6 cm (14.4 in) (Hershkovitz 1985). On average, males
have greater body mass than females (Hershkovitz 1985). Female bearded sakis
weigh on average 2.56 kg (5.6 lb) while males average 3.06kg (6.75 lb) (Ford
& Davis 1992).
In general, the different species of bearded sakis can be distinguished by
pelage differences (Bonvicino et al. 2003).
C. israelita is
distinguished by its black extremities and the contrasting tawny-olive and
buffy-brown dorsum but overall, the body is dark-brown to black. The hairless
face, head, beard, and tail are blackish and it has a tuft of hair on either
side of the head (Bonvicino et al. 2003). C. chiropotes is black
overall, with light brown or reddish hair to mostly orange or ochre on its
back and blackish limbs, ventrum, tail, and sides (Hershkovitz 1985; Peetz
2001; Bonvicino et al. 2003). C. utahicki has a predominantly
brownish back and overall the coat is reddish-brown or buffy (Hershkovitz 1985;
Bonvicino et al. 2003). The beard and extremities are dark brown and the tail
is black-brown. (Hershkovitz 1985). C. satanas has a blackish or
blackish-brown back with only slightly darker limbs. Ventral surfaces are
blackish and the face is black but sometimes with lighter colors interspersed
(Hershkovitz 1985). C. albinasus is mostly blackish over its entire
body, including the ventral surfaces, but the nose and upper lips are a sharply
contrasting whitish color. In this species, female head tufts are less
developed in females than in males (Hershkovitz 1985).
Bearded sakis move predominantly quadrupedally (Fleagle & Mittermeier
1980; Walker 1996). For example, C. satanas moves through its
environment in a mostly quadrupedal fashion (80% of movement), but leaping (18%)
is also used and climbing is only rarely seen (Fleagle & Meldrum 1988).
During leaps, bearded sakis usually land on all fours, and often start leaps
while already moving, not from a standing start (Walker 2005). During
suspensory feeding, the non-prehensile tail of adult bearded sakis may be used
as a support (van Roosmalen et al. 1988). Bearded sakis usually travel and feed
in the higher parts of the forest canopy, although C. utahicki in at
least one study used middle forest strata (Mittermeier & van Roosmalen 1981;
Walker 1996; Bobadilla & Ferrari 2000).
In captivity, bearded sakis have lived into their high teens (Weigl
CURRENT RANGE MAPS (IUCN REDLIST):Chiropotes albinasus
| Chiropotes chiropotes
| Chiropotes israelita
| Chiropotes satanas
| Chiropotes utahicki
In general, bearded sakis are found in eastern Amazonia; present in Brazil,
Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname, and Venezuela (Hershkovitz 1985). The western
limit of the genus appears to be at least as far west as the Pico da Neblina
National Park, Brazil (Boubi 2002). Amongst the species, C. chiropotes
is found from southern and central Venezuela east to the mouth of the Amazon
which also forms its southern limit of distribution (Peetz 2001). C.
utahicki exists south of the Amazon and its mouth, between the Xingu and
Tocantins rivers as far south as the Serra dos Carajás and the Itacaiuna
River (Hershkovitz 1985). The distribution of C. satanas is east of C.
utahcki, extending east from the Tocantins River to likely as far as and
probably east of the Gurupú River (Hershkovitz 1985). C.
israelita is found in the Brazilian Amazonas and Roraima States, restricted
in the south and west by the Rio Negro and in the east by the Rio Branco
(Bonvicino et al. 2003). C. albinasus is restricted south of the
Amazon, meeting C. utahicki in the east at the Xingu River and range as far south
and west as the Brazilian side of the Guaporé/Iteñez river which
separates Brazil from the Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia (Wallace et al. 1996;
Peetz 2001). As such, the species could conceivably be present in Bolivia as
the river is narrow at this point (Wallace et al. 1996). Bearded sakis are
present in the southwestern Brazilian state of Rondônia, but the
restricted extent of its distribution in the state appears to be west of the
Jiparaná-Pimenta Bueno river system, and the reasons for the limits of
its distribution in this region are unclear (Ferrari et al. 1999).
Bearded sakis are found in various types of forest, preferring high rain
forest but including high and low primary rainforest, high and mountain savanna
forest, transitional semi-deciduous tropical moist forest, savanna-like forest,
terre firme rain forest, southern forest, Mora forest, premontane forest,
Wallaba forest, Kanuku forest and Southeast seasonal forest. Other forms of
habitat are used as well, including riparian forests, varzea and annually
flooded forests, liana forest, igapó forest and selectively cut forests
as well as other secondary forests (Mittermeier & van Roosmalen 1981; Branch
1983; Johns & Ayres 1987; Ayres 1989; Sussman & Phillips-Conroy 1995;
Ferrari et al. 1999; Bobadilla & Ferrari 2000; Peetz 2001; Trolle 2003;
Lehman 2004; Port-Carvalho & Ferrari 2004; Lehman et al. 2006). However,
the species only uses edge habitats rarely (Mittermeier & van Roosmalen
1981). C. utahicki is somewhat more tolerant of habitat disturbance
than was previously assumed (Bobadilla & Ferrari 2000).
Photo: Luiz Claudio Marigo
At one study site in Venezuela, there is a dry season from roughly December
to May, with annual rainfall totaling 134.0 cm (52.8 in). At this study site,
the average temperature is 25.6°C (78.1°F). Temperatures are lowest
in December and January and hottest in April and May (Peetz 2001).
Bearded sakis are mostly frugivorous with a high dietary component of seeds
making them seed predators (seeds are usually over half of the diet) (van
Roosmalen et al. 1981; 1988; Kinzey & Norconk 1993; Norconk & Kinzey
1994; Norconk 1996; review in Peetz 2001; Peetz 2001). In fact, this reliance
on seeds may largely exclude them from adverse affects of low rainfall on food
availability (Norconk 1996). In addition, bearded sakis have dental adaptations
which allow then to crack and access seeds in extremely hard pods. They open
hard-shelled fruits in a specialized, efficient process using their teeth (van
Roosmalen et al. 1988). Immature seeds and ripe fruit are also consumed, with a
lesser reliance on flowers and leaf stalks (van Roosmalen et al. 1988;
Port-Carvalho & Ferrari 2004). Between study sites, foods include seeds
(50.7-74.8% of diet), fleshy fruit (0-52%), flowers (0-11.4%), leaves (0-16.1%),
and insects 0.5-21%) (reviewed in Norconk 2007). At one study site in
Venezuela, up to 85 plant species were consumed, but only a small number of
preferred species made up the majority of the diet (Peetz 2001). At a study
site in Brazil, bearded sakis consumed more than a hundred species of plants
There are some seasonal shifts in feeding habits at one study site in
Venezuela, with highest amounts of seed feeding occurring during the dry months,
and higher amounts of fruit feeding and a reduction of seed-eating during the
wet months (Norconk 1996; Peetz 2001). However, the only true period of food
scarcity at this site was during transitions between the seasons, and the
bearded sakis coped by lengthening their daily path to find suitable foods
Bearded sakis actively forage for arthropods
orthopterans, including insects, larvae, spiders, caterpillars, cicadas, and
ants), but such foods represent a dietary supplement and are only a minor food
source (Mittermeier et al. 1983; Frazão 1991; Norconk 1996; Peetz 2001;
Veiga 2005; Veiga & Ferrari 2006). Geophagy is also recorded for bearded
sakis, with individuals seen taking and eating soil from an arboreal termite
nest (Veiga & Ferrari 2007).
Photo: Luiz Claudio Marigo
Bearded sakis are diurnal primates, with activity occurring between soon after
sunup to right before sundown (Silva & Ferrari 2009). Most of the day
is spent traveling and feeding, with less time engaged in
resting, foraging, and in social behavior (Veiga 2005; Silva & Ferrari
2009). In Venezuela, bearded sakis monkeys (C. chiropotes) living on an island spent their time
feeding (37.0%), foraging (10.1%), traveling (18.7%), nesting (21.4%) and in
other activities (12.8%) (Peetz 2001). Sleeping sites are usually among the
tallest trees available, and are usually different from night to night (Peetz
2001). Sleep occurs in tall trees with the tail curled around the body (Silva
& Ferrari 2009).
Recorded home ranges of groups in continuous forest are 2.5-3.5 km²
(0.97-1.35 mi²)(C. albinsasus), 1.42 km² (0.57 mi²)and 2.0-5.59 km² (0.77-2.16
mi²)(C. chiropotes) and 0.69 km² and 0.8 km² (0.27 and 0.31 mi²)(C.
satanas) (Ayres 1981 cited in Ayres 1989; van Roosmalen et al. 1981; Peetz
2001; Veiga 2005; Boyle et al. 2008, 2009; Silva & Ferrari 2009). Between study
sites and species, Chiropotes day range averages are between 1097-3200 m
(3599.1-(10498.7 feet) (range 240-4500m (787.4-14763.8 ft) (van Roosmalen et al.
1981; Norconk & Kinzey 1994; review in Peetz 2001; review in Norconk
2007; Boyle et al. 2009).
Bearded sakis are sympatric with a number of other primate species across
their range, including Alouatta spp.,
and Saimiri spp. (van Roosmalen et al. 1981; Norconk &
Kinzey 1994; Bobadilla & Ferrari 1998; 2000; Wright 2004; Silva &
Ferrari 2009). Even though bearded sakis and Ateles spp. are sympatric and both are
frugivorous, there is little competition between the two genera due to different preferences for fruit ripeness and fruit parts (Norconk
& Kinzey 1994). However, agonistic
encounters sometimes occur between Cebus spp. and bearded sakis when
they are both feeding in the same tree and sometimes Alouatta spp. are
displaced by bearded sakis or vice versa (Silva & Ferrari 2009; Sarah Boyle pers. comm.). Interspecific
associations of Chiropotes with Cebus spp. and Saimiri sciureus have been seen,
during which activities are synchronized between the species (van Roosmalen et
al. 1981; Silva & Ferrari 2009).
A boa constrictor (Boa constrictor) was recorded killing an adult bearded
saki 8 meters (26.2 ft) above the ground (Ferrari et al. 2004). Harpy eagles
(Harpia harpyja) have been seen taking adult male bearded sakis (Martins et al.
Content last modified: June 26, 2009
Written by Kurt Gron. Reviewed by Sarah Boyle.
Cite this page as:
Gron KJ. 2009 June 26. Primate Factsheets: Bearded saki (Chiropotes) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology . <http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/bearded_saki/taxon>. Accessed 2014 August 1.