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Bamboo lemur

The following references were used in the writing of this factsheet. To find current references for Hapalemur, search PrimateLit.


Atsalis S. 1998. Feeding ecology and aspects of life history in Microcebus rufus (Family Cheirogaleidae, Order Primates). PhD dissertation, City University of New York.

Beattie JC, Feistner ATC. 1998. Husbandry and breeding of the Alaotran gentle lemur Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis at Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Int Zoo YBk 36:11-9.

Blanchard ML, Day S, Crompton RH. 2007. Locomotor ecology of three sympatric lemur species in Mantadia National Park, Madagascar [abstract]. Am J Phys Anth Supplement 44:75.

Copsey JA, Jones JPG, Andrianandrasana H, Rajaonarison LH, Fa JE. 2009. Burning to fish: local explanations for wetland burning in Lac Alaotra, Madagascar. Oryx 43(3):403-6.

Digby L, Stevens AM. 2007. Maintenance of female dominance in blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons) and gray bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur griseus griseus) under semi-free-ranging and captive conditions. Zoo Biol 26(5):345-61.

Fausser J-L, Prosper P, Donati G, Ramanamanjato J-P, Rumpler Y. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships between Hapalemur species and subspecies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. BMC Evol Biol 2(4): online 1-9.

Feistner ATC, Rakotoarinosy M. 1993. Conservation of the gentle lemur Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis at Lac Alaotra, Madagascar: local knowledge. Dodo 29:54-65.

Glander KE, Wright PC, Seigler DS, Randrianasolo V, Randrianasolo B. 1989. Consumption of cyanogenic bamboo by a newly discovered species of bamboo lemur. Am J Primatol 19(2):119-24.

Glander KE, Wright PC, Daniels PS, Merenlender AM. 1992. Morphometrics and testicle size of rain forest lemur species from southeastern Madagascar. J Hum Evol 22(1):1-17.

Golden CD. 2009. Bushmeat hunting and use in the Makira forest north-eastern Madagascar: a conservation and livelihoods issue. Oryx 43(3):386-92.

Goodman SM, Ganzhorn JU. 2004. Elevational ranges of lemurs in the humid forests of Madagascar. Int J Primatol 25(2):331-50.

Gould L, Sauther M. 2007. Lemuriformes. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Panger M, Bearder SK, editors. Primates in perspective. New York: Oxford U Pr. p46-72.

Grassi C. 2006. Variability in habitat, diet, and social structure of Hapalemur griseus in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Am J Phys Anth 131(1):50-63.

Groves C. 2005. Order primates. In: Wilson DE, Reeder DM, editors. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, third edition, volume 1. Baltimore (MD): Johns Hopkins U Pr. p111-84.

Groves C. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Inst. 350p.

Haring D, Davis K. 1998. Management of the grey gentle or eastern lesser bamboo lemur Hapalemur griseus griseus at Duke University Primate Center, Durham. Int Zoo Ybk 36:20-34.

Hawkins AFA, Durbin JC, Reid DB. 1998. The primates of the Baly Bay area, north-western Madagascar. Folia Primatol 69(6):337-45.

Irwin MT, Samonds KE, Raharison J-L, Wright PC. Lemur latrines: observations of latrine behavior in wild primates and possible ecological significance. J Mammal 85(3):420-7.

Kappeler PM. 1991. Patterns of sexual dimorphism in body weight among prosimian primates. Folia Primatol 57(3):132-46.

Karpanty SM. 2006. Direct and indirect impacts of raptor predation on lemurs in southeastern Madagascar. Int J Primatol 27(1):239-61.

Martinez B. 2008. Occurrence of bamboo lemurs, Hapalemur griseus occidentalis, in an agricultural landscape on the Masoala Peninsula. Lemur News 13:11-4.

Meier B, Albignac R, Peyriéras A, Rumpler Y, Wright P. 1987. A new species of Hapalemur (Primates) from south east Madagascar. Folia primatol 48(3-4):211-5.

Mittermeier RA, Ganzhorn JU, Konstant WR, Glander K, Tattersall I, Groves CP, Rylands AB, Hapke A, Ratsimbazafy J, Mayor MI, Louis Jr EE, Rumpler Y, Schwitzer C, Rasoloarison RM. 2008. Lemur diversity in Madagascar. Int J Primatol 29(6):1607-56.

Mittermeier RA, Konstant WR, Hawkins F, Louis EE, Langrand O, Ratsimbazafy J, Rasoloarison R, Ganzhorn JU, Rajaobelina S, Tattersall I. 2006. Lemurs of Madagascar, second edition. Washington DC: Cons Int. 520 p.

Mutschler T. 2002. Alaotran gentle lemur: some aspects of its behavioral ecology. Evol Anth Suppl 1:101-4.

Mutschler T, Nievergelt C, Feistner ATC. 1994. Biology and conservation of Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis. Unpublished Report: Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust.

Mutschler T, Feistner ATC. 1995. Conservation status and distribution of the Alaotran gentle lemur Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis. Oryx 29(4):267-74.

Mutschler T. 1998. Folivory in a small-bodied lemur: the nutrition of the Alaotran gentle lemur (Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis). In: Rakotosamimanana B, Rasamimanana H, Ganzhorn JU, Goodman SM, editors. New directions in lemur studies. New York: Kluwer Acad/Plenum Pub. p221-39.

Mutschler T, Randrianarisoa AJ, Feistner ATC. 2001. Population status of the Alaotran gentle lemur Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis. Oryx 35(2):152-7.

Mutschler T, Feistner ATC, Nievergelt CM. 1998. Preliminary field data on group size, diet and activity in the Alaotran gentle lemur Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis. Folia Primatol 69(5):325-30.

Mutschler T, Nievergelt CM, Feistner ATC. 2000. Social organization of the Alaotran gentle lemur (Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis). Am J Primatol 50(1):9-24.

Nievergelt CM, Mutschler T, Feistner ATC. 1998. Group encounters and territoriality in wild Alaotran gentle lemurs (Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis). Am J Primatol 46(3):251-8.

Nievergelt CM, Mutschler T, Feistner ATC, Woodruff DS. 2002. Social system of the Alaotran gentle lemur (Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis): genetic characterization of group composition and mating system. Am J Primatol 57(4):157-76.

Overdorff DJ, Strait SG, Telo A. 1997. Seasonal variation in activity and diet in a small-bodied folivorous primate, Hapalemur griseus, in southeastern Madagascar. Am J Primatol 43(3):211-23.

Petter J-J, Albignac R, Rumpler Y. 1977. Faune de Madagascar 44: mammifères lémuriens (Primates Prosimiens). Paris: ORSTOM/CNRS.

Petter J-J, Peyrieras A. 1975. Preliminary notes on the behavior and ecology of Hapalemur griseus. In: Tattersall I, Sussman RW, editors. Lemur biology. New York: Plenum Pr. p 281-6.

Petter J-J, Charles-Dominique P. 1979. Vocal communication in prosimians. In: Doyle GA, Martin RD, editors. The study of prosimian behavior. New York: Academic Pr. p 247-305.

Pollock J. 1986. A note on the ecology and behavior of Hapalemur griseus. Prim Conserv 7:97-101.

Rabarivola C, Prosper P, Zaramody A, Andriaholinirina N, Hauwy M. 2007. Cytogenetics and taxonomy of the genus Hapalemur. Lemur News 12:46-9.

Rakotondravony D, Goodman SM, Soarimalala V. 1998. Predation on Hapalemur griseus griseus by Boa manditra (Boidae) in the littoral forest of eastern Madagascar. Folia Primatol 69(6):405-8.

Ralainasolo FB, Waeber PO, Ratsimbazafy J, Durbin J, Lewis R. Madagascar Conserv Develop 1(1):9-10.

Ramanamanjato J-P, Mcintyre PB, Nussbaum RA. 2002. Reptile, amphibian, and lemur diversity of the Malahelo Forest, a biogeographical transition zone in southeastern Madagascar. Biodivers Conserv 11(10):1791-807.

Steyn H, Feistner ATC. 1994. Development of a captive-bred infant Alaotran gentle lemur Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis. Dodo 30:47-57.

Tan CL. 2006. Behavior and ecology of gentle lemurs (Genus Hapalemur). In: Gould L, Sauther ML, editors. Lemurs: ecology and adaptation. New York: Springer p369-81.

Tan CL. 2000. Behavior and ecology of three sympatric bamboo lemur species (genus Hapalemur) in Ranomafana national Park, Madagascar. PhD dissertation, State University of New York, Stony Brook.

Tan CL. 1999. Group composition, home range size, and diet of three sympatric bamboo lemur species (Genus Hapalemur) in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Int J Primatol 20(4):547-66.

Taylor TD, Feistner ATC. 1996. Infant rearing in captive Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis: singleton versus twins. Folia Primatol 67(1):44-51.

Waeber PO, Hemelrijk CK. 2003. Female dominance and social structure in Alaotran gentle lemurs. Behaviour 140(10):1235-46.

Warter S, Randrianasolo G, Dutrillaux B, Rumpler Y. 1987. Cytogenetic study of a new subspecies of Hapalemur griseus. Folia Primatol 48(1-2):50-5.

Warter S, Tattersall I. 1994. Update to the article "cytogenetic study of a new subspecies of Hapalemur griseus" by Warter et al. published in Folia Primatologica, 1987, vol 48, pp 50-55. Folia Primatol 63:170.

Weigl R. 2005. Longevity of mammals in captivity; from the living collections of the world. Stuttgart (DE): E. Schweizerbartsche. 214 p.

Wright PC, Daniels PS, Meyers DM, Overdorff DJ, Rabesoa J. 1987. A census and study of Hapalemur and Propithecus in southeastern Madagascar. Prim Conserv 8:84-8.

Wright PC. 1986. Diet, ranging behavior and activity pattern of the gentle lemur (Hapalemur griseus) in Madagascar [abstract]. Am J Phys Anth 69(2):283.

Wright PC. 1988. Lemurs lost and found: three species of these primates are discovered alive and well and living on bamboo. Natural History 97(7):56-60.

Wright PC. 1990. Patterns of paternal care in primates. Int J Primatol 11(2):89-102.

Yamashita N, Vinyard CJ, Tan CL. 2009. Food mechanical properties in three sympatric species of Hapalemur in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. Am J Phys Anth 139(3):368-81.

Yamashita N, Tan CL, Vinyard CJ, Williams C. 2010. Semi-quantitative tests of cyanide in foods and excreta of three Hapalemur species in Madagascar. Am J Primatol 72(1):56-61.

Content last modified: July 22, 2010