Primate Info Net Banner Wisconsin PRC Logo

University Level Course Syllabi

ANBI 148 PRIMATE BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY (Upper level)
Jim Moore, University of California at San Diego


ANBI 148 PRIMATE BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY (Upper level)
      
      	Instructor: Jim Moore
      	University of California at San Diego
      	Anthropology Department
      	9500 Gilman Ave
      	La Jolla, CA 92093-0101
      	USA
      	E-mail: jjmoore@weber.ucsd.edu
      
      BACKGROUND
      
      
      This is the syllabus for my upper-division primate class. The course is 
      usually juniors and seniors, generally starts out at about 30-35 and falls to 
      about 15-18 not long after I hand out the syllabus. It is intended for people 
      who are pretty seriously considering careers/grad school in primate and/or 
      animal behavior related fields. Most of the students are majors in either 
      biological anthropology (Anthro dept) or ecology, behavior & evolution (Bio 
      dept). I try for a lot of discussion. There are too many readings, I'm 
      slowly having to admit; the idea of having people read different articles 
      and then pool knowledge is hard to implement. I will probably change 
      that aspect greatly the next time.
      
      Pre-requisites are the lower-division AN42, "Primates in Nature" and 
      statistics, preferably biostat, is *highly* recommended. The course is in 
      theory taught every other year (AN42 is every year). The zoo referred to is 
      the San Diego Zoo.
      
      THE LABS ARE:
      
      1) video on behavioral research methods:
      "Research methods for studying animal behavior in a zoo setting"
      produced by the Minnesota & Washington Park Zoos.
      
      2) go to zoo and try to answer question, are primates more vision-
      oriented?, by recording colorful vs plain, head vs body and 
      doing chi-square test (minimal instructions, and the wide variety 
      of findings is the basis for discussion of how one defines terms, 
      avoids bias, etc).
      
      3) comparison of focal continuous, focal instantaneous, and 1/0 sampling 
      in 2-person team comparison of grooming rates between howlers 
      and macaques (we pool data and discuss how one decides about 
      adequacy of sample sizes as well as more on methodological issues; 
      also address adaptive interpretations of the differences seen).
      
      4) cranial capacity and ecology in primates--in the lab students measure 
      capacities of about 20+ monkey skulls (that Shirley Strum and I 
      have found in the course of various fieldwork) using mustard 
      seeds; we discuss variation in measurements (cf. SJ Gould's 
      "Mismeasure of Man") and then do a variety of statistical tests 
      on the pooled data (each student team measures each of about 
      5 skulls 3-4 times and then pools the data).
      
      
      *****************************************************************
      
      COURSE SYLLABUS
      
      Spring 1995
      ANBI 148 Primate Behavioral Ecology
      
      Instructor: Jim Moore Office: H&SS 2064 
      (534-5572; email: jjmoore@ucsd.edu)
      Lectures: TTh 10:00 -- 11:20 in H&SS 1346
      Labs: H&SS 2089, W & Th afternoons (exact times TBA)
      
      Office hours: W @ 9:00, F @ 10:00 I may hold them at the Grove, 
      in which case there'll be a note on my door--so NB if I 
      don't answer my phone during office hours, it's probably 
      because I'm there. Please don't hesitate to schedule 
      additional/alternative times; email's the best way to 
      reach me.
      
      OVERVIEW: This course is a followup to AN42. In it, we will (1) go into 
      greater theoretical and empirical depth than was possible in AN42; 
      and (2) get some experience with the methods used to study 
      primate socioecology. My starting assumption is that you are 
      thoroughly familiar with the major elements of primate behavior, 
      taxonomy and evolution, and are interested in really working to 
      flesh this understanding out.
      
      Labs: There will be a couple of required labs, lasting 2 hours each (the 
      lab room will be available outside of scheduled hours to finish up on 
      stuff, but I don't yet know when--stay tuned for announcements). 
      The class will be split into 2 lab sections, and scheduled, at the 
      first class. 
      
      Zoo Project: There will be a required zoo research project. The 
      purpose of this will be to get some experience designing and 
      implementing behavioral research on primates and analyzing the 
      results. I encourage you to work in teams of 2-4. You will have 
      to choose your own topic and design the research, within a 
      general constraint of focussing on assessment of "personality" in 
      one or more species; I'll explain in class. Grading will cover all 
      aspects of the project, including an oral presentation and paper 
      (ca. 10-15 pp). You will need to get a pass to the zoo: a one-
      quarter student research pass is $6; alternatively, you might 
      want to purchase a student membership (<$20) or regular 
      membership (ca$40), the only difference being that with the 
      regular you get a subscription to ZooNooz and some other 
      benefits; both give you unlimited entry for a year. You should plan 
      on spending an average of at least 3 hours/week at the zoo.
      
      READINGS (at Groundworks Bookstore):
      
      Required:
      Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Struhsaker, T. T. & 
      Wrangham, R. W. (1987). Primate Societies. Chicago: University 
      of Chicago Press. This is probably the best single compendium 
      of information on primates, and forms the core of our 
      information. It is NOT written as a textbook; it is dense and you 
      will need to be willing to look up the references it mentions if 
      you are going to get the maximum out of it. Think of it as an 
      excellent travel guide to the literature on primates--you could 
      just read it & know lots about the field, but going there is much 
      more satisfying in the long run. [RSS]
      
      de Waal, F. B. M. (1989). Peacemaking Among Primates. Cambridge: 
      Harvard University Press. Much primatology has focussed on 
      aggression, status, power and the like (e.g., de Waal's earlier 
      Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex Among Apes, which, btw, is 
      excellent). In this one, de Waal looks at the flip side: how 
      monkeys and apes avoid/regulate conflict; he also emphasizes 
      interspecific differences in behaviour which will be a theme for 
      the quarter. ["dW"]
      
      Martin, P. & Bateson, P. (1986). Measuring Behaviour: and Introductory 
      Guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. This is an 
      excellent guide to the methodological concepts underlying 
      behavioral research. Read it, keep it, use it. ['M&B']
      
      Assigned articles:
      There are a number of articles assigned in the second 
      half of the course. These are not on reserve; part of 
      the fun is locating them and noticing interesting 
      articles in the same volume & that sort of thing [NB: 
      if this isn't your idea of fun, don't even think about 
      grad school! <grin>]. Please do not check them out; I 
      suggest you photocopy the ones you read. If you 
      make a real effort to locate one and it is gone, see 
      me.
      
      Recommended book:
      
      Krebs, J. & Davies, N. (1981 [or later editions]). An Introduction 
      to Behavioral Ecology. Blackwell Scientific. This contains 
      useful background information and will be invaluable if you 
      feel uncertain about background concepts. It is available at 
      the library or (usually) the bookstore.
      
      GRADING -- There will be a total of 200 points possible in the 
      course:
      Midterm: 30
      Labs 1-4: 70
      (the labs vary in # pts)
      Class participation
      General 10
      Assigned discussion 10
      Zoo Project: 80
      (60 on written report, 20 on oral 
      presentation, both due at time scheduled 
      for final exam. Attendance at the 
      scheduled time is required; no exceptions).
      ------------------------------------------------------
      
      LECTURE, LAB & ASSIGNMENT SCHEDULE
      [NB: You should read assignments BY the day indicated.]
      
      The first half of the course will be a breakneck 
      survey of primatology; there is a LOT OF READING to do.
      
      Week 1 PART ONE: The Primates & the Issues
      
      Lab #1: Observing behavior on TV (in H&SS 2089, 
      scheduled times)
      do Lab #2 (Color patterns) this week or next (at zoo, @ 
      your convenience). 
      
      1) T 4/4 Introduction to the course and to primates. 
      Signup for USC forum 4/27
      
      2) Th /6 Discussion of Lab #3
      Primatology and behavioral ecology: basic problems 
      and concepts
      S: 1, 40; review taxonomy (Appendix); 
      M&B: Summary & chaps 1, 2
      
      Week 2
      Lab #3: Observing primate behavior, in pairs @ zoo
      
      3) T /11 Prosimians and paradigms
      S: 2 & 3
      
      4) Th /13 Discuss zoo project, start forming groups; 
      discuss labs to date. 
      Writeups of Lab #1 & #2 DUE
      Monogamous New World Primates (NWP)
      S: 4 & 5
      
      Week 3
      Lab #4: Morphology and the comparative method 
      (in H&SS 2089)
      
      5) T /18 Discussion of results from Labs #1 & #2; 
      Lab #3 Part one data due
      Howlers, spiders and socioecological comparisons
      S: 6 & 7
      
      6) Th /20 Zoo projects chosen and groups defined
      Colobines and guenons: reproductive tactics
      S: 8 & 9
      
      Week 4
      7) T /25 Writeup of Lab #3 DUE.
      Multimale cercopithecines: distribution of genes 
      and beneficence
      S: 11, 24
      
      8) Th /27 Discussion of labs to date
      -------------------
      SoCal Primate Research Forum - 2-8pm, at USC
      Craig Stanford (chimpanzee hunting & 
      early hominids)
      Joe Manson (macaque female mate choice & 
      social organization)
      Lynne Fairbanks (maternal investment in vervets)
      Richard Wrangham (phylogeny/ecology in evolution 
      of hominoids)
      Panel discussion of ethical issues
      Buffet dinner 
      [NB: this was a forum I encouraged
      students to attend; about 5 did]
      ------------------------
      Asian apes: territoriality 
      S: 12, 13, 22 
      
      Week 5
      9) T 5/2 Writeup of Lab #4 DUE.
      African apes: intrasexual relationships
      S: 14 & 15
      
      --------------
      PART DEUX: Current Problems in Primatology In the 
      second half of the course we will focus in greater depth on 
      specific issues; more emphasis on discussion. We'll move 
      slower & deeper. Readings will involve locating journal 
      articles at the library [I'll explain in class] in addition to the 
      textbook readings. Individuals will be assigned responsibility 
      for presenting summaries of these articles and leading 
      discussion. Suggestion: Identify several key questions either 
      explicit or implicit in each article, and hand these out to ad 
      hoc groups who will formulate responses they can then defend 
      to the class.
      
      10) Th /4 Evolution of sociality: why live in groups? MIDTERM
      S: 23 
      A: Wrangham 1980 B: van Schaik 1983
      
      Week 6
      11) T /9 Evolution of sociality: Testing ideas
      S: 19 
      A: van Schaik 1989; van Schaik et al. 1983; 
      Mitchell et al. 1991; Boesch 1991 
      B: Gore 1993; Isbell et al. 1991; Pulliam 1973; 
      Robbins et al. 1991; Strier 1989
      
      12) Th /11 Relationships: what's it like in that group?
      S: 25, 34
      A: Kummer 1978; Bernstein et al. 1993; van Schaik 
      & de Visser1990 
      B: S: 26; Hauser & Harcourt 1992; Rowell et al. 1991
      
      
      Week 7
      13) T /16 Relationships: reproduction -- does dominance rank 
      influence RS?
      S: 30[skim], 31, 32
      A: Cowlishaw & Dunbar 1991 
      B: Barton & Simpson 1992 & other responses re C&D; 
      Fedigan 1983
      
      14) Th /18 Relationships: communication 
      S: 36
      A: Smuts & Watanabe 1990; de Waal 1989 
      B: Cheney & Seyfarth 1990 [chapter 4]
      
      Week 8
      15) T /23 Relationships: manipulation and intelligence
      S: 37, 38
      A: Cheney et al. 1986 
      B: de Waal 1992
      
      16) Th /25 Relationships: Peacemaking
      dW: chapters 1, 6
      A: dW chapters 2, 3 B: dW chapters 4, 5
      
      Week 9
      17) T /30 Dispersal: once all that established, why ever leave it?
      S: 21
      A: Pusey 1987; Manson & Perry 1993 
      B: Moore & Ali 1984; Moore 1993
      
      18) Th 6/1 Personality: does demography affect basic attitude? 
      
      A: Hausfater et al. 1987; Moore 1992a; Simpson & Datta 1990; 
      Ray & Sapolsky 1992 
      B: Shively et al. 1991; Clarke & Mason 1988; 
      de Waal & Luttrell 1989; McGuire et al. 1994
      
      Week 10
      19) T /6 Case study: chimpanzee social organization
      A: Wrangham 1979; Rodman 1991; Wrangham et al. 1992 
      B: Kawanaka 1984; Moore 1992b; Collins & McGrew 1988
      
      20) Th /8 Socioecology
      A: Rowell 1979 B: Caldecott 1986; Moore1984
      
      
      
      Wed. 6/14, 8-11am: "FINAL EXAM": 4th Congress, UCSD BioAnthro 
      Primate Society -- presentations of your project findings. 
      Each group will have a total of up to 10-15 minutes for 
      presentation and questions/discussion. Written project 
      reports DUE.
      (Arrangements for coffee & pastry will be made, believe me...)
      
      Misc Notes:
      1) Your lab writeups should always include (1) an introduction describing 
      the general problem being investigated and explaining why it's worth 
      investigating ("because it was assigned and I want to pass" may be true, 
      but come up with a better one, just for my sake <grin>); (2) presentation 
      of what you did/found (for a couple, the questions are so boilerplate that 
      it won't make sense elaborating this into separate methods and results 
      sections; for others that would be the standard format); (3) some sort of 
      discussion/conclusion (again, for longer papers those would be separate 
      sections).
      
      2) Your zoo project writeup should essentially follow the format of a 
      written journal article--i.e., it should include the above sections, and 
      should include appropriate references to published literature on the 
      topic/species you work on. In other words, it is a research paper. For 
      those of you who took AN 10 from me and still have your course packs, 
      read the section in that on research papers. For those who didn't, 
      if you have any question at all about research papers, come ask. If you 
      don't, and then blow it on something & as a result go from an A to a C, 
      well, can't say I didn't warn you!
      
      3) There are few readings explicitly assigned from Martin & Bateson; it 
      should be your guide to developing your research projects. You should at 
      least skim through it early in the quarter so you know what's there, and 
      then refer to it as you work. I will grade lab projects on the assumption 
      you have had the material in that book.
      
      REFERENCES
      
      Barton, R. A. & Simpson, A. J. (1992). Does the number of males 
      influence the relationship between dominance and mating 
      success in primates? Anim. Behav. 44: 1159-1161.
      Bernstein, I. S., Judge, P. G. & Ruehlmann, T. E. (1993). Kinship, 
      association, and social relationships in rhesus monkeys 
      (Macaca mulatta). Am. J. Primatol. 31: 41-53.
      Boesch, C. (1991). The effects of leopard predation on grouping 
      patterns in forest chimpanzees. Behaviour. 117: 220-242.
      Caldecott, J. O. (1986). Mating patterns, societies and the 
      ecogeography of macaques. Anim. Behav. 34: 208-220.
      Cheney, D. & Seyfarth, R. (1990). How Monkeys See the World. 
      Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
      Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M. & Smuts, B. (1986). Social relationships 
      and social cognition in nonhuman primates. Science. 234: 
      1361-1366.
      Clarke, A. S. & Mason, W. A. (1988). Differences among three macaque 
      species in responsiveness to an observer. Int. J. Primatol. 9: 
      347-364.
      Collins, D. A. & McGrew, W. C. (1988). Habitats of three groups of 
      chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in western Tanzania compared. 
      J. Hum. Evol. 17: 553-574.
      Cowlishaw, G. & Dunbar, R. I. M. (1991). Dominance rank and mating 
      success in male primates. Anim. Behav. 41: 1045-1056.
      Fedigan, L. M. (1983). Dominance and reproductive success in 
      primates. Yrbk. Phys. Anthropol. 26: 91-129.
      Gore, M. A. (1993). Effects of food distribution on foraging 
      competition in rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta, and 
      hamadryas baboons, Papio hamadryas. Anim. Behav. 45: 773-
      786.
      Hauser, M. D. & Harcourt, A. H. (1992). Is there sex-biased mortality 
      in primates? Folia primatol. 58: 47-52.
      Hausfater, G., Cairns, S. J. & Levin, R. N. (1987). Variability and 
      stability in the rank relations of nonhuman primate females: 
      Analysis by computer simulation. Am. J. Primatol. 12: 55-70.
      Isbell, L. A., Cheney, D. L. & Seyfarth, R. M. (1991). Group fusions and 
      minimum group sizes in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus 
      aethiops). Am. J. Primatol. 25: 57-65.
      Kawanaka, K. (1984). Association, ranging, and the social unit in 
      chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. Int. J. 
      Primatol. 5: 411-434.
      Kummer, H. (1978). On the value of social relationships to nonhuman 
      primates: A heuristic scheme. Soc. Sci. Inf. 17: 687-705.
      Manson, J. H. & Perry, S. E. (1993). Inbreeding avoidance in rhesus 
      macaques: whose choice? Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. 90: 335-
      344.
      McGuire, M. T., Raleigh, M. J. & Pollack, D. B. (1994). Personality features 
      in vervet monkeys: the effects of sex, age, social status, and group 
      composition. Am. J. Primatol. 33: 1-13.
      Mitchell, C. L., Boinski, S. & van Schaik, C. P. (1991). Competitive 
      regimes and female bonding in two species of squirrel monkeys 
      (Saimiri oerstedi and S. sciureus). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 28: 
      55-60.
      Moore, J. (1984). Female transfer in primates. Int. J. Primatol. 5: 
      537-589.
      Moore, J. & Ali, R. (1984). Are dispersal and inbreeding avoidance 
      related? Anim. Behav. 32: 94-112.
      Moore, J. (1992a). Dispersal, nepotism, and primate social behavior. 
      Int. J. Primatol. 13: 361-378.
      Moore, J. (1992b). The Egalitarians - Human and Chimpanzee (book 
      review). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 88: 259-262.
      Moore, J. (1993). Inbreeding and outbreeding in primates: What's 
      wrong with "the dispersing sex"? pp. 392-426 IN Thornhill, N. 
      W. (Ed.), The Natural History of Inbreeding and Outbreeding: 
      Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Chicago: University of 
      Chicago Press.
      Pulliam, H. R. (1973). On the advantages of flocking. J. Theor. Biol. 
      38: 419-422.
      Pusey, A. E. (1987). Sex-biased dispersal and inbreeding avoidance in 
      birds and mammals. TREE. 2: 295-299.
      Ray, J. C. & Sapolsky, R. M. (1992). Styles of male social behavior and their 
      endocrine correlates among high-ranking wild baboons. Amer. J. 
      Primatol. 28: 231-250.
      Robbins, D., Chapman, C. A. & Wrangham, R. W. (1991). Group size and 
      stability: why do gibbons and spider monkeys differ? Primates. 
      32: 301-305.
      Rodman, P. S. (1991). Book review of The Chimpanzees of the Mahale 
      Mountains. Int. J. Primatol. 12: 629-632.
      Rowell, T. E. (1979). How would we know if social organization were 
      not adaptive? pp. 1-22 IN Bernstein, I. S. & Smith, E. O. (Ed.), 
      Primate Ecology and Human Origins: Ecological Influences on 
      Social Organization. New York: Garland STPM Press.
      Rowell, T. E., Wilson, C. & Cords, M. (1991). Reciprocity and partner 
      preference in grooming of female blue monkeys. Int. J. 
      Primatol. 12: 319-336.
      Shively, C. A., Brammer, G. L., Kaplan, J. R., Raleigh, M. J. & Manuck, S. 
      B. (1991). The complex relationship between behavioral 
      attributes, social status, and whole blood serotonin in male 
      Macaca fascicularis. Am. J. Primatol. 23: 99-112.
      Simpson, M. J. A. & Datta, S. B. (1990). Predicting infant enterprise 
      from early relationships in rhesus macaques. Behaviour. 116: 
      42-62.
      Smuts, B. B. & Watanabe, J. M. (1990). Social relationships and 
      ritualized greetings in adult male baboons (Papio cynocephalus 
      anubis). Int. J. Primatol. 11: 147-172.
      Strier, K. B. (1989). Effects of patch size on feeding associations in 
      muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides). Folia primatol. 52: 70-77.
      van Schaik, C. P. (1983). Why are diurnal primates living in groups? 
      Behaviour. 87: 120-144.
      van Schaik, C. P. (1989). The ecology of social relationships amongst 
      primate females. pp. 195-218 IN Standen, V. & Foley, R. A. (Ed.), 
      Comparative Socioecology: The Behavioural Ecology of Humans 
      and Other Mammals. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.
      van Schaik, C. P. & de Visser, J. A. G. M. (1990). Fragile sons or 
      harassed daughters? Sex differences in mortality among 
      juvenile primates. Folia primatol. 55: 10-23.
      van Schaik, C. P., van Noordwijk, M. A., Warsono, B. & Sutriono, E. 
      (1983). Party size and early detection of predators in 
      Sumatran forest primates. Primates. 24: 211-221.
      Waal, F. B. M. d. & Luttrell, L. M. (1989). Toward a comparative 
      socioecology of the genus Macaca: Different dominance styles 
      in rhesus and stumptail monkeys. Am. J. Primatol. 19: 83-109.
      Waal, F. B. M. de (1989). Food sharing and reciprocal obligations 
      among chimpanzees. J. Hum. Evol. 18: 433-459.
      Waal, F. B. M. de (1992). Intentional deception in primates. Evol. 
      Anthropol. 1: 86-92.
      Wrangham, R. W. (1979). On the evolution of ape social systems. Soc. 
      Sci. Info. 18: 335-368.
      Wrangham, R. W. (1980). An ecological model of female-bonded 
      primate groups. Behaviour. 75: 262-299.
      Wrangham, R. W., Clark, A. P. & Isabirye-Basuta, G. (1992). Female 
      social relationships and social organization of Kibale Forest 
      chimpanzees. pp. 81-98 IN Nishida, T., McGrew, W. C., Marler, P., 
      Pickford, M. & de Waal, F. B. M. (Ed.), Topics in Primatology, Vol. 
      I: Human Origins. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.
      
      
      
      Additional references on personality-related issues, not assigned, FYI.
      
      Alberts, S. C., Sapolsky, R. M. & Altmann, J. (1992). Behavioral, endocrine, 
      and immunological correlates of immigration by an aggressive male 
      into a natural primate group. Hormones and Behavior. 26: 167-178.
      Boccia, M. L., Laudenslager, M. L., Broussard, C. L. & Hijazi, A. S. (1992). 
      Immune responses following competitive water tests in two species 
      of macaques. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 6: 201-213.
      Bolig, R., Price, C. S., O'Neill, P. L. & Suomi, S. J. (1992). Subjective 
      assessment of reactivity level and personality traits of rhesus 
      monkeys. Int. J. Primatol. 13: 287-306.
      Buirski, P. & Plutchik, R. (1991). Measurement of deviant behavior in a 
      Gombe chimpanzee: Relation to later behavior. Primates. 32: 207-211.
      Butovskaya, M. (1993). Kinship and different dominance styles in groups of 
      three species species of the genus Macaca (M. arctoides, M. mulatta, 
      M. fascicularis). Folia primatol. 60: 210-224.
      Caine, N. G., Earle, H. & Reite, M. (1983). Personality traits of adolescent 
      pigtailed monkeys (Macaca nemestrina): an analysis of social rank and 
      early separation experience. Am. J. Primatol. 4: 253-260.
      Chamove, A. S., Eysenck, H. J. & Harlow, H. F. (1972). Personality in monkeys: 
      factor analysis of rhesus social behavior. Q. J. Experimental Psych. 
      24: 496-504.
      Fairbanks, L. A. & McGuire, M. T. (1993). Maternal protectiveness and 
      response to the unfamiliar in vervet monkeys. Am. J. Primatol. 30: 
      119-129.
      Judge, P. G. (1991). Dyadic and triadic reconciliation in pigtail macaques 
      (Macaca nemestrina). Am. J. Primatol. 23: 225-237.
      Martau, P. A., Caine, N. G. & Candland, D. K. (1985). Reliability of the 
      emotions profile index, primate form, with Papio hamadryas, Macaca 
      fuscata, and two Saimiri species. Primates. 26: 501-505.
      Sapolsky, R. M. & Share, L. J. (1993). Rank-related differences in 
      cardiovascular function among wild baboons: role of 
      sensitivity to glucocorticoids. Am. J. Primatol. 32: 261-275.
      Sapolsky, R. (1994). Individual differences and the stress response. 
      Seminars in the Neurosciences. 6: 261-269.
      Stevenson-Hinde, J., Stillwell-Barnes, R. & Zunz, M. (1980). Subjective 
      assessment of rhesus monkeys over four successive years. Primates. 
      21: 66-82.
      Thierry, B. (1985). Patterns of agonistic interactions in three species of 
      macaque (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. tonkeana). Aggr. Behav. 
      11: 223-233.
      Welker, C., Schafer-Witt, C. & Voigt, K. (1992). Social position and 
      personality in Macaca fascicularis. Folia primatol. 58: 112-117.