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THE PRIMATES (Anthropology 2011--Introductory Level)
Colin Groves, Australian National University

THE PRIMATES (Anthropology 2011--Introductory Level)
                  Course instructor:
                  Colin Groves
                  Australian National University
                  Archaeology & Anthropology
                  Canberra, NC, A.C.T. 0200
         The course The Primates (ANTH2011) is given every alternate year 
        (alternating with Human Evolution).  It was last given in First Semester, 
        (March-June) 1995.
        The Australian National University has around 8,000 undergraduate students.  
        The Department of Archaeology & Anthropology has 16 staff members, including 
        9 Socio-cultural Anthropologists, 5 Archaeologists, and 2 Biological 
        Anthropologists. (We also have an average of 4 Postdoctoral Fellows at any 
        one time; at present, 2 of these are Biological Anthropologists).  We run an 
        average of 32 courses in any one year (not all of these, by any means, are 
        full-semester units).  The unit The Primates this year attracted an 
        enrolment of 56 students, one of the largest enrolments in this Department.
        A semester lasts 13 weeks, with 2 lectures, an hour-long (or 2 
        half-hour-long) films and up to 4 (as many as required) tutorials per week; 
        there is a 2-week break in mid-semester.
        Assessment is usually by two essays (for 40% each) and two class tests (for 
        10% each).
        LECTURE LEVEL for 1995 course:
        Week 1.  Introduction and overview of the Primates.  (A handout with a 
        summary of primate taxonomy is issued, and in lectures slides are shown 
        illustrating all major groups (down to subfamily at least), with mention of 
        their basic distinguishing features.  Students are advised to learn and 
        internalise the names and basic distinctions, as no quarter will be given in 
        subsequent lectures).
        Week 2.  Primate taxonomy; Primate evolution.  (Handouts are issued defining 
        such concepts as Biological and Phylogenetic Species Concepts; Subspecies; 
        Genus; Taxon; Mono-, par- and polyphyly; sym-, para- and allopatry; rules of 
        Week 3.  Nutrition; ecology; behaviour.  (Principles of nutrition and 
        digestion; methods of study; problem of toxicity; rainforest and other 
        primate enviornments; limiting factors; predation, competition; genetic 
        basis of behaviour; learning; social organisation).
        Week 4.  Madagascar lemurs.  (Their taxonomic diversity; uncertainties of 
        taxonomic arrangement; locomotion, diet, activity rhythm; brief overview of 
        important field studies taking Microcebus murinus, Lemur catta and Indri 
        indri as exemplars of different social organisations; special themes like 
        the mystery of the Aye-aye).
        Week 5.  Loridae, tarsiers, Callitrichidae.  (Charles-Dominique's classic 
        study of Gabon lorids; advancing galago taxonomy; phyletic position and 
        social organisation of tarsier; marmoset and tamarin taxonomy, social 
        organisation, outstanding problems).
        Week 6.  Other New World Monkeys.  (Aotus, Saimiri and Callicebus taxonomy; 
        Saimiri reproduction and social organisation; Cebus social organisation and 
        psychology; pitheciine diet and feeding; why Alouatta palliata is not an 
        all-purpose howler; field studies of atelids; morphology and social 
        behaviour of Brachyteles).
        Week 7.  Macaques.  (Macaca mulatta and M.fuscata as "prototype" Old World 
        Monkeys; diversity of macaques, especially Sulawesi; "protocultural" 
        behaviours in M.fuscata; misuse of macaques - Harlow studies and Ainsworth's 
        critique, and the "Hundredth Monkey Effect").
        Week 8.  Babbons.  (Questions of baboon taxonomy; field studies of the five 
        species; hybridisation).
        Week 9.  Other Old World Monkeys.  (What is known of mandrills and drills; 
        geladas, and comparison with hamadryas baboons; two groups of mangabeys; the 
        Cercopithecus group, including Miopithecus social organisation, and the 
        polyspecific association theme).
        Week 10.  Colobidae.  (Themes include the infanticide problem; comparing Red 
        and Black-and-White Colobus; leaf- and seed-eating; and what is the real 
        social organisation of Proboscis Monkeys, Simakobu and Snub-nosed Monkeys).
        Week 11.  Gibbons and Orang Utans.  (Gibbon taxonomy; siamang and lar in 
        sympatry; the problem of Nomascus social grouping; hybridization in Khao Yai 
        and at Barito Ulu; why the Orang Utan is a hominid; are there two species of 
        Pongo; orang social organisation: initial disbelief, long-term studies, 
        continuing surprises).
        Week 12.  Gorillas and Chimpanzees.  (Taxonomy and distribution; 
        relationship to each other and to humans; variations in gorilla ecology and 
        behaviour; emerging information on western gorillas; chimpanzee community 
        organisation, and do gorillas have a form of this too; comparing Gombe, 
        Mahale and Tai).
        Week 12.  Bonobos; and the intelligence and congitive status of apes.
        Introduction to the Primates (a 30 minute teaching video made by yours 
        truly); Life in the Trees (from David Attenborough's "Life on Earth" 
        series); Signs of the Apes, Songs of the Whales; Spirits of the Forest; The 
        Lilliputian Monkeys, The Monkey Community, The Life of a Macaque, Learning 
        the Ropes of Life, The Forest Men, Bleeding Heart Monkeys, What a Funny 
        Nose, The Broken Mirror (all from the "From Monkeys to Apes" series); 
        Hamadryas Babbons of Saudi Arabia; Orangutan Orphans of the Forest; Jane 
        Goodall a Life in the Wild; Too close for comfort; Gorilla.
        The following topics were selected for TUTORIAL DISCUSSION (after an initial 
        tutorial demonstrating primate skulls and skeletons):
        What taxonomy means
        The earliest...
        What is dominance?
        What is territoriality?
        Olfactory communication
        Females being dominant
        Helpers and polyandry
        Avoiding competition
        Which sex disperses?
        Species differences in behaviour
        New behaviours
        On Sulawesi
        Baboon life-histories
        Genes flowing (ref. baboons!)
        Male strategies
        Polyspecific troops
        Killing babies
        Orang Utan solitary life
        Gorilla life-histories
        Chimpanzee tool-making
        The basic course text was Napier & Napier, 1985.  The Natural History of the 
        Primates.  Emphasis here on BASIC.  Other books which students were expected 
        to consult as occasion arose were:
        Chivers (ed.)   Malayan Forest Primates
        Clutton-Brock (ed.) Primate Ecology
        Dunbar  Primate Social Systems
        Fleagle Primate Adaptation and Evolution
        Groves  A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution
        Jolly   Evolution of Primate Behaviour
        Kavanagh Complete Guide to monkeys, apes and other primates
        Martin  Primate Origins and Evolution
        Martin, Doyle & Walker  Prosimian Biology
        Napier & Napier Handbook of Living Primates
        Richard Primates in Nature
        Rowell  Social Behaviour of Monkeys
        Smuts, Cheney, Seyfarth, Wrangham & Struhsaker  Primate Societies
        Wolfheim        Primates of the World
        BUT students are expected, nay required, to consult the primary literature.  
        The final course results were, as always, very encouraging.  Lots of very 
        good essays on complex themes ("What effect have Terrace's criticisms had on 
        the way ape-language researchers have worked?"; good discussions of 
        Territoriality, of Species Concepts, of One-male Groups, of Conservation).
        1995 READING LIST
        TEXT BOOK:
        NAPIER J.R. & P.H.1985The Natural
        History of the Primates.
        Recommended Reading:
        The following books will be constantly referred to during the course, and may
        contain relevant information on many topics.
        CHIVERS, D.J. (ed)          Malayan Forest
        Primates.  (Studies on gibbons,
        langurs and macaques in a forest in
        West Malaysia.)
        CLUTTON-BLOCK, T.H.     1977     Primate
        DUNBAR, R.I.M.     1988     Primate Social
        Systems.  (Theoretical:  not a
        FLEAGLE, J.G.     1988     Primate Adaptation
        and Evolution.
        GROVES, C.P.     1989     A theory of Human
        and Primate Evolution. 
        (Theoretical issues on taxonomy and
        evolution; primates.)
        HILL, W.C.O.     (1953-1978)     Evolutionary
        Biology of the Primates (vols. I-
        JOLLY, Alison     1986     The Evolution of
        Primate Behaviour.  Second edition.
        KAVANAGH, M.     1983     A complete guide to
        monkeys, apes and other primates. 
        (Genus by genus; excellent on
        behavioural ecology.)
        MARTIN, R.D.     1990     Primate Origins and
        Evolution. (Evolution, anatomy)
        MARTIN, R.D.,     1974     Prosimian Biology.  (Huge compendium of
        DOYLE, G.A. &          papers on all aspects of 'prosimian'
        WALKER, A.C. (eds)          anatomy, taxonomy,evolution, behaviour
                  and ecology - getting out of date.)
        NAPIER, J.R. & P.H.     1967     Handbook of
        Living Primates.  (Source book for
        data of all kinds of primates:  now
        out of date in many respects.)
        RICHARD, Alison     1985     Primates in
        ROWELL, Thelma     1972     The Social
        Behaviour of Monkeys.
        SMUTS, B.B.,     1986     Primate Societies. 
        (This would
        CHENEY, D.L.,          be an excellent
        starting point
        SEYFARTH, R.M.,          for readings on the
        societies of
        WRANGHAM, R.W. and          particular groups
        of primates, as
        STRUHSAKER, T.T. (eds)          well as
        individual topics.)
        WOLFHEIM, J.H.     1983     Primates of the
        World:  Distribution, Abundance and
        Conservation.  (Primarily for
        conservation purposes, but with
        many useful items on ecology etc.)
        ANDREWS, P. &     1975     Gibbons and
        brachiation, in D.D.
        GROVES, C.P.          Rumbaugh (ed) Gibbon
        and Siamang
        FLEAGLE, J.G.     1977     Brachiation and
        Biomechanics:  the Siamang as
        example.  Malay Nat.J. 30:45-51.
        GEBO, D.L.     1985     The nature of the
        primate grasping foot.  AJPA,
        GEBO, D.L.     1987     Locomotor diversity
        in prosimian primates. 
        Amer.J.Primat. 13:271-281.
        NAPIER & NAPIER     1967     Section in Part
        I, Handbook of Living Primates.
        RACZKOWSKI, O.     1975     Primate
        Evolution:  were traits selected
        for arboreal locomotion or visually
        directed predation?  Science,
        TUTTLE, R.H.,     1979     Anthropology on
        the move:
        CORTRIGHT, G.W. &          progress in
        experimental studies
        BUXHOEVEDEN, D.P.          of nonhuman
        primate positional
                  behaviour.  Ybk.Phys.Anthrop.
        Evolution and Fossil Primates:
        ANDREWS, P.     1992     Evolution and
        environment in the Hominoidea. 
        Nature, 360:641-6.
        ANDREWS, P.     1982     Hominoid evolution. 
        Nature, 295:185-6.
        ANDREWS, P. &     1982     The relationships
        of Sivapithecus and
        CRONIN, J.E.          Ramapithecus and the
        evolution of the
                  orangutan.  Nature, 297:541-6.
        BEGUN, D.R.     1992     Miocene fossil
        hominids and the chimpanzee-human
        clade.  Science, 257:1929-33.
        CARTMILL, M.     1974     Rethinking primate
        origins, Science, 184:436-443.
        FLEAGLE, J.G.     1988     Primate adaptation
        and Evolution.
        HOFFSTETTER, R.     1974     Phylogeny and
        geographical deployment of the
        primates, J.Hum, Evol., 3:327-350.
        KELLEY, J. & PILBEAM, D.R.     1986     The
        dyopithecines:  taxonomy,
        comparative anatomy and phylogeny
        of Miocene large hominoids. 
        Comp.Primate Biol., 1:361-411.
        LUCKETT, W.P.     1976     Cladistic
        relationships among primate higher
        categories:  evidence of the foetal
        membranes and placenta, Folia
        primat. 25:245-276.
        PICKFORD, M.     1986     A reappraisal of
        Kenyapithecus.  pp.163-172 in J.G.
        Else & P.C. Lee, ed., Primate
        SHEA, B.T.     1987     Reproductive
        strategies, body size, and
        encephalization in primate
        evolution.  Int.J.Primatol. 8:139-
        SZALAY, F.S.     1980     Fossil History of
        the Primates.
        & DELSON, E.
        WHEATLEY, B.P.     1987     The evolution of
        large body size in Orangutans:  a
        model for hominoid divergence. 
        Amer.J.Primat. 13:313-324.
        Feeding, Diet and Ecology
        CHARLES-DOMINIQUE, P.     1974     Ecology &
        feeding behaviour of five species
        of sympatric Lorisids in Gabon. 
        Prosimian Biology 131-150.
        CHIVERS, David J. (ed)          Malaysian
        Forest Primates.
        CHIVERS, D.J. (ed)     1986     Nutrition,
        diet and feeding adaptations. 
        Section II in J.G. Else and P.C.
        Lee (eds), Primate Ecology and
        CLUTTON-BROCK, T.H.     1977     Primate
        ecology and social
        & P.H. HARVEY          organization.  J.Zool.
        GARTLAN, J.S.     1978     Soils, forest
        structure and feeding
        McKEY, D.B. &          behaviour of Primates
        in a Cameroon
        WATERMAN, P.G.          coastal rain-forest. 
        In D.J. Chivers
                  & J. Herbert (ed) Recent Advances
        in Primatology 1:259-267.
        GAUTIER-HION, A.     1980     Seasonal
        variations of diet related to
        species and sex in a community of
        Cercopithecus monkeys. 
        J.Anim.Ecol. 49:237-269.
        GAUTIER-HION, A.     1983     Leaf
        consumption by monkeys in western
        and eastern Africa:  a comparison. 
        Afr.J.Ecol. 21:107-113.
        GLANDER, K.E.     1977     Poison in a
        monkey's Garden of Eden.  Nat.Hist.
        March 1977:35-41.
        HELLEKANT, G.,     1982     Study of
        behavioural and
        D. GLASER,          neurophysiological
        experiments on
        J. BROUWER &          the sweet taste in five
        H. van der WEL          Olfaction and Taste,
        MILTON, K.     1986     Digestive physiology
        in primates.  NIPS, 1:76-79.
        MILTON, K. &     1976     Body weight, diet
        and home range
        M.L. MAY          area in primates.  Nature,
        OATES, J.F.     1980     Food selection by
        the South
        WATERMAN, P.G. &          Indian Leaf-Monkey
        CHOO, G.M.          johnii, in relation to
        leaf chemistry.  Oecologia, 45:45-
        RICHARD, A.F.     1981     Changing
        assumptions in Primate Ecology. 
        Amer.Anthrop., 83:517-533.
        RICHARD, A.F.&     1981     Sociobiology: 
        Primate Field Studies.
        S.R. SCHULMAN          Ann.Rev.Anthrop.,
        STRUHSAKER, T.T.     1981     Polyspecific
        associations among tropical rain-
        forest primates.  Z.Tierpsychol.
        Reproduction and Kinship
        ANGST, W. &     1977     New data and a
        discussion of infant
        D. THOMMEN          killing in Old World
        Monkeys and Apes.  Folia primat.,
        DEWSBURY D.A.     1982     Dominance rank,
        copulatory behaviour, and
        differential reproduction. 
        Quart.Rev.Biol. 57:135-159.
        DITTUS, W.P.J.     1977     The social
        regulation of population density
        and age-sex distribution in the
        Toque Monkey.  Behaviour, 43:281-
        DUNBAR, R.I.M.     1988     Primate Social
        FOERG, R.     1982     Reproductive behaviour
        in Varecia variegata.  Folia
        primatol. 38:108-121.
        HANBY, J.P.     1974     Male-male mounting
        in Japanese monkeys.  Anim.Behav.
        HANBY, J.P.,     1971     The sexual
        behaviour of a
        ROBERTSON, L.T. &          confined troop of
        PHOENIX, C.H.          macaques.  Folia
        Primatologica, 16:123-143.
        HARCOURT, A.H.     1978     Strategies of
        emigration and transfer by
        primates, with particular reference
        to Gorillas.  Z.Tierpsychol.
        HARPENDING, H. &     1986     Primate
        population structure:
        S. COWAN          evaluation of models. 
        AJPA, 70:63-8.
        HERBERT, J.     1970     Hormones and
        reproductive behaviour in rhesus
        and talapoin monkeys, Journal of
        Reprod. & Fertil. Supplement,
        ITANI, J.     1977     Evolution of Primate
        Social Structure.  JHE, 6:235-243.
        JEWELL, P.A. &     1969     Breeding activity
        in Prosimians
        OATES, J.F.          and small rodents in
        West Africa.  J.Reprod.Fert.Suppl.
        KUHN, H-J     1972     On the perineal organ
        of male Procolobus badius.  JHE 
        LEUTNEGGER, W.     1978     Scaling of sexual
        dimorphism in body size and
        breeding systems in Primates. 
        Nature, 272:610-1.
        LOY, J.     1987     The sexual behaviour of
        African monkeys and the question of
        estrus.  pp.175-195 in E.L. Zucker
        (ed), Comparative Behaviour of
        African Monkeys.
        MEIKLE, D.B.,     1984     Dominance rank,
        secondary sex ratio,
        B.L. TILFORD &          and reproduction of
        offspring in
        S.H. VESSEY          polygynous primates. 
        Amer.Nat., 124:173-188.
        MELNICK, D.J.     1988     The genetic
        structure of a primate species: 
        rhesus macaques and other
        cercopithecine monkeys.  Int. J.
        Primatol.  9: 195-231.
        MICHAEL, R.P. &     1970     Primate sex
        pheromones of vaginal
        KEVERNE, E.G.          origin.  Nature,
        NADLER, R.D.     1975     Sexual cyclicity in
        captive lowland gorillas.  Science
        PETTER-     1963     Reproductive behaviour
        ROUSSEAUX, A.          physiology of the
        Lemuroidea.  In
                  Buettner-Janusch, J. (ed)
        Evolutionary and Genetic Biology of
        Primates Vol II.
        RUTBERG, A.T.     1983     The evolution of
        monogamy in primates. 
        J.theor.Biol., 104:93-112.
        van SCHAIK, C.P. &     1983     Social stress
        and the sex ratio
        M.A. van NOORDWIJK          of neonates and
        infants among non-human primates. 
        Neth.J.Zool., 33:249-265.
        SCRUTON, D.M. &     1970     The menstrual
        cycle and its effect on
        HERBERT, J.          behaviour in the
        Talapoin monkey.  J.Zool. 162:419-
        SHIDELER, S.E. &     1982     A comparison of
        primate ovarian cycles.
        B.L. LASLEY          Amer.J.Primat.Suppl.,
        Social Behaviour, Territoriality and Dominance
        BATES, B.C.     1970     Territorial
        behaviour in primates:  a review of
        recent field studies.  Primates,
        BERNSTEIN, I.S.     1970     Primate status
        hierarchies.  Primate Behaviour,
        BERNSTEIN, I.S.     1987     The evolution of
        nonhuman primate social behaviour. 
        Genetica, 73:99-116.
        CHIVERS, D.J.     1969     On the daily
        behaviour and spacing of free-
        ranging howler monkey groups. 
        Folia primat, 10:48-103.
        DEWSBURY, D.A.     1982     Dominance rank,
        copulatory behaviour, and
        differential reproduction. 
        Quart.Rev.Biol., 57:135-159.
        EHART, C.L. &     1986     Matrilineal
        overthrows in rhesus monkey
        I.S. BERNSTEIN          groups. 
        Int.J.Primatol. 7:157-181.
        FEDIGAN, L.M.          A study of roles in
        the Arashiyama West troop of
        Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). 
        Contrib. Primatol No.9.
        GARTLAN, J.S.     1968     Structure and
        function in primate society. Folia
        primat, 8:89-120.
        HAIMOFF, E.H.     1986     Convergence in the
        duetting of monogamous Old World
        Primate.  JHE, 15:51-9.
        MERTL-MILLHOLLEN, A.S.     1988     Olfactory
        demarcation of territorial but not
        home range boundaries by Lemur
        catta.  Folia primatol.50:175-187.
        SYMINGTON, M.M.     1990     Fission-fusion
        social organization in Ateles and
        Pan. Int. J. Primatol, 11:47-61.
        de WAAL, F.     1982     Chimpanzee Politics.
        Senses and Communication
        CLARK, W.E. LeGROS     1959     Antecedents
        of Man pp.266-286.
             (and subsequent editions)
        HOOFF, J.A.R.A.M. van     1966     Facial
        displays of Catarrhine Monkeys and
        Apes.  In Morris, D. (ed) Primate
        Ethology, 7-68.
        MARLER, P.          1976     Social
        organization, communication and
        graded signals:  the chimpanzee and
        the gorilla.  In P. Bateson & R.A.
        Hinde, ed., Growing Points in
        MOYNIHAN, M.          Comparative aspects of
        communication in New World
        Primates.  In Morris, D. (ed)
        Primate Ethology, 236-266.
        NOBACK, C.R.     1978     Sensory systems of Primates.
        Primate Intelligence     (JOLLY devotes much space to this
        ANDERSON, J.R.     1985     Development of tool-use to
        obtain food in a captive group of Mocaca
        tonkeana. JHE, 14:  637-645.
        BECK, B.J.     1974     Baboons, Chimpanzees and Tools. 
        JHE, 3:509-516.
        BECK, B.J.     1982     Chimpocentrism:  bias in cognitive
        ethology.  JHE, 11:3-17.
        BOESCH, C.     1991     Symbolic communication in wild
        chimpanzees?  Hum. Evol., 6:81-90.
        BOESCH, C. &     1984.     Mental map in wild chimpanzees: an BOESCH, H.     analysis of
        hammer transports for nut cracking.       Primates, 25:160-170.
        BOESCH, C. &      1990     Tool use and tool making in wild
        BOESCH H.          chimpanzees.  Folia primatol, 54:86-99.
        BREWER, S.M. &     1990     Chimpanzee use of a tool-set to get McGREW, W.C.honey.  Folia
        primatol. 54:100-4.
        BYRNE, R. &     1988     Machiavellian intelligence:
        WHITEN, A.          social expertise and the evolution
        of intellect in monkeys, apes and humans.
        CANDLAND, D.K. et al.     1986     Primate Thinking.  Part
        II of J.G. Else & P.C. Lee (eds), Primate
        Ontogeny, Cognition and Social Behaviour.
        DESMOND, A.     1979     The Ape's Reflection.
        DRUMM, P.,     1986     Vocal and gestural responses of
        GARDNER, B.T. &          cross-fostered chimpanzees.
        GARDNER, R.A.          Amer.J.Psychol. 99:1-29.
        DORE, F.Y. &     1987     Psychology of animal cognition:
        DUMAS, C.          Piagetian studies.  Psychol.Bull. 
        DWYER, D.     1986     What are chimpanzees telling us about
        language?  Lingua, 69:219-244.
        FOUTS, R.S.     1976     Transfer of signed responses in
        CHOWN, W. &          American Sign Language from vocal
        GOODIN, L.          English stimuli to physical object
                  stimuli by a chimpanzee.  Learning and Motivation,
        GALDIKAS, B.M.F.     1982     Orang-utan tool use at Tanjung
        Puting Reserve, Central Indonesian Borneo. 
        JHE, 10:19-33.
        GALLUP, G.G.     1977     Self-recognition in Primates. 
        Amer.Psychol. 32:334-5.
        GARDNER, R.A.,     1989     Teaching sign language to
        GARDNER, B.T. &          chimpanzees.
        VAN CANFORT, T.E. (eds)
        HANNAH, A.C. &     1987     Chimpanzees using stones to
        crack open
        W.C. McGREW          oil palm nuts in Liberia.  Primates,
        LETHMATE, J.     1982     Tool-using skills of Orang-utans. 
        JHE, 11:49-64.
        LISKA, J.     1987     Variations in the arbitrariness of
        ASL:  an assessment of the symbolicity of
        simian signs.  Hum.Evol. 2:205-212.
        McGREW, W.C.     1992     Chimpanzee Material Culture.
        MENZEL, E.W. &     1975     Purposive behaviour as a basis
        HALPERIN, S.          for objective communication between
        chimpanzees.  Science, 189:652-4.
        MENZEL, E.W.,     1985     Chimpanzee spatial problem
        E.S. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH &          with the use of mirrors and
        J. LAWSON          equivalents of mirrors.  J.Comp.Psychol.
        McGREW, W.E.     1978     Evidence for social custom in wild
        BALDWIN, P.J. &          chimpanzees?  Man, N.S., 13:234-
        TUTIN, C.E.G.
        MILTON, K.     1981     Distribution pattern of tropical
        food plants as an evolutionary stimulus to
        primate mental development.  Amer.Anthrop.,
        PARKER, S.T. &     1977     Object manipulation, tool use
        GIBSON, K.R.          sensorimotor intelligence as feeding
        adaptations in Cebus monkeys and Great Apes. 
        JHE, 6:623-641.
        PAQUETTE, D.     1992     Discovering and learning tool-use
        for fishing honey by captive chimpanzees. 
        Hum.Evol. 7:17-30.
        PATTERSON, F.G.     1980     Innovative uses of language by
        a gorilla:  a case study.  In K. Nelson, ed.,
        Children's Language, 2:497-561.
        POVINELLI, D.J.     1987     Monkeys, apes, mirrors and
        minds:  the evolution of self-awareness in
        primates.  Hum.Evol. 2:493-509.
        POVINELLI, D.J.     1991     Social Intelligence in Monkeys
        and Apes.  University Microfilms
        POVINELLI. D.J.     1994     Comparative studies of animal
        mental state attribution: a reply too Heyes. 
        RUMBAUGH, D.D. &     1967     Great Ape intelligence. 
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        HERSHKOVITZ, P.     1983     Two new species of Night
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        HERSHKOVITZ, P.     1984     Taxonomy of squirrel monkeys. 
        Amer.J.Primat. 7:155-210. - Hershkovitz has
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        taxonomic revisions of South American Monkey
        HORWICH, R.H.     1983     Breeding behaviours in the Black
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        Primates, 24: 22-230.
        KINZEY, W.G.,     1977     A preliminary field investigation
        A.L. ROSENBERGER,          of the Yellow-handed Titi Monkey,
        P.S. HEISLER,          Calicebus torquatus torquatus, in
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        J.S. TRILLING
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        LACHER, T.E.,     1981     Exudate-eating, scent-marking and
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        McGREW, W.C.     1987     Helpers at the nest-box, or, are
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        MASATAKA, N.     1981     A field study of the social
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        MILTON, K.     1983     Rates of fermentative digestion in
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        of free-ranging Woolly Spider Monkeys
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        Beaded Saki
        MITTERMEIER, R.A. &          (Chiropotes satanas
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        fuscicollis and Saguinus labiatus with
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        SUGAWARA, K.     1982     Sociological comparison between
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        SUGAWARA, K.     1982     Ethological study of the social
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        DIXSON, A.F.     1977     Observations on displays,
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        KAWAMOTO, Y.,     1984     Genetic variations within and
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        J.E.J. WHITTEN          Mentawai Macaque on Siberut Island,
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        species or
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        system, and 
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        Key to major Journals:     (a) in 6ql1 section:
        Folia primat. or Folia primatol.     -    
        Folia primatologica.
        Primates          -     Primates.
        Amer. J. Primatol.          -     American
        Journal of Primatology.
        Int. J. Primatol.          -     International
        Journal of Primatology.
             (b) in 6qh301 section:
        JHE.          -     Journal of Human Evolution
             (c) in 6gn1 section:
        AJPA.          -     American Journal of
        Physical Anthropology.