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THE PRIMATES (Anthropology 2011--Introductory Level)
Colin Groves, Australian National University


THE PRIMATES (Anthropology 2011--Introductory Level)
        
        
                  Course instructor:
                  Colin Groves
                  Australian National University
                  Archaeology & Anthropology
                  Canberra, NC, A.C.T. 0200
                  Australia
                  Email:  grocpre@durras.anu.edu.au
        
        BACKGROUND
        
        
         The course The Primates (ANTH2011) is given every alternate year 
        (alternating with Human Evolution).  It was last given in First Semester, 
        (March-June) 1995.
        The Australian National University has around 8,000 undergraduate students.  
        The Department of Archaeology & Anthropology has 16 staff members, including 
        9 Socio-cultural Anthropologists, 5 Archaeologists, and 2 Biological 
        Anthropologists. (We also have an average of 4 Postdoctoral Fellows at any 
        one time; at present, 2 of these are Biological Anthropologists).  We run an 
        average of 32 courses in any one year (not all of these, by any means, are 
        full-semester units).  The unit The Primates this year attracted an 
        enrolment of 56 students, one of the largest enrolments in this Department.
        A semester lasts 13 weeks, with 2 lectures, an hour-long (or 2 
        half-hour-long) films and up to 4 (as many as required) tutorials per week; 
        there is a 2-week break in mid-semester.
        Assessment is usually by two essays (for 40% each) and two class tests (for 
        10% each).
        
        
        LECTURE LEVEL for 1995 course:
        
        Week 1.  Introduction and overview of the Primates.  (A handout with a 
        summary of primate taxonomy is issued, and in lectures slides are shown 
        illustrating all major groups (down to subfamily at least), with mention of 
        their basic distinguishing features.  Students are advised to learn and 
        internalise the names and basic distinctions, as no quarter will be given in 
        subsequent lectures).
        
        Week 2.  Primate taxonomy; Primate evolution.  (Handouts are issued defining 
        such concepts as Biological and Phylogenetic Species Concepts; Subspecies; 
        Genus; Taxon; Mono-, par- and polyphyly; sym-, para- and allopatry; rules of 
        nomenclature).
        
        Week 3.  Nutrition; ecology; behaviour.  (Principles of nutrition and 
        digestion; methods of study; problem of toxicity; rainforest and other 
        primate enviornments; limiting factors; predation, competition; genetic 
        basis of behaviour; learning; social organisation).
        
        Week 4.  Madagascar lemurs.  (Their taxonomic diversity; uncertainties of 
        taxonomic arrangement; locomotion, diet, activity rhythm; brief overview of 
        important field studies taking Microcebus murinus, Lemur catta and Indri 
        indri as exemplars of different social organisations; special themes like 
        the mystery of the Aye-aye).
        
        Week 5.  Loridae, tarsiers, Callitrichidae.  (Charles-Dominique's classic 
        study of Gabon lorids; advancing galago taxonomy; phyletic position and 
        social organisation of tarsier; marmoset and tamarin taxonomy, social 
        organisation, outstanding problems).
        
        Week 6.  Other New World Monkeys.  (Aotus, Saimiri and Callicebus taxonomy; 
        Saimiri reproduction and social organisation; Cebus social organisation and 
        psychology; pitheciine diet and feeding; why Alouatta palliata is not an 
        all-purpose howler; field studies of atelids; morphology and social 
        behaviour of Brachyteles).
        
        Week 7.  Macaques.  (Macaca mulatta and M.fuscata as "prototype" Old World 
        Monkeys; diversity of macaques, especially Sulawesi; "protocultural" 
        behaviours in M.fuscata; misuse of macaques - Harlow studies and Ainsworth's 
        critique, and the "Hundredth Monkey Effect").
        
        Week 8.  Babbons.  (Questions of baboon taxonomy; field studies of the five 
        species; hybridisation).
        
        Week 9.  Other Old World Monkeys.  (What is known of mandrills and drills; 
        geladas, and comparison with hamadryas baboons; two groups of mangabeys; the 
        Cercopithecus group, including Miopithecus social organisation, and the 
        polyspecific association theme).
        
        Week 10.  Colobidae.  (Themes include the infanticide problem; comparing Red 
        and Black-and-White Colobus; leaf- and seed-eating; and what is the real 
        social organisation of Proboscis Monkeys, Simakobu and Snub-nosed Monkeys).
        
        Week 11.  Gibbons and Orang Utans.  (Gibbon taxonomy; siamang and lar in 
        sympatry; the problem of Nomascus social grouping; hybridization in Khao Yai 
        and at Barito Ulu; why the Orang Utan is a hominid; are there two species of 
        Pongo; orang social organisation: initial disbelief, long-term studies, 
        continuing surprises).
        
        Week 12.  Gorillas and Chimpanzees.  (Taxonomy and distribution; 
        relationship to each other and to humans; variations in gorilla ecology and 
        behaviour; emerging information on western gorillas; chimpanzee community 
        organisation, and do gorillas have a form of this too; comparing Gombe, 
        Mahale and Tai).
        
        Week 12.  Bonobos; and the intelligence and congitive status of apes.
        
        
        FILMS SHOWN
        
        Introduction to the Primates (a 30 minute teaching video made by yours 
        truly); Life in the Trees (from David Attenborough's "Life on Earth" 
        series); Signs of the Apes, Songs of the Whales; Spirits of the Forest; The 
        Lilliputian Monkeys, The Monkey Community, The Life of a Macaque, Learning 
        the Ropes of Life, The Forest Men, Bleeding Heart Monkeys, What a Funny 
        Nose, The Broken Mirror (all from the "From Monkeys to Apes" series); 
        Hamadryas Babbons of Saudi Arabia; Orangutan Orphans of the Forest; Jane 
        Goodall a Life in the Wild; Too close for comfort; Gorilla.
        
        The following topics were selected for TUTORIAL DISCUSSION (after an initial 
        tutorial demonstrating primate skulls and skeletons):
        What taxonomy means
        The earliest...
        What is dominance?
        What is territoriality?
        Olfactory communication
        Females being dominant
        Helpers and polyandry
        Avoiding competition
        Which sex disperses?
        Species differences in behaviour
        New behaviours
        On Sulawesi
        Baboon life-histories
        Genes flowing (ref. baboons!)
        Male strategies
        Polyspecific troops
        Leaf-eating
        Killing babies
        Monogamy
        Orang Utan solitary life
        Gorilla life-histories
        Chimpanzee tool-making
        
        
        TEXTS
         
        The basic course text was Napier & Napier, 1985.  The Natural History of the 
        Primates.  Emphasis here on BASIC.  Other books which students were expected 
        to consult as occasion arose were:
        Chivers (ed.)   Malayan Forest Primates
        Clutton-Brock (ed.) Primate Ecology
        Dunbar  Primate Social Systems
        Fleagle Primate Adaptation and Evolution
        Groves  A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution
        Jolly   Evolution of Primate Behaviour
        Kavanagh Complete Guide to monkeys, apes and other primates
        Martin  Primate Origins and Evolution
        Martin, Doyle & Walker  Prosimian Biology
        Napier & Napier Handbook of Living Primates
        Richard Primates in Nature
        Rowell  Social Behaviour of Monkeys
        Smuts, Cheney, Seyfarth, Wrangham & Struhsaker  Primate Societies
        Wolfheim        Primates of the World
        BUT students are expected, nay required, to consult the primary literature.  
        
        COMMENTS
        
        The final course results were, as always, very encouraging.  Lots of very 
        good essays on complex themes ("What effect have Terrace's criticisms had on 
        the way ape-language researchers have worked?"; good discussions of 
        Territoriality, of Species Concepts, of One-male Groups, of Conservation).
        
        
        
        1995 READING LIST
        
        ANTH2011
        THE PRIMATES
        DEPARTMENT OF PREHISTORY AND ANTHROPOLOGY
        THE FACULTIES
        
        
        
        TEXT BOOK:
        
        NAPIER J.R. & P.H.1985The Natural
        History of the Primates.
        
        Recommended Reading:
        
        The following books will be constantly referred to during the course, and may
        contain relevant information on many topics.
        
        
        CHIVERS, D.J. (ed)          Malayan Forest
        Primates.  (Studies on gibbons,
        langurs and macaques in a forest in
        West Malaysia.)
        
        CLUTTON-BLOCK, T.H.     1977     Primate
        Ecology.
        (ed)
        
        DUNBAR, R.I.M.     1988     Primate Social
        Systems.  (Theoretical:  not a
        text-book.)
        
        FLEAGLE, J.G.     1988     Primate Adaptation
        and Evolution.
        
        GROVES, C.P.     1989     A theory of Human
        and Primate Evolution. 
        (Theoretical issues on taxonomy and
        evolution; primates.)
        
        HILL, W.C.O.     (1953-1978)     Evolutionary
        Biology of the Primates (vols. I-
        VIII).
        
        JOLLY, Alison     1986     The Evolution of
        Primate Behaviour.  Second edition.
        
        KAVANAGH, M.     1983     A complete guide to
        monkeys, apes and other primates. 
        (Genus by genus; excellent on
        behavioural ecology.)
        
        MARTIN, R.D.     1990     Primate Origins and
        Evolution. (Evolution, anatomy)
        
        MARTIN, R.D.,     1974     Prosimian Biology.  (Huge compendium of
        DOYLE, G.A. &          papers on all aspects of 'prosimian'
        WALKER, A.C. (eds)          anatomy, taxonomy,evolution, behaviour
                  and ecology - getting out of date.)
        
        NAPIER, J.R. & P.H.     1967     Handbook of
        Living Primates.  (Source book for
        data of all kinds of primates:  now
        out of date in many respects.)
        
        RICHARD, Alison     1985     Primates in
        Nature.
        
        ROWELL, Thelma     1972     The Social
        Behaviour of Monkeys.
        
        SMUTS, B.B.,     1986     Primate Societies. 
        (This would
        CHENEY, D.L.,          be an excellent
        starting point
        SEYFARTH, R.M.,          for readings on the
        societies of
        WRANGHAM, R.W. and          particular groups
        of primates, as
        STRUHSAKER, T.T. (eds)          well as
        individual topics.)
        
        WOLFHEIM, J.H.     1983     Primates of the
        World:  Distribution, Abundance and
        Conservation.  (Primarily for
        conservation purposes, but with
        many useful items on ecology etc.)
        
        Locomotion:
        
        ANDREWS, P. &     1975     Gibbons and
        brachiation, in D.D.
        GROVES, C.P.          Rumbaugh (ed) Gibbon
        and Siamang
                  4:167-218.
        
        FLEAGLE, J.G.     1977     Brachiation and
        Biomechanics:  the Siamang as
        example.  Malay Nat.J. 30:45-51.
        
        GEBO, D.L.     1985     The nature of the
        primate grasping foot.  AJPA,
        67:269-277.
        
        GEBO, D.L.     1987     Locomotor diversity
        in prosimian primates. 
        Amer.J.Primat. 13:271-281.
        
        NAPIER & NAPIER     1967     Section in Part
        I, Handbook of Living Primates.
        
        RACZKOWSKI, O.     1975     Primate
        Evolution:  were traits selected
        for arboreal locomotion or visually
        directed predation?  Science,
        187:455-6.
        
        TUTTLE, R.H.,     1979     Anthropology on
        the move:
        CORTRIGHT, G.W. &          progress in
        experimental studies
        BUXHOEVEDEN, D.P.          of nonhuman
        primate positional
                  behaviour.  Ybk.Phys.Anthrop.
        22:187-214.
        
        
        
        
        
        Evolution and Fossil Primates:
        
        
        ANDREWS, P.     1992     Evolution and
        environment in the Hominoidea. 
        Nature, 360:641-6.
        
        ANDREWS, P.     1982     Hominoid evolution. 
        Nature, 295:185-6.
        
        
        
        ANDREWS, P. &     1982     The relationships
        of Sivapithecus and
        CRONIN, J.E.          Ramapithecus and the
        evolution of the
                  orangutan.  Nature, 297:541-6.
        
        BEGUN, D.R.     1992     Miocene fossil
        hominids and the chimpanzee-human
        clade.  Science, 257:1929-33.
        
        CARTMILL, M.     1974     Rethinking primate
        origins, Science, 184:436-443.
        
        FLEAGLE, J.G.     1988     Primate adaptation
        and Evolution.
        
        HOFFSTETTER, R.     1974     Phylogeny and
        geographical deployment of the
        primates, J.Hum, Evol., 3:327-350.
        
        KELLEY, J. & PILBEAM, D.R.     1986     The
        dyopithecines:  taxonomy,
        comparative anatomy and phylogeny
        of Miocene large hominoids. 
        Comp.Primate Biol., 1:361-411.
        
        LUCKETT, W.P.     1976     Cladistic
        relationships among primate higher
        categories:  evidence of the foetal
        membranes and placenta, Folia
        primat. 25:245-276.
        
        PICKFORD, M.     1986     A reappraisal of
        Kenyapithecus.  pp.163-172 in J.G.
        Else & P.C. Lee, ed., Primate
        Evolution.
        
        SHEA, B.T.     1987     Reproductive
        strategies, body size, and
        encephalization in primate
        evolution.  Int.J.Primatol. 8:139-
        156.
        
        SZALAY, F.S.     1980     Fossil History of
        the Primates.
        & DELSON, E.
        
        
        WHEATLEY, B.P.     1987     The evolution of
        large body size in Orangutans:  a
        model for hominoid divergence. 
        Amer.J.Primat. 13:313-324.
        
        
        
        
        Feeding, Diet and Ecology
        
        CHARLES-DOMINIQUE, P.     1974     Ecology &
        feeding behaviour of five species
        of sympatric Lorisids in Gabon. 
        Prosimian Biology 131-150.
        
        CHIVERS, David J. (ed)          Malaysian
        Forest Primates.
        
        CHIVERS, D.J. (ed)     1986     Nutrition,
        diet and feeding adaptations. 
        Section II in J.G. Else and P.C.
        Lee (eds), Primate Ecology and
        Conservation.
        
        CLUTTON-BROCK, T.H.     1977     Primate
        ecology and social
        & P.H. HARVEY          organization.  J.Zool.
        183:1-39.
        
        GARTLAN, J.S.     1978     Soils, forest
        structure and feeding
        McKEY, D.B. &          behaviour of Primates
        in a Cameroon
        WATERMAN, P.G.          coastal rain-forest. 
        In D.J. Chivers
                  & J. Herbert (ed) Recent Advances
        in Primatology 1:259-267.
        
        GAUTIER-HION, A.     1980     Seasonal
        variations of diet related to
        species and sex in a community of
        Cercopithecus monkeys. 
        J.Anim.Ecol. 49:237-269.
        
        GAUTIER-HION, A.     1983     Leaf
        consumption by monkeys in western
        and eastern Africa:  a comparison. 
        Afr.J.Ecol. 21:107-113.
        
        GLANDER, K.E.     1977     Poison in a
        monkey's Garden of Eden.  Nat.Hist.
        March 1977:35-41.
        
        HELLEKANT, G.,     1982     Study of
        behavioural and
        D. GLASER,          neurophysiological
        experiments on
        J. BROUWER &          the sweet taste in five
        primates.
        H. van der WEL          Olfaction and Taste,
        7:183-6.
        
        MILTON, K.     1986     Digestive physiology
        in primates.  NIPS, 1:76-79.
        
        MILTON, K. &     1976     Body weight, diet
        and home range
        M.L. MAY          area in primates.  Nature,
        259:459-462.
        
        OATES, J.F.     1980     Food selection by
        the South
        WATERMAN, P.G. &          Indian Leaf-Monkey
        Presbytis
        CHOO, G.M.          johnii, in relation to
        leaf chemistry.  Oecologia, 45:45-
        56.
        
        RICHARD, A.F.     1981     Changing
        assumptions in Primate Ecology. 
        Amer.Anthrop., 83:517-533.
        
        RICHARD, A.F.&     1981     Sociobiology: 
        Primate Field Studies.
        S.R. SCHULMAN          Ann.Rev.Anthrop.,
        11:231-255.
        
        STRUHSAKER, T.T.     1981     Polyspecific
        associations among tropical rain-
        forest primates.  Z.Tierpsychol.
        57:268-301.
        
        Reproduction and Kinship
        
        ANGST, W. &     1977     New data and a
        discussion of infant
        D. THOMMEN          killing in Old World
        Monkeys and Apes.  Folia primat.,
        27:198-229.
        
        DEWSBURY D.A.     1982     Dominance rank,
        copulatory behaviour, and
        differential reproduction. 
        Quart.Rev.Biol. 57:135-159.
        
        DITTUS, W.P.J.     1977     The social
        regulation of population density
        and age-sex distribution in the
        Toque Monkey.  Behaviour, 43:281-
        322.
        
        DUNBAR, R.I.M.     1988     Primate Social
        Systems.
        
        FOERG, R.     1982     Reproductive behaviour
        in Varecia variegata.  Folia
        primatol. 38:108-121.
        
        HANBY, J.P.     1974     Male-male mounting
        in Japanese monkeys.  Anim.Behav.
        22:836-849.
        
        HANBY, J.P.,     1971     The sexual
        behaviour of a
        ROBERTSON, L.T. &          confined troop of
        Japanese
        PHOENIX, C.H.          macaques.  Folia
        Primatologica, 16:123-143.
        
        HARCOURT, A.H.     1978     Strategies of
        emigration and transfer by
        primates, with particular reference
        to Gorillas.  Z.Tierpsychol.
        48:401-420.
        
        HARPENDING, H. &     1986     Primate
        population structure:
        S. COWAN          evaluation of models. 
        AJPA, 70:63-8.
        
        HERBERT, J.     1970     Hormones and
        reproductive behaviour in rhesus
        and talapoin monkeys, Journal of
        Reprod. & Fertil. Supplement,
        11:119-140.
        
        ITANI, J.     1977     Evolution of Primate
        Social Structure.  JHE, 6:235-243.
        
        JEWELL, P.A. &     1969     Breeding activity
        in Prosimians
        OATES, J.F.          and small rodents in
        West Africa.  J.Reprod.Fert.Suppl.
        189:813-4.
        
        KUHN, H-J     1972     On the perineal organ
        of male Procolobus badius.  JHE 
        1:371-8.
        
        LEUTNEGGER, W.     1978     Scaling of sexual
        dimorphism in body size and
        breeding systems in Primates. 
        Nature, 272:610-1.
        
        LOY, J.     1987     The sexual behaviour of
        African monkeys and the question of
        estrus.  pp.175-195 in E.L. Zucker
        (ed), Comparative Behaviour of
        African Monkeys.
        
        MEIKLE, D.B.,     1984     Dominance rank,
        secondary sex ratio,
        B.L. TILFORD &          and reproduction of
        offspring in
        S.H. VESSEY          polygynous primates. 
        Amer.Nat., 124:173-188.
        
        MELNICK, D.J.     1988     The genetic
        structure of a primate species: 
        rhesus macaques and other
        cercopithecine monkeys.  Int. J.
        Primatol.  9: 195-231.
        
        MICHAEL, R.P. &     1970     Primate sex
        pheromones of vaginal
        KEVERNE, E.G.          origin.  Nature,
        225:84-85.
        
        NADLER, R.D.     1975     Sexual cyclicity in
        captive lowland gorillas.  Science
        189:813-4.
        
        PETTER-     1963     Reproductive behaviour
        and
        ROUSSEAUX, A.          physiology of the
        Lemuroidea.  In
                  Buettner-Janusch, J. (ed)
        Evolutionary and Genetic Biology of
        Primates Vol II.
        
        RUTBERG, A.T.     1983     The evolution of
        monogamy in primates. 
        J.theor.Biol., 104:93-112.
        
        van SCHAIK, C.P. &     1983     Social stress
        and the sex ratio
        M.A. van NOORDWIJK          of neonates and
        infants among non-human primates. 
        Neth.J.Zool., 33:249-265.
        
        SCRUTON, D.M. &     1970     The menstrual
        cycle and its effect on
        HERBERT, J.          behaviour in the
        Talapoin monkey.  J.Zool. 162:419-
        436.
        
        SHIDELER, S.E. &     1982     A comparison of
        primate ovarian cycles.
        B.L. LASLEY          Amer.J.Primat.Suppl.,
        1:171-180.
        
        Social Behaviour, Territoriality and Dominance
        
        BATES, B.C.     1970     Territorial
        behaviour in primates:  a review of
        recent field studies.  Primates,
        11:271-284.
        
        BERNSTEIN, I.S.     1970     Primate status
        hierarchies.  Primate Behaviour,
        1:71-109.
        
        BERNSTEIN, I.S.     1987     The evolution of
        nonhuman primate social behaviour. 
        Genetica, 73:99-116.
        
        CHIVERS, D.J.     1969     On the daily
        behaviour and spacing of free-
        ranging howler monkey groups. 
        Folia primat, 10:48-103.
        
        DEWSBURY, D.A.     1982     Dominance rank,
        copulatory behaviour, and
        differential reproduction. 
        Quart.Rev.Biol., 57:135-159.
        
        EHART, C.L. &     1986     Matrilineal
        overthrows in rhesus monkey
        I.S. BERNSTEIN          groups. 
        Int.J.Primatol. 7:157-181.
        
        FEDIGAN, L.M.          A study of roles in
        the Arashiyama West troop of
        Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). 
        Contrib. Primatol No.9.
        
        GARTLAN, J.S.     1968     Structure and
        function in primate society. Folia
        primat, 8:89-120.
        
        HAIMOFF, E.H.     1986     Convergence in the
        duetting of monogamous Old World
        Primate.  JHE, 15:51-9.
        
        MERTL-MILLHOLLEN, A.S.     1988     Olfactory
        demarcation of territorial but not
        home range boundaries by Lemur
        catta.  Folia primatol.50:175-187.
        
        SYMINGTON, M.M.     1990     Fission-fusion
        social organization in Ateles and
        Pan. Int. J. Primatol, 11:47-61.
        
        de WAAL, F.     1982     Chimpanzee Politics.
        
        
        Senses and Communication
        
        CLARK, W.E. LeGROS     1959     Antecedents
        of Man pp.266-286.
             (and subsequent editions)
        
        HOOFF, J.A.R.A.M. van     1966     Facial
        displays of Catarrhine Monkeys and
        Apes.  In Morris, D. (ed) Primate
        Ethology, 7-68.
        
        MARLER, P.          1976     Social
        organization, communication and
        graded signals:  the chimpanzee and
        the gorilla.  In P. Bateson & R.A.
        Hinde, ed., Growing Points in
        Ethology.
        
        MOYNIHAN, M.          Comparative aspects of
        communication in New World
        Primates.  In Morris, D. (ed)
        Primate Ethology, 236-266.
        
        NOBACK, C.R.     1978     Sensory systems of Primates.
        
        
        Primate Intelligence     (JOLLY devotes much space to this
        topic.)
        
        ANDERSON, J.R.     1985     Development of tool-use to
        obtain food in a captive group of Mocaca
        tonkeana. JHE, 14:  637-645.
        
        BECK, B.J.     1974     Baboons, Chimpanzees and Tools. 
        JHE, 3:509-516.
        
        BECK, B.J.     1982     Chimpocentrism:  bias in cognitive
        ethology.  JHE, 11:3-17.
        
        BOESCH, C.     1991     Symbolic communication in wild
        chimpanzees?  Hum. Evol., 6:81-90.
        
        BOESCH, C. &     1984.     Mental map in wild chimpanzees: an BOESCH, H.     analysis of
        hammer transports for nut cracking.       Primates, 25:160-170.
        
        BOESCH, C. &      1990     Tool use and tool making in wild
        BOESCH H.          chimpanzees.  Folia primatol, 54:86-99.
        
        BREWER, S.M. &     1990     Chimpanzee use of a tool-set to get McGREW, W.C.honey.  Folia
        primatol. 54:100-4.
        
        BYRNE, R. &     1988     Machiavellian intelligence:
        WHITEN, A.          social expertise and the evolution
        of intellect in monkeys, apes and humans.
        
        CANDLAND, D.K. et al.     1986     Primate Thinking.  Part
        II of J.G. Else & P.C. Lee (eds), Primate
        Ontogeny, Cognition and Social Behaviour.
        
        DESMOND, A.     1979     The Ape's Reflection.
        
        DRUMM, P.,     1986     Vocal and gestural responses of
        GARDNER, B.T. &          cross-fostered chimpanzees.
        GARDNER, R.A.          Amer.J.Psychol. 99:1-29.
        
        DORE, F.Y. &     1987     Psychology of animal cognition:
        DUMAS, C.          Piagetian studies.  Psychol.Bull. 
        102:219-233.
        
        DWYER, D.     1986     What are chimpanzees telling us about
        language?  Lingua, 69:219-244.
        
        FOUTS, R.S.     1976     Transfer of signed responses in
        CHOWN, W. &          American Sign Language from vocal
        GOODIN, L.          English stimuli to physical object
                  stimuli by a chimpanzee.  Learning and Motivation,
        7:458-475.
        
        GALDIKAS, B.M.F.     1982     Orang-utan tool use at Tanjung
        Puting Reserve, Central Indonesian Borneo. 
        JHE, 10:19-33.
        
        GALLUP, G.G.     1977     Self-recognition in Primates. 
        Amer.Psychol. 32:334-5.
        
        GARDNER, R.A.,     1989     Teaching sign language to
        GARDNER, B.T. &          chimpanzees.
        VAN CANFORT, T.E. (eds)
        
        HANNAH, A.C. &     1987     Chimpanzees using stones to
        crack open
        W.C. McGREW          oil palm nuts in Liberia.  Primates,
        28:31-46.
        
        LETHMATE, J.     1982     Tool-using skills of Orang-utans. 
        JHE, 11:49-64.
        
        LISKA, J.     1987     Variations in the arbitrariness of
        ASL:  an assessment of the symbolicity of
        simian signs.  Hum.Evol. 2:205-212.
        
        McGREW, W.C.     1992     Chimpanzee Material Culture.
        
        MENZEL, E.W. &     1975     Purposive behaviour as a basis
        HALPERIN, S.          for objective communication between
        chimpanzees.  Science, 189:652-4.
        
        MENZEL, E.W.,     1985     Chimpanzee spatial problem
        solving
        E.S. SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH &          with the use of mirrors and
        televised
        J. LAWSON          equivalents of mirrors.  J.Comp.Psychol.
        99:211-7.
        
        McGREW, W.E.     1978     Evidence for social custom in wild
        BALDWIN, P.J. &          chimpanzees?  Man, N.S., 13:234-
        251.
        TUTIN, C.E.G.
        
        MILTON, K.     1981     Distribution pattern of tropical
        food plants as an evolutionary stimulus to
        primate mental development.  Amer.Anthrop.,
        83:534-548.
        
        PARKER, S.T. &     1977     Object manipulation, tool use
        and
        GIBSON, K.R.          sensorimotor intelligence as feeding
        adaptations in Cebus monkeys and Great Apes. 
        JHE, 6:623-641.
        
        PAQUETTE, D.     1992     Discovering and learning tool-use
        for fishing honey by captive chimpanzees. 
        Hum.Evol. 7:17-30.
        
        PATTERSON, F.G.     1980     Innovative uses of language by
        a gorilla:  a case study.  In K. Nelson, ed.,
        Children's Language, 2:497-561.
        
        POVINELLI, D.J.     1987     Monkeys, apes, mirrors and
        minds:  the evolution of self-awareness in
        primates.  Hum.Evol. 2:493-509.
        
        POVINELLI, D.J.     1991     Social Intelligence in Monkeys
        and Apes.  University Microfilms
        International.
        
        POVINELLI. D.J.     1994     Comparative studies of animal
        mental state attribution: a reply too Heyes. 
        Anim.Behav.48:239-241.
        
        RUMBAUGH, D.D. &     1967     Great Ape intelligence. 
        Zoonooz,
        McCORMACK, C.          40:4-12.
        
        SANDERS, R.J.     1985     Teaching apes to ape language: 
        explaining the imitative and nonimitative
        signing of a chimpanzee.  J.Comp.Psychol,
        99:197-210.
        
        SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH, E.S.     1981     Can apes use symbols to
        represent their world?  Ann.NY.Acad.Sci.
        364:35-59.
        
        SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH, E.S.     1986     Ape language: from
        conditioned response to symbol. Columbia
        University Press.
        
        SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH, E.S. &     1994     Kanzi: the Ape at the brink of the LEWIN, R.         
        human mind. John Wiley.
        
        
        
        SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH, E.S.,     1986     Spontaneous symbol
        acquisition and
        K. McDONALD,          communicative use by Pygmy
        Chimpanzees.
        W.D. HOPKINS &          J.Exper.Psychol.:General, 115:211-
        235.
        E. RUBERT
        
        SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH, E.S.,     1978     Linguistically-related
        tool-use and
        RUMBAUGH, D.M. &          exchange by the chimpanzee. 
        Behav.
        BOYSEN, S.          Brian Sci. 1:539-554.
        
        SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH, E.S.,     1977     Spontaneous gestural
        communication
        WILKERSON, B.J. &          among conspecifics in the Pygmy
        BAKEMAN, R.          Chimpanzee (Pan paniscus).  In Bourne,
        G. (ed) Progress in Ape Research, 97-116.
        
        SUGIYAMA, Y. &     1979     Tool-using and making behaviour
        in wild
        KOMAN, J.          chimpanzees at Bosson, Guinea.  Primates,
        20:513-524.
        
        TERRACE, H.S.     1985     Animal cognition:  thinking
        without language.  Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lond. B,
        308:113-128.
        
        TERRACE, H.S.     1979     Can an ape create a sentence? 
        Science,
        PETITTO, L.A.          206:891-902.
        SANDERS, R.J. &
        BEVER, T.G.
        
        VISALBERGHI, E. &     1986     Tool use in the exploitation
        of food
        ANTINUCCI, F.          resources in Cebus apella.  pp.57-62
        in J.G. Else & P.C. Lee (eds), Primate Ecology
        and Conservation.
        
        
        Lemurs
        
        BEARDER, S.K. &     1974     Field and laboratory studies of
        social
        DOYLE, G.A.          organization in Bushbabies, JHE, 3:37-
        50.
        CHARLES-DOMINIQUE, P.     1974     Ecology and feeding
        behaviour of five sympatric lorisids in Gabon,
        Prosimian Biology, 131-150.
        
        DOYLE, G.A. &     1979     The study of Prosimian
        MARTIN, R.D. (eds)          Behaviour.
        
        ERICKSON, C.J.     1991     Percussive foraging in the aye-
        aye, Daubentonia madagascariensis. Anim.
        Behav. 41:793-801.
        
        FOERG, R.     1982     Reproductive behaviour in Varecia
        variegata.  Folia primat., 38:108-121.
        
        GANZHORN, J.U.     1986     Feeding behaviour of Lemur catta
        and Lemur fulvus.  Int.J.Primatol. 7:17-30.
        
        
        
        GANZHORN, J.U.,     1985     Some aspects of the natural
        history and
        J.P. ABRAHAM &          food selection of Avahi laniger.
        M. RAZANAHOERA-          Primates, 26:452-463.
        RAKOTOMALALA
        
        GLANDER, K.E.,     1989     Consumption of cyanogenic bamboo
        P.C. WRIGHT,          by a newly discovered species of
        D.S. SEIGLER,          Bamboo Lemur.  Amer.J.Primatol.
        V. RANDRIANASOLO &           19:119-124.
        B. RANDRIANASOLO.
        
        GROVES, C.P.     1974     Taxonomy and phylogeny of
        prosimians, Prosimian Biology, 449-473.
        
        HARCOURT, D.S. &     1986     Species differences in
        substrate use
        NASH, L.T.          and diet between sympatric galagos in
        two Kenyan coastal forests.  Primates, 27:41-
        52.
        
        HARRINGTON, J.     1976     Discrimination between
        individuals by scent in Lemur fulvus.  Anim.
        Behav. 24:207-212.
        
        HLADIK, C.M. &     1974     The behaviour and ecology of the
        CHARLES-DOMINIQUE, P          sportive lemur (Lepilemur
        mustelinus) in relation to its dietary
        peculiarities.  Prosimian Biology 23-37.
        
        JOLLY, A.     1966     Lemur Behaviour.
        
        MASTERS, J.C.,     1988     Reproductive and dietary
        W.H.R. LUMSDEN &          parameters in wild Greater Galago
        D.A. YOUNG          populations.  Int.J.Primatol. 9:573-92.
        
        MEIER, B.,     1987     A new species of Hapalemur
        (Primates)
        ALBIGNAC, R.,          from South East Madagascar.  Folia
        PEYRIERAS, A.,RUMPLER, Y. &          primatol.  48:211-5.
        WRIGHT, P.
        
        MERTL-MILLHOLLEN, A.S.     1988     Olfactory demarcation of
        territorial but not home range boundaries by
        Lemur catta.  Folia primatol. 50:175-187.
        
        MORLAND, H.S.     1991.     Social organization and ecology of                Black and White
        Ruffed Lemurs (Varecia           variegata variegata) in lowland rain           forest, Nosy
        Mangabe, Madagascar.                 University Microfilms International.
        
        NASH, L.T.,     1989     Synopsis of Galago species
        BEARDER, S.K. &          characteristics.  Int. J.
        OLSON, T.R.          Primatol. 10:57-79.
        
        OVERDORFF, D.     1980     Preliminary activity cycle and
                  diet of the Red-bellied Lemur
                  (Lemur rubriventer) in Madagascar.  Amer J.
        Primatol. 16: 143-153.
        
        PEREIRA, M.E.,     1990     Female dominance does not
        R. KAUFMAN,          characterize all of the
        P.M. KAPPELER &          Lemuridae. Folia primatol.
        D.J. OVERDORFF          55:96-103.
        
        PETTER, J-J.,     1977     Faune de Madagascar 44. 
        Mammiferes
        R. ALBIGNAC &          Lemuriens (Primates Prosimiens).
        Y. RUMPLER          Orstom, CNRS, Paris.  (Indispensable
        source book on distribution, taxonomy and
        basic behaviour of lemurs.)
        
        RICHARD, A.F. &     1987     Female social dominance and
        basal
        M.E. NICOLL          metabolism in a Malagasy primate,
        Propithecus verreauxi.  Amer.J.Primatol.,
        12:309-314.
        
        SAUTHER, M.L. &     1993     A new interpretation of the
        social organization and mating system of the
        Ringtailed Lemur.  Lemur Social Systems and
        their Ecological Basis (P.M.Kappeler &
        J.U.Ganzhorn, eds.), 111-121.
        
        SCHILLING, A.     1974     A study of marking behaviour in
        Lemur catta.  Prosimian Biology, 347-362.
        
        SIMONS, E.L.     1988     A new species of Propithecus from
        Northeast Madagascar.  Folia primatol.,
        50:143-151.
        
        SUSSMAN, R.W. &     1976     Cycles of activity, group
        composition
        TATTERSALL, I.          and diet of Lemur mongoz mongoz
        Linnaeus 1766 in Madagascar.  Folia primatol.
        26:270-283.
        
        TATTERSALL, I.     1978     Behavioural variation in Lemur
        mongoz.  In D.J. Chivers & K.A. Joysey, (eds). 
        Recent Advances in Primatology, 3:127-132.
        
        TATTERSALL, I.     1982     The Primates of Madagascar. 
        (Less thorough than Petter et al., but with
        many new ideas.)
        
        WINN, R.M.     1989     The Aye-ayes, Daubentonia
        madagascariensis, at the Paris Zoological
        Garden: maintenance and preliminary
        behavioural observations.  Folia primatol. 52:
        109-123.
        
        
        Tarsiers
        
        GINGERICH, P.D.     1978     Phylogeny reconstruction and
        the phylogenetic position of Tarsius.  In D.J.
        Chivers & K.A. Joysey (ed) Recent Advances in
        Primatology, 3:249-255.
        
        HARING, D.M.,     1985     Social behaviours of Tarsius
        syrichta
        P.C. WRIGHT &          and Tarsius bancanus.  AJPA 66:179.
        E.L. SIMONS
        
        McKINNON, J. & K.     1980     The behaviour of wild
        Spectral Tarsiers.  Int.J.Primatol., 1:361-
        379.
        
        MUSSER, G.G. &     1987     The identity of Tarius pumilus,
        M. DAGOSTO          a pygmy species endemic to the Montane
        Mossy Forests of Central Sulawesi. 
        Amer.Mus.Novit. No. 2867:1-53.
        
        NIEMITZ, C. (ed)     1984     Biology of Tarsiers (various
        papers).
        
        POLLOCK, J.I. &     1987     Vitamin C biosynthesis in
        prosimians:
        MULLIN, R.J.          evidence for the anthropoid affinity
        of Tarsius.  AJPA, 73:65-70.
        
        WRIGHT, P.C.,     1986     Courtship and copulation in
        Tarsius
        L.M. TOYAMA &          bancanus.  Folia primat. 46:142-8.
        E.L. SIMONS
        
        
        
        
        
        
        New World Monkeys
        
        CARPENTER, C.R.     1963     The howlers of Barro Colorado
        Island.  In De Vore, I (ed). Primate
        Behaviour, 250-291.
        
        CHEVALIER-SKOLNIKOFF, S.     1990     Tool use by wild Cebus
        monkeys at Santa Rosa National Park, Costa
        Rica.  Primates, 31:375-383.
        
        CHIVERS, D.J.     1969     On the daily behaviour and
        spacing of Howling Monkey groups, Folia
        primat. 10:48-102.
        
        EPPLE, G.,     1987     Species and subspecies specificity
        ALVEARIO, M.C.,          in urine and scent marks of saddle-
        
        BELCHER, A.M. &          back tamarins.  Int.J.Primatol.
        SMITH, A.B.          8:663-80.
        
        EVANS, S.     1983     The pair-bond of the common Marmoset: 
        an experimental investigation.  Anim.Behav.
        31:651-8.
        
        FERRARI, J.F., &
        LOPEZ-FERRARI, M.A.     1989     An evaluation of the social
        organisation of the Callitrichidae, with
        reference to the ecological differences
        between genera.  Folia primatol. 52: 132-147.
        
        FLEAGLE, J.G. &     1988     Locomotor behaviour and
        skeletal
        D.J. MELDRUM          morphology of two sympatric pitheciine
        monkeys, Pithecia pithecia and Chiropotes
        satanas.  Amer.J. Primatol. 16:227-249.
        
        FLEAGLE, J.G. &     1980     Locomotor behaviour, body size
        and
        MITTERMEIER, R.A.          comparative ecology of seven
        Surinam monkeys.  AJPA, 52:301-314.
        
        FROEHLICH, J.W.,     1991     Morphometric analyses of
        Ateles:
        J. SUPRIATNA &          systematic and biogeographic 
        P.H. FROEHLICH          implications.  Amer.J. Primatol.
        25:1-22.
        
        GAULIN, S.J.C. & C.K.     1982     Behavioral ecology of
        Aloutta seniculus in Andean Cloud Forest. 
        Int. J. Primatol. 3: 1-32.
        
        GEBO, D.L.     1992     Locomotor and postural behaviour in
        Alouatta palliata and Cebus capucinus. 
        Amer.J. Primatol. 26:277-290.
        
        GOLDIZEN, A.W.     1988     Tamarin and marmoset mating
        systems:  unusual flexibility.  TREE, 36-40.
        
        GOLDIZEN, A.W. &     1986     Co-operative polyandry and
        helping
        TERBORGH, J.          behaviour in saddle-backed tamarins
        (Saguinus fuscicollis).  pp.191-8 in J.G. Else
        & P.C. Lee, (eds), Primate Ecology and
        Conservation.
        
        HERSHKOVITZ, P.     1978     Living New World Monkeys
        (Platyrhini):  1, Callitrichidae.  University
        of Chicago Press.
        
        HERSHKOVITZ, P.     1983     Two new species of Night
        Monkeys, Genus Aotus:  a preliminary report on
        Aotus taxonomy.  Amer.J.Primatol., 4:209-243.
        
        HERSHKOVITZ, P.     1984     Taxonomy of squirrel monkeys. 
        Amer.J.Primat. 7:155-210. - Hershkovitz has
        several other papers in Amer.J.Primat., Folia
        primat., and Fieldiana (Zoology), with new
        taxonomic revisions of South American Monkey
        groups.
        
        HORWICH, R.H.     1983     Breeding behaviours in the Black
        Howler Monkey (Aloutta pigra) of Belize. 
        Primates, 24: 22-230.
        
        KINZEY, W.G.,     1977     A preliminary field investigation
        A.L. ROSENBERGER,          of the Yellow-handed Titi Monkey,
        P.S. HEISLER,          Calicebus torquatus torquatus, in
        D.L. PROWSE &          northern Peru.  Primates 18:159-181.
        J.S. TRILLING
        
        KLEIN, L.L. & D.J.     1971     Aspects of social behaviour
        in a colony of spider monkeys at San Francisco
        Zoo, IZY, 11:175-181.
        
        LACHER, T.E.,     1981     Exudate-eating, scent-marking and
        BOUCHARDET D.A.,          territoriality in wild population
        FONSEGA, G.A..,          of marmosets.  Anim.Behav., 29,
        ALVES, C. &          part 1.
        MAGALHAES-CASTRO, B.
        
        McFARLAND SYMINGTON, M.     1987     Sex ratio and maternal
        rank in wild spider monkeys:  when daughters
        disperse.  Behav.Ecol. Sociobiol. 20:421-5.
        
        McGREW, W.C.     1987     Helpers at the nest-box, or, are
        cotton-top tamarins really Florida scrub-jays? 
        Primate Report, 18:21-6.
        
        MASATAKA, N.     1981     A field study of the social
        behaviour of Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico
        goeldii) in North Bolivia.  Kyoto Overseas
        Research Reports of New World Monkeys, 2: 23-
        42.
        
        MILTON, K.     1981     Food choice and digestive strategies
        of two sympatric primate species.  Amer.Nat.
        117:496-505.
        
        MILTON, K.     1983     Rates of fermentative digestion in
        the Howler Monkey.  Comp.Biochem.Physiol.
        74A:29-31.
        
        MILTON, K.     1984     Habitat, diet, and activity patterns
        of free-ranging Woolly Spider Monkeys
        (Brachyteles arachnoides).  Int.J.Primat.
        5:491-514.
        
        MILTON, K.     1985     Mating patterns of Woolly Spider
        Monkeys:  implications for female choice. 
        Behav.Ecol.Sociobiol. 17:53-9.
        
        MITTERMEIER, R.A.,     1975     A woolly monkey rediscovered
        in Peru.
        H. de MACEDO RUIZ &          Oryx, H. 13:41-6.
        A. LUSCOMBE
        
        RICHARD, A.     1971     A comparative study of the activity
        patterns and behaviour of Alouatta villosa and
        Ateles geoffroyi.  Folia primat.  12:241-263.
        
        ROOSMALEN van, M.G.M.,     1988     Diet of the Northern
        Beaded Saki
        MITTERMEIER, R.A. &          (Chiropotes satanas
        chiropotes):
        FLEAGLE, J.G.          a Neotropical seed predator. 
        Amer.J.Primat. 14:11-35.
        
        ROSENBERGER, A.L.     1983     Aspects of the systematics
        and evolution of the marmosets.  A
        Primatologia no Brasil, 159-180.
        
        RYLANDS, A.B.     1985     Tree-gouging and scent-marking by
        marmosets.  Anim.Behav. 33:1365-7.
        
        RYLANDS, A.B.     1986     Ranging behaviour and habitat
        preference of a wild marmoset group,
        Callithrix humeralifer.  J.Zool.London. A,
        210:489-514.
        
        RYLANDS, A.B. (ed.)     1993.     Marmosets and Tamarins:
        Systematics, Ecology and Conservation.  O.U.P.
        
        SUSSMAN, R.W. &     1987     A new interpretation of the
        social
        GARBER, P.A.          organization and mating
        system of the
                  Callitrichidae.  Int.J.Primat. 8:73-
        92.
        
        STEVENSON, P.R.,     1994.     Ecological strategies of woolly monkeys QUINONES, M.J.&        
         (Lagothrix  lagotricha) at Tinigua AHUMADA, J.A.          National Park, Colombia. 
                            Amer.J.Primatol. 32:123-140.
        
        STRIER, K.B.     1990     New World Primates: insights from
        the Woolly Spider Monkey, or Muriqui
        (Brachyteles arachnoides).  Int.J.Primatol.
        11:7-19.
        
        THORINGTON, R.W.     1984     A study of a Black Howling
        Monkey (Alouatta caraya) population in
        Northern Argentina.  Amer. J. Primat. 6: 357-
        366.
        
        TERBORGH, J.     1983     Five New World Primates.
        (Excellent analysis of ecological
        relationships of five species in Peru.)
        
        WRIGHT, P.C.     1986     Ecological correlates of monogamy
        in Aotus and Callicebus. pp.159-168 in J.G.
        Else & P.C. Lee (eds), Primate Ecology and
        Conservation.
        
        YONEDA, M.     1981     Ecological studies of Saguinus
        fuscicollis and Saguinus labiatus with
        reference to habitat segregation and height
        preference.  Kyoto University Overseas
        Research Reports of New World Monkeys, 2: 43-
        50.
        Baboons
        
        ALTMAN, S.A. & J.     1970     Baboon Ecology.
        
        ALTMAN, J. & S.A.,     1977     Life history of Yellow
        baboons:  
        G. HAUSFATER &          physical development, reproductive
        S.A. McCUSKEY          parameters, and infant mortality. 
        Primates, 18:315-330.
        
        
        
        BOESE, G.K.     1975     Social behaviour and ecological
        considerations of West African baboons (Papio
        papio).  In Tuttle, R.H. (ed) Socioecology and
        Psychology of Primates, 205-230.
        
        BYRNE, R.W.,     1987     One-male groups and intergroup
        WHITEN A. &          interactions of Mountain Baboons.
        
        DEVORE, I. &     1963     Baboon ecology.  In DeVore, I.
        (ed)
        HALL, K.R.L.          Primate Behaviour, 20-52.  (Out of
        date, but a classic, on which all subsequent
        studies have been based.)
        
        HALL, K.R.L. &     1963     Baboon social behaviour.  In
        DeVore, ed
        DEVORE, I.          (above), 53-110.  (Like DeVore & Hall: 
        out of date, but classic.)
        
        HAUSFATER, G. &     1987     Structure and function of
        hindquarter
        TAKACS, D.          presentations in Yellow Baboons. 
        Ethology, 74:297-319.
        
        KUMMER, H.     1968     Social Organisation of Hamadryas
        Baboons.
        
        KUMMER, H.     1969     Cross-species modifications of
        social
        GOETZ, W. &          behaviour in baboons.  In Napier, J.R.
        ANGST, W.          & P.H. (eds).  The Old World Monkeys,
        351-364.
        
        NAGEL, U.     1973     A comparison of Anubis baboons,
        Hamadryas baboons and their hybrids at a
        species border in Ethiopia.  Folia primat. 
        19:104-65.
        
        PHILLIPS-CONROY, J.E. &     1986     Changes in the
        structure of the
        JOLLY, C.J.          Baboon hybrid zone in the Awash
        National Park, Ethopia.  AJPA, 71: 337-350.
        
        RASMUSSEN, D.R.     1981     Communities of baboon troops in
        Mikumi National Park, Tanzania.  Folia
        primat., 36:232-242.
        
        ROWELL, T.E.     1966     Forest living baboons in Uganda,
        J. Zoology. 147:344-64.
        
        SHOTAKE, T.     1981     Population genetical study of
        natural hybridization between Papio anubis and
        Papio hamadryas. Primates, 22:225-308.
        
        SUGAWARA, K.     1982     Sociological comparison between
        two wild groups of Anubis-Hamadryas hubrid
        baboons.  Afr. Study Monogr. 2:73-131.
        
        SUGAWARA, K.     1982     Ethological study of the social
        behaviour of hybrid baboons between Papio
        anubis and P.hamadryas in free-ranging groups. 
        Primates, 29: 429-448.
        
        WHITEN, A.,     1987     The behavioural ecology of
        BYRNE, R.W. &          Mountain Baboons.  Int. J.
        HENZI, S.P.          Primatol. 8: 367-388.
        
        
        
        
        
        Macaques
        
        CALDECOTT, J.     1984     Coming of age in Macaca.  New
        Sci. , 1396:10-12.
        
        CIANI, A.C.,     1989     Evidence of gene flow between
        STANYON, R.,          Sulawesi Macaques.  Amer. J.
        SCHEFFRAHN W. &          Primatol. 17: 257-270.
        SAMPURNO, B.
        
        DEAG, J.M. &     1971     Social behaviour and 'agonistic
        CROOK, J.H.          buffering' in the wild Barbary Macaque. 
        Folia primat. 15:183-200.
        
        DITTUS, W.P.J.     1977     The socioecological basis for
        the conservation of the Toque macaque (Macaca
        sinica) of Sri Lanka (Ceylon).  In Rainier &
        Bourne, (eds).  Primate Conservation, 237-265.
        
        DIXSON, A.F.     1977     Observations on displays,
        menstrual cycles and sexual behaviour of the
        'Black Ape' of Celebes.  J.Zool. 182:63-84.
        
        EUDEY, A.     1981     Morphological and ecological
        characters in sympatric populations of Macaca
        in the Dawna Range.  In A.B. Chiarelli & R.S.
        Corruccini, (ed), Primate Evolutionary
        Biology.
        
        FOODEN, J.     1976     Provisional classification and key
        to living species of macaques.  Folia
        primatol. 25:225-236.
        
        FOODEN, J.     1982     Ecogeographic segregation of macaque
        species.  Primates, 23:574-9.
        
        HANBY, J.P.     1974     Male-male mounting in Japanese
        monkeys.  Anim.Behav. 22:836-849.
        
        IMANISHI, K. &          Japanese Monkeys.  (Translations of
        ALTMAN, S.A.          Japanese papers, mainly from the 1950s
        and 1960s.)
        
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        MASSEY, A.     1977     Agonistic aids and kinship in a
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        MELNICK, D.J.     1988     The genetic structure of a
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        Cercopithecus, Erythrocebus, Miopithecus
        
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        Mandrillus
        
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        Mandrillus sphinx in Gabon:  implications of
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        free ranging mandrills in an enclosed Gabonais
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        Cercocebus, Lophocebus
        
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        systematics of the Mangabeys (Primates: 
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        HOMEWOOD, K.M.     1975     Monkey on a riverbank.  Nat.
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        HORN, A.D.     1987     The socioecology of the Black
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        KINNAIRD, M.F.     1990     Pregnancy, gestation and
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        MARSH, C.     1986     A resurvey of Tana River Primates and
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        QURIS, R.     1975     Ecologie et organisation sociale de
        Cercocebus galeritus agilis dans le nord-est
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        mediation of intergroup avoidance in a forest
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        WASER, P.M.     1977     Feeding, ranging and group size in
        the Mangabey Cercocebus albigena.  In T.H.
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        WASER, P.M.     1985     Spatial structure in mangabey
        groups.  Int.J.Primat. 6:569-580.
        
        
        Theropithecus
        
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        Theropithecus:  
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        CROOK, J.H. &     1968     Ecological and behavioural
        contrasts
        ALDRICH-BLAKE, P.          between sympatric ground-dwelling
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        baboons:
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        H. OHSAWA &          Primates, 24:13-24.
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        KUMMER, H.     1974     Rules of dyad and group formation
        among captive gelada baboons.  Symp. 5th Int.
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        Colobus Monkeys
        
        BARANGA, D.     1982     Nutrient composition and food
        preferences of colobus monkeys in Kibale
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        CLUTTON-BROCK, T.H.     1975     Feeding behaviour of Red
        Colobus and Black-and-White Colobus in East
        Africa.  Folia primatol. 23:165-207.
        
        DUNBAR, R.I.M. & E.P.     1976     Contrasts in social
        structure among black-and-white colobus
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        GUNDERSON, V.     1977     Some observations on the ecology
        of Colobus badius temmincki, Abuko Nature
        Reserve, The Gambia, West Africa.  Primates,
        18:305-314.
        
        HARRISON, M.J.S.     1986     Feeding ecology of Black
        Colobus (Colobus satanas) in central Gabon. 
        pp.31-38 in J.G. Else & P.C. Lee (ed), Primate
        Ecology and Conservation.
        
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        Procolobus badius.  J.H.E., 1:371-8.
        
        McKEY, D.B. &     1981     Food selection by Black Colobus
        monkeys
        J.S. GARTLAN,          (Colobus satanas)  in relation to
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        G.M. CHOO          16:115-146.
        
        McKEY, D.B. &     1982     Ranging behaviour of a group of
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        group composition.  Science, 163:93-5.
        
        MARSH, C.W.     1979     Female transfer and mate choice
        among Tana River Red Colobus.  Nature,
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        MARSH, C.W.     1979     Comparative aspects of social
        organisation in the Tana River Red Colobus. 
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        MORENO-BLACK, G. &     1982     Secondary compounds in the
        diet of
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        OATES, J.F.     1988     The diet of the Olive Colobus
        Monkey, Procolobus verus, in Sierra Leone. 
        Int.J.Primatol., 9:457-478.
        
        OATES, J.F. &     1983     Taxonomy and phylogeny of Black-
        and-
        T.F. TROCCO          White Colobus monkeys:  inferences from
        an analysis of loud call variation.  Folia
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        OHWAKI, K.,     1974     Stomach fermentation in East
        African
        HUNGATE, R.E., LOTTER, L.,          Colobus in their natural
        state.  Appl.
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        STARIN, E.D.     1981     Monkey moves.  Nat.Hist. 37-42.
        
        STARIN, E.D.     1988     Gestation and birth-related
        behaviours in Temminck's Red Colobus.  Folia
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        STRUHSAKER, T.T.     1975     The Red Colobus Monkey.  (A
        bit old, but still a classic.)
        
        STRUHSAKER, T.T.     1981     Vocalizations, phylogeny and
        palaeogeography of red colobus monkeys. 
        Afr.J.Ecol. 19:265-283.
        
        
        
        
        
        
        Langurs
        
        AGORAMOORTHY, G.     1988     Abortions in free-ranging
        S.M. MOHNOT,          Hanuman Langurs - a male induced
        V. SOMMER &          strategy?  Hum.Evol. 3:297-308.
        A. SRIVASTAVA
        
        AIMI, M. & BAKAR, A.     1992     Taxonomy and distribution
        of Presbytis melalophos group in Sumatera,
        Indonesia.  Primates, 33:191-206.
        
        BENNETT, E.L.     1986     Environmental correlates of
        ranging behaviour in the Banded Langur,
        Presbytis melalophos. Folia primat. 47:26-38.
        
        BORRIES, C.,     1991     Dominance, age, and reproductive SOMMER, V. &          success in
        free-ranging female hanuman SRIVASTAVA, A.          langurs.  Int.J.Primatol. 12:231-257.
        
        CHAPMAN, M. &     1979     The reproductive consequences of
        HAUSFATER, G.          infanticide in langurs:  a
        mathematical model.  Behav.Ecol.Sociobiol.
        5:227-240.
        
        CHOUDHURY, A.     1989     Ecology of the Capped Langur,
        Presbytis pileatus, in Assam, India.  Folia
        primatol. 52:88-92.
        
        CURTIN, S.H.     1977     Niche separation in sympatric
        Malaysian leaf-monkeys (Presbytis obscura and
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        formation in Presbytis rubicunda.  Folia
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        DAVIES, A.G.,     1988     Food selection by two South-east
        Asian 
        E.L. BENNETT &          colobine monkeys (Presbytis
        rubicunda 
        P.G. WATERMAN          and Presbytis melalophos) in relation
        to plant chemistry.  Biol.J.Linn.Soc. 34:33-
        56.
        
        HRDY, S.B.     1974     Male-male competition and
        infanticide among the langurs of Abu,
        Rajasthan, Folia primat 22:19-58.
        
        HRDY, S.B.     1977     Infanticide as a Primate
        reproductive strategy.  Amer.Sci. 65:40-9.
        
        HRDY, S.B.     1977     The Langurs of Abu.  Harvard U.P.
        
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        DeVore (ed) Primate Behaviour, 197-249.
        
        OATES, J.F.,     1980     Food selection by the South Indian
        P.G. WATERMAN &          Leaf-monkey, Presbytis johnii, in
        G.M. CHOO          relation to leaf chemistry.  Oecologia,
        45:45-56.
        
        OPPENHEIMER, J.R.     1977     Presbytis entellus, the
        Hanuman langur.  In Rainier & Bourne (eds)
        Primate Conservation, 468-512.
        
        RAJPUROHIT, L.S.     1991     Resident male replacement,
        formation of a new male band and paternal
        behaviour in Presbytis entellus.  Folia
        primatol.57:159-164.
        
        RUHIYAT, Y.     1983     Socio-ecological study of Presbytis
        aygula in West Java.  Primates, 24:344-59.
        
        VAN SCHAIK, C.P.,     1992     Territorial behaviour in
        South-
        P.R. ASSINK &          east Asian Langurs:  resource
        N. SALAFSKY          defence or territorial defense?
                  Amer. J. Primatol. 26:233-42.
        
        SOMMER, V.,     1992     Cycles, sexuality and conception
        A. SRIVASTAVA &          in free-ranging langurs.
        C. BORRIES          Amer.J.Primatol. 28:1-27.
        
        STANFORD, C.     1990     The Capped Langur in Bangladesh.
        
        SUGIYAMA, Y.     1976     Characteristics of the ecology of
        the Himalayan langurs.  JHE, 5:249-277.
        
        TILSON, R.L. &     1976     Monogamy and duetting in an Old
        World
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        Snub-nosed and Proboscis Monkeys
        
        BLEISCH, W.,     1993     Preliminary results from a field study CHENG, A.-S.,          of
        wild Guizhou Snub-nosed Monkeys REN, X.-D. & XIE, J.-H.          (Rhinopithecus brelichi). 
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        DAVISON, G.W.H.     1982     Convergence with terrestrial
        Cercopithecines by the monkey Rhinopithecus
        roxellanae.  Folia primat. 37:209-215.
        
        KAVANAGH, M.     1978     The social behaviour of the douc
        (Pygathrix nemaeus nemaeus) at San Diego Zoo. 
        Primates, 19:101-114.
        
        LI, Z., S. MA,      1981     The distribution and habit of
        Yunnan
        C. HUA & Y. WANG          Golden Monkey (Rhinopitheus
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                  JHE, 11:633-8.
        
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        and reproduction. In K. Benirschke, ed.
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        Sichuan
        FITCH, H.M. &          Golden Monkeys (Rhinopithecus r. 
        LINDBURG, D.G.          roxellana).  Amer.J.Primat. 14:1-9.
        
        TILSON, R.L.     1977     Social organisation of the
        Simakobu monkey (Nasalis concolor) in Siberut
        Island, Indonesia.  J. Mammal. 58:202-212.
        
        WATANABE, K.     1981     Variations in group composition
        and population density of the two sympatric
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        WU B-Q.     1993     Patterns of spatial dispersion,
        locomotion and foraging behaviour in three
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        larvatus) social organization: group
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        YEAGER, C.P.     1992     Proboscis Monkey social
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        Gibbons
        
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        behaviour and social relations of the gibbon. 
        In Carpenter, C.R. (ed) Naturalistic Behaviour
        of Nonhuman Primates, and in Comparative
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        reprint of a classic paper.)
        
        CHIVERS, D.J.     1972     The siamang and the gibbon in the
        Malay peninsula.  In Rumbaugh, D.M. (ed)
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        CHIVERS, D.J.,     1975     Long-term observation of Siamang
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        Gibbons in Assam, India.  Amer. J. Primatol. 
        20:37-41.
        
        GEISSMANN, T.     1983     Female Capped Gibbon sings male
        song.  JHE, 12:667-671.
        
        GEISSMANN, T.     1984     Inheritance of song parameters in
        the gibbon song, analysed in two hybrid
        gibbons.  Folia primat., 42:216-235.
        
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        gibbons.  In Rumbaugh D.D. (ed) Gibbon &
        Siamang 1:1-89.
        
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        wild
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        Amer.J.Primat. 8:239-247.
        
        HAIMOFF, E.H.,     1987     Preliminary observations of wild
        Black-
        YANG X-J., HE S-J. &          crested Gibbons (Hylobates
        concolor
        CHEN N.          concolor) in Yunnan Province, People's
        Republic of China.  Primates, 28:319-335.
        
        LAN D-Y.     1993     Feeding and vocal behaviours of Black
        Gibbons (Hylobates concolor) in Yunnan: a
        preliminary study.  Folia primatol.60:94-105.
        
        LIU, Z.,     1989     Population structure of
        ZHANG, Y.,          Hylobates concolor in Bawanglin
        JIANG, H. &          Nature Reserve Hainan, China.
        SOUTHWICK, C.          Amer. J. Primatol.  19:247-254.
        
        MARSHALL, J.T. & E.R.     1976     Gibbons and their
        territorial songs, Science, 192:235-7.
        
        MITANI, J.C.     1984     The behavioural regulation of
        monogamy in gibbons.  Behav.Ecol.Sociobiol.
        15:225-9.
        
        MITANI, J.C.     1987     Species discrimination of male
        song in gibbons.  Amer. J. Primate.  13:413-
        423.
        
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        gibbon, Hylobates hoolock, in Tripura, India. 
        pp.115-124 in J.G. Else & P.C. Lee (eds),
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        PREUSCHOFT, H.     1984     The Lesser Apes.  (Various
        papers.)
        D.J. CHIVERS,
        W.Y. BROCKELMAN &
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        Folia primat., 31:227-245.
        
        SRIKOSAMATARA, S. &     1987     Polygyny in a group of
        pileated
        BROCKELMAN, W.Y.          gibbons via a familial route. 
        Int.J.Primat. 8:389-393.
        
        TENAZA, R.R.     1975     Territory and monogamy among
        Kloss's gibbon in Siberut Island, Indonesia. 
        Folia primat, 24:60-80.
        
        TILSON, R.L.     1981     Family formation strategies of
        Kloss's gibbons.  Folia primatol., 35:259-287.
        
        
        Orang-utan
        
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        seasonal
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        SUGARDJITO, J.          the Gunung Leuser Reserve (Sumatera,
        Indonesia).  Anim. Behav.  39:1098-1109.
        
        CANT, J.G.H.     1987     Effects of sexual dimorphism in
        body size on feeding postural behaviour of
        Sumatran Orang-utans.  AJPA, 74:143-8.
        
        GALDIKAS, B.M.F.     1979     Orang-utan adaptation at
        Tanjung Puting Reserve:  mating and ecology. 
        In D.A. Hamburg & E.R. McCowan (ed).  The
        Great Apes.
        
        GALDIKAS, B.M.F.     1985     Orang-utan sociality at
        Tanjung Puting.  Amer.J.Primat. 9:101-119.
        
        GALDIKAS, B.M.F.     1985     Adult male sociality and
        reproductive tactics among orangutans at
        Tanjung Puting.  Folia primatol.  45:9-24.
        
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        Oryx 11:141-191.
        
        MacKINNON, J.     1977     A comparative ecology of Asian
        apes.  Primates, 18:747-772.
        
        MARKHAM, R. &     1990     Weights of wild Orang Utans.
        GROVES, C.P.          AJPA, 81:1-3.
        
        MITANI, J.     1985     Sexual selection and adult male
        orang-utan long calls.  Anim.Behav. 33:272-
        283.
        
        NADLER, R.D. &     1974     Sex and species differences in
        captive-
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        orang-utans.  JHE, 3:541-550.
        
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        utans (Pongo pygmaeus abeli Lesson, 1827).  H.
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        RODMAN, P.S.     1979     Individual activity patterns and
        the solitary nature of orang-utans.  In D.A.
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        SCHWARTZ, J.H. (ed)     1988     Orang-utan Biology. 
        (Various papers.)
        
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        Key to major Journals:     (a) in 6ql1 section:
        
        Folia primat. or Folia primatol.     -    
        Folia primatologica.
        
        Primates          -     Primates.
        
        Amer. J. Primatol.          -     American
        Journal of Primatology.
        
        Int. J. Primatol.          -     International
        Journal of Primatology.
        
             (b) in 6qh301 section:
        
        JHE.          -     Journal of Human Evolution
        
             (c) in 6gn1 section:
        
        AJPA.          -     American Journal of
        Physical Anthropology.