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Clarence Ray Carpenter (1905-1975)

           Clarence Ray Carpenter was born in Lincoln County,
      North Carolina to C.E. and Gaddie Lee Harrelson Carpenter.
      He married Mariana Carpenter in 1932, they had two children,
      Richard Lee and Lane Evans, Mariana died on July 16, 1963.
      Carpenter married Ruth Jones on October 8, 1966, who had
      several daughters from a previous marriage.  He completed
      his bachelor of arts and masters degrees at Duke University
      in 1928 and 1929, respectively.  There he studied with
      Professor William McDougall.  He entered Stanford University
      in 1929, worked with Professor Calvin P. Stone, and
      completed work for a 1932.
           His early research was in animal behavior where he used
      pigeons as subjects and developed a special interest in the
      ecological and endocrinological conditions which affect
      their social behavior.  He received a National Science
      Research Fellowship for work at the institute of Human
      Relations, New Haven Medical School, Yale University, and
      from 1931 to 1934 conducted field research on the
      naturalistic behavior of primates in Panama under the
      sponsorship of Professor Robert M. Yerkes.  According to
      Harvard's Irven DeVore, "for the succeeding thirty years
      almost all of the accurate information available on the
      behavior of monkeys and apes living in natural environments
      was the result of Carpenter's research and writing". His
      first published article concerning primate behavior appeared
      in 1934, and was followed by over 40 professional journal
      articles, books, book chapters and special publications
      dealing with this topic.
           In addition, he was responsible for the production of
      primate films and videotapes, the establishment of Penn
      State University as a depository for the Psychological
      Cinema Register and for developing an internationally known
      collection of psychological, psychiatric and animal behavior
           His other major research interest was in the
      communication processes.  On the applied level he was
      concerned with the application of various educational
      technologies to instructional communication in colleges and
           During World War II he served as a technical advisor in
      the production of Army training films.  After the war he
      conducted extensive research on variables to learning in
      instructional films.  The program which he directed produced
      sixty-six technical reports.  In 1954, he shifted his
      research emphasis to instructional television and other
      research developments for improving instruction at the
      university level.  Beginning in 1957 and 1958, he became
      involved in the problems of long range planning for higher
      education.  He served on the Central Committee for
      Projecting and Planning the Pennsylvania State University
      Medical School at Hershey, and on the Planning Commission in
      Florida for drafting plans for the Florida Atlantic
      University.  His interest in Communication and learning
      potentials prompted his return to Barro Colorado Island in
      1959 to resume field studies of its howler population, thus
      continuing the line of work he began in the early thirties.
      His teaching career began in 1934 when he accepted an
      appointment as Assistant Professor and Lecturer at Bard
      College, Columbia University.  In this capacity he was a
      member of the Asiatic Primate Expedition in 1937, was a
      Fellow of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard, and
      an associate of Dr. Harold J. Coolige, Jr., and professor
      Adolph Schultz.  In 1938 he transferred to the College of
      Physicians and Surgeons and School of Tropical Medicine in
      Puerto Rico.  There he planned and developed the Cayo
      Santiago Rhesus Colony.  This required the collection of
      some 350 animals in India and their transportation to Puerto
      Rico where the colony still exists.  In 1940 he moved to the
      Pennsylvania State College from which he retired in 1970 as
      Research Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Anthropology.
      He then accepted a position as Research Professor in
      Psychology and Anthropology at the University of Georgia and
      in 1974, a visiting Research post at the East-West
      Communication Institute, Honolulu.
           While at Penn State, Professor Carpenter contributed
      many special qualities to the Anthropology and Psychology
      departments.  As Research Professor in both departments from
      1965-1970, he guided their development to accommodate his
      precocious notion that human behavior is fundamentally
      similar to the behavior of other animals and thus should be
      studied simultaneously, utilizing similar methodology and
      paradigms.  He, more than anyone, is responsible for the
      Penn State Anthropology Department's continuing commitment
      to primatology, empiricism, science as opposed to humanism,
      and most importantly, through the compelling example of his
      own successful studies, the melding of the behavioral
      sciences with the theory of evolution.  In Georgia, he
      continued this work both at the University and at the nearby
      Yerkes Primate Center where he was on the Board of Advisors.
      In addition to the above accomplishments, Dr. Carpenter
      received a number of other honors and helped cultivate a
      variety of other programs.  At Penn State, he established in
      1957 the Division of Academic Research and Services, later
      the University Division of Instructional Services, which
      fostered research on learning behavior and provided
      assistance to faculty in developing teaching expertise.
      During this time he was instrumental in establishing Penn
      State's pioneering instructional television activities.  In
      1963, he was a member of a team sponsored by the Ford
      Foundation which studied the communication systems of India.
      In 1964, he was a visiting scientist under the auspices of
      the US-Japan Cooperative Science Program and the Japan
      Science Council.
           He was active in the framing of the National Defense
      Act, especially Title VII, concerning employment
      discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or
      national origin, and had worked continuously in some
      relationship with the US Office of Education from 1958 until
      his death.  He was a member of the Primatology Committee of
      the National Academy of Sciences and served during the
      academic year of 1965-1966 as the President of the
      Association for Higher Education. 
           Dr. Carpenter died on March 1, 1975 in Athens, Georgia.