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Vocal Repertoires of Non-Human Primates

Following is a selected bibliography of citations and audiovisual resources which pertain to vocal repertoires of non-human primates. These citations are derived from a search of the literature using various on-line databases. If you have suggestions for adding items to this bibliography, please contact: Joseph Kemnitz, Wisconsin Primate Research Center; E-mail:

Please visit the WPRC Audiovisual Archives for additional materials on primate vocalizations, both in the audiotape collection and recorded on videos held in the collection.



2. Binz, H and E Zimmermann. "The vocal repertoire of adult tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri)." BEHAVIOUR 109(1-2): 142-162, 1989.

3. Cleveland, J and CT Snowdon. "The complex vocal repertoire of the adult cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus)." ZEITSCHRIFT FUER TIERPSYCHOLOGIE 58: 231-270, 1982.

4. Deputte, B and Goustard M. " [Vocal repertoire of the crested gibbon (Hylobates concolor leucogenys): Structural analysis of vocalization.]" ZEITSCHRIFT FUER TIERPSYCHOLOGIE 48: 225-250, 1978. (French w/ English & German summaries)

5. Gautier, J-P. "[The vocal repertoire of Cercopithecus cephus]" Z TIERPSYCHOL 46(2): 113-169, 1978

6. Gittins, SP. "The vocal repertoire and song of the agile gibbon." In: Pp. 354-375 in THE LESSER APES: EVOLUTIONARY AND BEHAVIOURAL BIOLOGY. H. Preuschoft; D.J. Chivers; W.Y. Brockelman; N. Creel, eds. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1984.

7. Glenn, ME and K Bensen. "Comparisons of the vocal repertoire of mainland- and island- dwelling mona monkeys (Cercopithecus mona) in Africa and the Caribbean." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY 42(2) 113, 1997.

8. Hammerschmidt, K; V Ansorge and J Fischer. "Age-related variations in the vocal repertoire of Barbary macaques." In: Pp. 287-295 in CURRENT PRIMATOLOGY, VOL. II: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR. J.J. Roeder; B. Thierry; J.R. Anderson; N. Herrenschmidt, eds. Strasbourg, Univ. Louis Pasteur, 1994.

9. Hammerschmidt, K; V Ansorge and J Fischer. "The vocal repertoire of Barbary macaques." In: Pp. 224-225 in XIVTH CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL PRIMATOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Strasbourg, IPS, 1992.

10. Hammerschmidt, K and Fischer J. "The vocal repertoire of Barbary macaques: A quantitative analysis of a graded signal system." ETHOLOGY 104(3): 203-216, 1998.

11. Harcourt, AH; KJ Stewart and M Hauser. "Functions of wild gorilla 'close' calls. I. Repertoire, context, and interspecific comparison." BEHAVIOUR 124(1-2): 89-122, 1993.

12. Kowalewski, F. "An approach towards an objective classification of squirrel monkey's vocal repertoire." CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL PRIMATOLOGICAL SOCIETY 15: 271, 1994.

13. Macedonia, JM. "The vocal repertoire of the ringtailed lemur (Lemur catta)." FOLIA PRIMATOLOGICA 61(4): 186-217, 1993.

14. Maurus, M; B Geissler; B Kuehlmorgen and E Wiesner. "The effects of brain stimulation when categorizing the behavioral repertoire of squirrel monkeys." BEHAVIORAL AND NEURAL BIOLOGY 32: 438-447, 1981.

15. Maurus, M; K-M Streit; D Barclay; E Wiesner and B Kuehlmorgen. "Interrelations between structure and function in the vocal repertoire of Saimiri: Asking the monkeys themselves where to split and where to lump." EUROPEAN ARCHIVES OF PSYCHIATRY AND NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES 236(1): 35-39, 1986.

16. Maurus, M.; H. Pruscha; E. Wiesner and B. Geissler. "Categorization of behavioural repertoire with respect to communicative meaning of social signals" Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie 51: 48-57 1979

17. Nietsch, A and C Niemitz. "The vocal-acoustical repertoire of free-ranging Tarsius spectrum." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY 8(5): 483, 1987.

18. Omedes, A. "Behavioural repertoire of adult silvery marmosets Callithrix a. argentata and Callithrix a. melanura." MISCELLANIA ZOOLOGICA 7: 193-211, 1981.

19. Oppenheimer, JR. "Social and communicatory behavior in the Cebus monkey" In: Behavioral Regulators of Behavior in Primates C. R. Carpenter, ed. 251-271 1973

20. Palombit, RA. "A preliminary study of vocal communication in wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). I. Vocal repertoire and call emission." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY 13(2): 143-182, 1992.

21. Pereira, ME; ML Seeligson and JM Macedonia. "The behavioral repertoire of the black-and-white ruffed lemur, Varecia variegata variegata (Primates: Lemuridae)." FOLIA PRIMATOLOGICA 51(1): 1-32, 1988.

22. Peters, EH. "Grading in the vocal repertoire of Silver Springs rhesus monkeys." In: Pp. 161-168 in PRIMATE ONTOGENY, COGNITION AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR. J.G. Else; P.C. Lee, eds. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1986.

23. Peters, EH. "Vocal repertoire breadth in wild Florida monkeys." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 66(2): 214, 1985.

24. Raemaekers, JJ; PM Raemaekers and EH Haimoff. "Loud calls of the gibbon (Hylobates lar): Repertoire, organisation and context." BEHAVIOUR 91(1-3): 146-189, 1984.

25. Ren, R-m; K-h Yan; Y-j Su; Q-w Wang and Y-z Sun. "[Comparison of the patterns of social behavioral repertoire between Macaca Thibetana and Macaca mulatta.]" HSIN LI HSUEH PAO/ ACTA PSYCHOL SIN 22(4): 441-446, 1990.

26. Stanger, K. "Vocal repertoire and corresponding behaviour patterns of Cheirogaleus medius, Microcebus murinus, and Galago demidovii." PRIMATE REPORT (14): 14-15, 1986.

27. Waal, FBM de. "The communicative repertoire of captive bonobos (Pan paniscus), compared to that of chimpanzees." BEHAVIOUR 106: 183-251, 1988. (ARCHIVES 001246)

28. Wallis, SJ. "The behavioural repertoire of the grey-cheeked mangabey Cercocebus albigena johnstoni." PRIMATES 22: 523-532, 1981.

29. Zimmermann, E. "Variability of vocal patterns in the vocal repertoire of mouse lemurs." In: Pp. 223-224 in XIVTH CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL PRIMATOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Strasbourg, IPS, 1992.

30. Zimmermann, E. "The vocal repertoire of the adult Senegal bushbaby (Galago senegalensis senegalensis)." BEHAVIOUR 94(3-4): 212-233, 1985.