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The Life Spans of Nonhuman Primates

        Species                                                             Life Span
        
        Allenopithecus nigroviridis (Allen's Swamp Monkey)                  28 yrs. (1)
        Allocebus trichotis (Hairy-eared Dwarf Lemur)                       NA
        Alouatta belzebul (Red-handed Howler)                               NA
        Alouatta caraya (Black-and-gold Howler)                             20 yrs. (2)
        Alouatta coibensis (Coiba Island Howler)                            NA
        Alouatta fusca (Brown Howler)                                       NA
        Alouatta palliata (Mantled Howler)                                  20 yrs. (1)
        Alouatta pigra (Black Howler)                                       20 yrs. (1)
        Alouatta sara (Bolivian Red Howler)                                 NA
        Alouatta seniculus (Red Howler)                                     25 yrs. (1) 
        Aotus nigriceps (Southern Red-necked Night Monkey)                  20 yrs. (1)
        Aotus trivigratus (Northern Gray-necked Owl Monkey)                 20 yrs. (1)
        Arctocebus aureus (Golden Angwantibo)                               13 yrs. (3)
        Arctocebus calabarensis (Angwantibo)                                11 yrs. (1)
        Ateles belzebuth (White-bellied Spider Monkey)                      20 yrs. (1)
        Ateles chamek (Black-faced Spider Monkey)                           40 yrs. (3)
        Ateles fusciceps (Brown-headed Spider Monkey)                       24 yrs. (1)
        Ateles geoffroyi (Black-handed Spider Monkey)                       48 yrs. (3)
        Ateles marginatus (White-whiskered Spider Monkey)                   NA                                   
        Ateles paniscus (Black Spider Monkey)                               33 yrs. (1)
        Avahi laniger (Woolly Lemur)                                        NA
        Brachyteles arachnoides (Woolly Spider Monkey or Muriqui)           30 yrs. (1)
        Bunopithecus [Hylobates] hoolock (Hoolock or White-browed Gibbon)   42 yrs. (1)
        Cacajao calvus (Bald Uacari)                                        20.1 yrs. (1)
        Cacajao melanocephalus (Black-headed Uacari)                        18 yrs. (2)
        Callicebus brunneus (Brown Titi Monkey)                             NA
        Callicebus caligatus (Chestnut-bellied Titi Monkey)                 NA
        Callicebus cinerascens (Ashy Titi Monkey)                           NA
        Callicebus cupreus (Red Titi Monkey)                                NA                                   
        Callicebus donacophilus (Bolivian Gray Titi Monkey)                 NA
        Callicebus dubius (Titi Monkey)                                     NA
        Callicebus hoffmannsi (Hoffman's Titi Monkey)                       NA
        Callicebus modestus (Titi Monkey)                                   NA
        Callicebus moloch (Dusky Titi Monkey)                               25 yrs. (2)
        Callicebus oenanthe (Andean Titi Monkey)                            NA                                   
        Callicebus olallae (Beni Titi Monkey)                               NA
        Callicebus personatus (Masked Titi Monkey)                          NA
        Callicebus torquatus (Collared Titi or Widow Monkey)                NA
        Callimico goeldii (Goeldi's Monkey)                                 17.9 yrs. (1)
        Callithrix argentata (Bare-ear Marmoset)                            17 yrs. (2)
        Callithrix aurita (Buffy Tufted-eared Marmoset)                     NA
        Callithrix flaviceps (Buffy-headed Marmoset)                        NA
        Callithrix geoffroyi (Geoffroy's Tufted-eared Marmoset)             NA
        Callithrix humeralifer (Tassel-eared Marmoset)                      15 yrs. (2)
        Callithrix jacchus (Common Marmoset)                                11.7 yrs. (1)
        Callithrix mauesi (Maues Marmoset)                                  NA
        Callithrix penicillata (Black Tufted-eared Marmoset)                NA
        Callithrix pygmaea (Pygmy Marmoset)                                 11.7 yrs. (1)
        Callthrix kuhlii (Wied's Tufted-eared Marmoset)                     NA
        Callthrix nigriceps (Black-headed Marmoset)                         NA
        Cebus albifrons (White-fronted Capuchin)                            44 yrs. (1)
        Cebus apella (Tufted or Brown Capuchin)                             40 yrs. (1)
        Cebus capucinus (White-throated Capuchin)                           46.9 yrs. (1)
        Cebus olivaceus (Weeper or Wedge-capped Capuchin)                   NA
        Cercocebus agilis (Agile Mangabey)                                  NA
        Cercocebus galeritus (Tana River Mangabey)                          19 yrs. (1)
        Cercocebus torquatus (White-collared Mangabey)                      27 yrs. (1)
        Cercocebus torquatus atys (Sooty Mangabey)                          18 yrs. (1)
        Cercopithecus campbelli (Campbell's Guenon)                         25 yrs. (2)
        Cercopithecus cephus (Mustached Guenon)                             22 yrs. (1)
        Cercopithecus diana (Diana Monkey)                                  34.8 yrs. (1)
        Cercopithecus dryas (Dryas Guenon)                                  NA
        Cercopithecus erythrogaster (White-throated Guenon)                 NA
        Cercopithecus erythrotis (Red-eared Guenon)                         NA
        Cercopithecus hamlyni (Owl-faced Monkey)                            27 yrs. (2)
        Cercopithecus lhoesti (L'Hoest's Monkey)                            NA
        Cercopithecus mitis (Blue Monkey)                                   20 yrs. (1)
        Cercopithecus mona (Mona Monkey)                                    22 yrs. (1)
        Cercopithecus neglectus (De Brazza's Monkey)                        22 yrs. (1)
        Cercopithecus nictitans (Putty-nosed or Greater Spot-nosed Guenon)  23 yrs. (2)
        Cercopithecus petaurista (Lesser Spot-nosed Guenon)                 19 yrs. (2)
        Cercopithecus pogonias (Crowned Guenon)                             20 yrs. (1)
        Cercopithecus preussi (Preuss's Monkey)                             NA
        Cercopithecus sclateri (Sclater's Guenon)                           NA
        Cercopithecus solatus (Sun-tailed Guenon)                           NA
        Cercopithecus wolfi (Wolf's Guenon)                                 NA
        Cheirogaleus major (Greater Dwarf Lemur)                            8.8 yrs. (1)
        Cheirogaleus medius (Fat-tailed Dwarf Lemur)                        19 yrs. (2)
        Chiropotes albinasus (White-nosed Bearded Saki)                     12 yrs. (2)
        Chiropotes satanas (Bearded Saki)                                   15 yrs. (1)
        Chlorocebus aethiops (Vervet, Grivet, or Green Monkey)              31 yrs. (1)
        Colobus angolensis (Angolan Black-and-white Colobus)                NA
        Colobus guereza (Abyssinian, Guereza, or Eastern Black-and-white 
                 Colobus)                                                   22.2 yrs. (1)
        Colobus polykomos (King or Western Black-and-white Colobus)         30.5 yrs. (1)
        Colobus satanas (Black Colobus)                                     NA
        Colobus vellerosus (Geoffroy's or White-thighed Black-and-white 
                 colobus)                                                   NA
        Daubentonia madagascariensis (Aye-aye)                              24 yrs. (2)
        Erythrocebus patas (Patas Monkey)                                   21.6 yrs. (1)
        Eulemur coronatus (Crowned Lemur)                                   NA
        Eulemur fulvus (Brown Lemur)                                        30.8 yrs. (1)
        Eulemur macaco (Black Lemur)                                        27.1 yrs. (1)
        Eulemur mongoz (Mongoose Lemur)                                     <26 yrs.  (4)
        Eulemur rubriventer (Red-bellied Lemur)                             NA                                   
        Euoticus elegantulus (Southern Needle-clawed Bush Baby)             NA 
        Euoticus pallidus (Northern Needle-clawed Bush Baby)                NA
        Galago alleni (Allen's Bush Baby)                                   12 yrs. (1)
        Galago gallarum (Somali Bush Baby)                                  NA
        Galago matschiei (Matschie's Bush Baby)                             NA
        Galago moholi (Southern Lesser Bush Baby)                           16 yrs. (1)
        Galago senegalensis (Northern Lesser Bush Baby)                     16 yrs. (1)
        Galagoides demidoff (Demidoff's Bush Baby)                          13 yrs. (1)
        Galagoides thomasi (Thomas's Bush Baby)                             NA
        Galagoides zanzibaricus (Zanzibar Bush Baby)                        16.5 yrs. (3)
        Gorilla gorilla beringei (Mountain Gorilla)                         40-50 yrs. (1)
        Gorilla gorilla gorilla (Western Lowland Gorilla)                   50 yrs. (1)
        Gorilla gorilla graueri (Eastern Lowland Gorilla)                   NA
        Hapalemur aureus (Golden Bamboo Lemur)                              NA
        Hapalemur griseus (Lesser Bamboo Lemur)                             17 yrs. (2)
        Hapalemur simus (Greater Bamboo Lemur)                              NA
        Hylobates agilis (Dark-handed or Agile Gibbon)                      32 yrs. (1)
        Hylobates klossi  (Kloss's Gibbon)                                  NA
        Hylobates lar (White-handed Gibbon)                                 44 yrs. (1)
        Hylobates moloch (Silvery Javan Gibbon)                             35 yrs. (1)
        Hylobates muelleri (Mueller's Bornean Gray Gibbon)                  47 yrs. (1)
        Hylobates pileatus (Pileated or Capped Gibbon)                      39 yrs. (1)
        Indri indri (Indri)                                                 NA
        Kasi [Trachypithecus] vetulus (Purple-faced Leaf Monkey)            8 yrs. (4)
        Kasi [Trachypithecus] johnii (Nilgiri Langur)                       NA
        Lagothrix flavicauda (Yellow-tailed Woolly Monkey)                  NA
        Lagothrix lagotricha (Woolly Monkey)                                25.9 yrs. (1)
        Lemur catta (Ring-tailed Lemur)                                     27 yrs. (1)
        Leontopithecus caissara (Black-faced Lion Tamarin)                  NA
        Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Golden-headed Lion Tamarin)             NA
        Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Black Lion Tamarin)                     NA
        Leontopithecus rosalia (Golden Lion Tamarin)                        24 yrs. (2)
        Lepilemur dorsalis (Gray-backed Sportive Lemur)                     NA
        Lepilemur edwardsi (Milne-Edwards' Sportive Lemur)                  NA
        Lepilemur leucopus (White-footed Sportive Lemur)                    NA
        Lepilemur microdon (Small-toothed Sportive Lemur)                   NA
        Lepilemur mustelinus (Weasel Sportive Lemur)                        NA
        Lepilemur ruficaudatus (Red-tailed Sportive Lemur)                  NA                                   
        Lepilemur septentrionalis (Northern Sportive Lemur)                 NA
        Lophocebus albigena (Gray-cheeked Mangabey)                         32.6 yrs. (1)
        Lophocebus aterrimus (Black Mangabey)                               32.7 yrs. (3)
        Loris tardigradus (Slender Loris)                                   15 yrs. (1)
        Macaca arctoides (Stump-tailed Macaque)                             30 yrs. (1)
        Macaca assamensis (Assamese Macaque)                                NA
        Macaca cyclopis (Formosan Rock Macaque)                             NA
        Macaca fascicularis (Long-tailed, Crab-eating or Cynomolgus Macaque)37.1 yrs. (1)
        Macaca fuscata (Japanese Macaque)                                   33 yrs. (1)
        Macaca maura (Celebes Moor Macaque)                                 NA
        Macaca mulatta (Rhesus Macaque)                                     29 yrs. (1)
        Macaca nemestrina (Pig-tailed Macaque)                              26.3 yrs. (1)
        Macaca nigra (Celebes or Crested Black)                             18 yrs. (1)
        Macaca ochreata (Booted Macaque)                                    NA
        Macaca radiata (Bonnet Macaque)                                     30 yrs. (1)
        Macaca silenus (Lion-tailed Macaque)                                38 yrs. (1)
        Macaca sinica (Toque Macaque)                                       30 yrs. (1)
        Macaca sylvanus (Barbary Macaque)                                   22 yrs. (1)
        Macaca thibetana (Tibetan Macaque)                                  20 yrs. (1)
        Macaca tonkeana (Tonkean Macaque)                                   NA
        Mandrillus leucophaeus (Drill)                                      46 yrs. (4)
        Mandrillus sphinx (Mandrill)                                        46.3 yrs. (1)
        Microcebus coquereli (Coquerel's Dwarf Lemur)                       15 yrs. (2)
        Microcebus murinus (Gray Mouse Lemur)                               15.5 yrs. (1)
        Microcebus myoxinus (Pygmy Mouse Lemur)                             NA
        Microcebus rufus (Brown Mouse Lemur)                                NA
        Miopithecus talapoin (Dwarf Guenon or Southern Talapoin Monkey)     27.7 yrs. (1)
        Nasalis [Nasalis] larvatus (Proboscis Monkey)                       21 yrs. (2)
        Nomascus [Hylobates] leucogenys (Chinese White-cheeked Gibbon)      28 yrs. (1)
        Nomascus [Hylobates] gabriellae (Golden-cheeked Gibbon)             46 yrs. (1)
        Nycticebus coucang (Slow Loris)                                     20 yrs. (1)
        Nycticebus pygmaeus (Pygmy Loris)                                   20 yrs. (1)
        Otolemur crassicaudatus (Thick-tailed Greater Bush Baby)            15 yrs. (1)
        Otolemur garnettii (Garnett's Greater Bush Baby)                    15 yrs. (1)
        Pan paniscus (Bonobo or Pygmy Chimpanzee)                           40 yrs. (1)
        Pan troglodytes (Chimpanzee)                                        53 yrs. (1)
        Papio hamadryas anubis (Olive Baboon)                               30-45 yrs. (1)
        Papio hamadryas cynocephalus (Yellow Baboon)                        40 yrs. (1)
        Papio hamadryas hamadryas (Hamadryas Baboon)                        35.6 yrs. (1)
        Papio hamadryas papio (Guinea Baboon)                               40 yrs. (1)
        Papio hamadryas ursinus (Chacma Baboon)                             45 yrs. (1)
        Perodicticus potto (Potto)                                          26 yrs. (1)
        Phaner furcifer (Fork-marked Lemur)                                 12 yrs. (2)
        Piliocolobus [Procolobus] pennantii (Pennant's Red Colobus)         NA
        Piliocolobus [Procolobus] preussi (Preuss's Red Colobus)            NA
        Piliocolobus [Procolobus] rufomitratus (Tana River Red Colobus)     NA
        Piliocolobus [Procolobus] baduis (Western Red Colobus)              NA
        Pithecia aequatorialis (Equatorial Saki)                            NA
        Pithecia albicans (Buffy Saki)                                      NA
        Pithecia irrorata (Bald-faced Saki)                                 NA
        Pithecia monachus (Monk Saki)                                       25 yrs. (2)
        Pithecia pithecia (White-faced Saki)                                35 yrs. (3)
        Pongo abelii (Sumatran Orangutan)                                   >50 yrs. (1)
        Pongo pygmaeus (Borneo Orangutan)                                   59 yrs. (1)
        Presbytis comata (Grizzled Leaf Monkey)                             NA
        Presbytis femoralis (Banded Leaf Monkey)                            NA
        Presbytis frontata (White-fronted Leaf Monkey)                      NA
        Presbytis hosei (Hose's Leaf Monkey)                                NA
        Presbytis melalophos (Mitered Leaf Monkey)                          16 yrs. (2)
        Presbytis potenziani (Mentawai Island Leaf Monkey)                  NA
        Presbytis rubicunda (Maroon Leaf Monkey)                            NA
        Presbytis thomasi (Thomas's Leaf Monkey)                            NA
        Procolobus [Procolobus] verus (Olive Colobus)                       NA
        Propithecus diadema (Diademed Sifaka)                               20 yrs. (1)
        Propithecus tattersalli (Golden-crowned Sifaka)                     NA
        Propithecus verreauxi (Verreaux's Sifaka)                           20 yrs. (2)
        Pygathrix [Pygathrix] nemaeus (Red-shanked Douc Langur)             >30 yrs. (1)
        Pygathrix [Pygathrix] nigripes (Black-shanked Douc Langur)          NA
        Rhinopithecus [Pygathrix) roxellana 
                  (Sichuan Golden Snub-nosed Monkey)                        NA
        Rhinopithecus [Pygathrix] avunculus (Tonkin Snub-nosed Monkey)      NA
        Rhinopithecus [Pygathrix] bieti (Black or Yunnan Snub-nosed Monkey) NA
        Rhinopithecus [Pygathrix] brelichi (Guizhou Snub-nosed Monkey)      NA
        Saguinus bicolor (Bare-faced Tamarin)                               8 yrs. (1)
        Saguinus fuscicollis (Saddleback Tamarin)                           24 yrs. (2)
        Saguinus geoffroyi (Red-crested Tamarin)                            13 yrs. (1)
        Saguinus imperator (Emperor Tamarin)                                17 yrs. (1)
        Saguinus inustus (Mottled-face Tamarin)                             NA
        Saguinus labiatus (Red-bellied Tamarin)                             NA
        Saguinus leucopus (Silvery-brown Bare-faced Tamarin)                NA
        Saguinus midas (Golden-handed Tamarin)                              13.2 yrs. (1)
        Saguinus mystax (Mustached Tamarin)                                 12-20 yrs. (1)
        Saguinus nigricollis (Spix's Black-mantled Tamarin)                 13.9 yrs. (1)
        Saguinus oedipus (Cotton-top Tamarin)                               13.5 yrs. (1)
        Saguinus tripartitus (Golden-mantled Saddleback Tamarin)            6 yrs. (1)
        Saimiri boliviensis (Bolivian Squirrel Monkey)                      NA
        Saimiri oerstedii (Red-backed Squirrel Monkey)                      NA
        Saimiri sciureus (Common Squirrel Monkey)                           21 yrs. (1)
        Saimiri ustus (Golden-backed Squirrel Monkey)                       NA
        Saimiri vanzolinii (Black Squirrel Monkey)                          NA
        Semnopithecus entellus (Hanuman Langur)                             20 yrs. (1)
        Simias [Nasalis] concolor (Pig-tailed Langur)                       NA
        Symphalangus [Hylobates] syndactylus (Siamang)                      35yrs. (1)
        Tarsius bancanus (Western Tarsier)                                  8-12 yrs. (1)
        Tarsius pumilus (Pygmy Tarsier)                                     NA
        Tarsius spectrum (Spectral Tarsier)                                 12 yrs. (1)
        Tarsius syrichta (Phillippine Tarsier)                              13.5 yrs. (1)
        Tarsius dianae (Dian's Tarsier)                                     NA
        Theropithecus gelada (Gelada Baboon)                                19.2 yrs. (1)
        Trachypithecus [Trachypithecus] auratus (Ebony Langur)              NA
        Trachypithecus [Trachypithecus] cristatus (Silvered Langur)         31 yrs. (3)
        Trachypithecus [Trachypithecus] delacouri (Delacour's Langur)       NA
        Trachypithecus [Trachypithecus] francoisi (Francois's Langur)       <20 yrs. (4)
        Trachypithecus [Trachypithecus] geei (Golden Langur)                NA
        Trachypithecus [Trachypithecus] obscurus (Dusky or Spectacled 
             Leaf Monkey)                                                   NA
        Trachypithecus [Trachypithecus] phayrei (Phayre's Leaf Monkey)      NA
        Trachypithecus [Trachypithecus] pileatus (Capped Leaf Monkey)       NA
        Varecia variegatus (Ruffed Lemur)                                   19 yrs. (1)
        

Numbers in parenthesus following lifespans refer to the following references:

1. Rowe, Noel. The Pictorial Guide to Living Primates. Pogonias Press, East Hampton, New York, 1996. 2. Hakeem A., et al. Handbook of the Psychology of Aging. 4th ed. Birren, J.E., Schaie, K.W., Editors. San Diego: Academic Press. 1996. 3. Nowak, R. Walker's Primates of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 1999. 4. American Association of Zoo Keepers Greater San Francisco Bay Area Chapter. Biological Values for Selected Mammals. Topeka: AAZK. 1992. 3rd ed. Pgs: v, 481

*The data presented here is taken from the secondary sources listed above and users are advised to consult primary sources before citing this information. According to Rowe (1996, p. 6), "Species life span is given in years and measures the maximum amount of time between birth and death rather than an average." However, life span information varies, as might be expected, from source to source. Moreover, the information provided is drawn mainly from reports on captive animals. While it is generally assumed that captive animals will live longer than animals in the wild, because of the consistent care and support provided in laboratory or zoo settings, according to Hakeem et al.:

"We have very little information on the longevity of primates in the wild, because this requires sustained observations of wild populations for many decades. One of our concerns in using life spans of captive animals was that they might vary greatly from the species -- maximum life span in the wild; one might think that primates living in zoos would have longer maximum life spans than those living in the wild. The few very long-term studies of primates living under natural conditions indicate, however, that some individuals do live into extreme old age in the wild. Long-term observational data suggest that the maximum life spans for zoo-living and wild primates may be about the same (p. 78-9)."

Anyone who would like to contribute verifiable information about nonhuman primate life spans -- especially for those where information is not provided (NA) -- should contact Joe Kemnitz at kemnitz@primate.wisc.edu.

Information compiled by Derek Johnson.