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Sexually antagonistic selection on primate size

Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2002, 15(4), 595-607. DOI: 10.1046/j.1010-061X.2002.00422.x

Supplementary material to: Lindenfors P. Sexually antagonistic selection on primate size. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2002; 15(4): 595-607.

Appendix: Table A2

Species Mating
system
Male
weight
(kg)
Female
weight
(kg)
Group
size
Female
sexual
maturity
(months)
Female
first
birth
(years)
Gestation
length
(days)
Number of
offspring
per litter
Interbirth
interval
(years)
Birthrate
(offspring/
(year)
Maximum
recorded
lifespan
(years)
Neonate
weight
(g)
Male
neonate
weight
(g)
Female
neonate
weight
(g)
Age at
weaning
(days)
Weight at
weaning
(kg)
Foetal
growth
rate
Postnatal
growth
rate
Lemur catta MM 2.21 2.21 15.3 22.5 2.01 135 1.3 1.50 0.87 27.1 88.2 67.2 65 135 0.85
Hapalemur aureus 1.52 1.39 3 2.00 1 135
Hapalemur griseus Mon 0.987 0.903 2.6 2.38 140 1.5 12 45.2 46 0.48
Hapalemur simus 2.15 1.3 8
Petterus coronatus MM 1.69 1.62 8.4 125 1.5 70 0.84
Petterus mongoz Mon 1.63 1.61 3.5 2.52 128 1.1 25.33 53 55.1 59.8 166 0.46
Petterus fulvus MM 2 2.077 9.2 22.0 2.16 120 1.1 1.50 0.73 30.08 83.3 72.1 67.8 135 0.76
Petterus macaco MM 2.37 2.51 8.4 24.0 2.18 120 1 1 1.00 27.08 88 62.7 50 135 0.73
Petterus rubriventer Mon 1.98 1.94 3.2 123 78.4 67.8 89 135
Varecia variegata Mon 3.47 3.51 5.3 20.0 1.95 102 2.5 1 2.50 13 87.2 93.7 78.4 90 2.14
Lepilemur mustelinus UM 1 21.0 1.88 135 1 27 75 0.20
Daubentonia madagascarensis UM 2.62 2.49 2 29.0 1.90 167 1 2.50 0.40 22.3 109 122 102 170 0.65
Avahi laniger Mon 1.03 1.32 2.5 235 1 1 1.00 150
Propithecus verrauxi MM 3.25 2.95 6 30.0 3.50 162 1 1.48 0.68 18.17 107 94.5 103.2 180 0.66
Propithecus diadema 5.94 6.26 5.1 48 4.00 179 1 2 0.50 20 145 155 135 180
Propithecus tattersalli MM 3.39 3.59 4.1 176 165
Indri indri Mon 5.83 6.84 3.1 66.0 8.00 160 1 2.50 0.40 300 365 1.88
Microcebus murinus UM 0.059 0.063 1 9.5 1.00 62 1.9 1 1.90 15.42 7.1 7.2 4.6 40 0.22
Microcebus rufus UM 0.043 0.042 1 61 2
Mirza coquereli UM 0.304 0.326 1 11.5 1.93 89.2 1.5 1 1.50 15.25 17.5 86 0.29
Cheirogaleus major 0.438 0.362 70 2.5 8.8 18.1 46 0.65
Cheirogaleus medius UM 0.283 0.282 5.5 12.0 1.19 62 2 1 2.00 9 19 11.8 61 0.61
Allocebus trichotis UM 0.092 0.084 1
Phaner furcifer Mon 1
Galago alleni UM 0.277 0.269 1 8.0 0.09 133 1.3 1 1.30 12 24 0.23
Galagoides demidoff UM 0.063 0.06 1 8.0 0.97 111 1.2 1 1.20 13 9.9 11.6 45 0.11
Galagoides zanzibaricus UM 0.149 0.137 1 1.00 120 1.2 0.5 2.40 14.1 16.5 0.14
Galago granti
Galago moholi UM 0.187 0.173 1 1.00 123 2 0.5 4.00 16.5 11.75 11.7 11.8 99 0.19
Galago senegalensis UM 0.227 0.199 1 6.7 2.00 124.2 1.55 0.51 3.04 16.5 11.5 18.4 19.5 101 0.14
Otolemur crassicaudatus UM 1.19 1.11 1 12.0 2.21 135 1.25 1 1.25 15 43.2 136 0.40
Otolemur garnettii UM 0.794 0.734 1 1.25 131.7 1 1 1.00 17 52 140 0.39
Euoticus elegantulus UM 0.287 0.261 1 135 1
Euoticus inustus 0.207 0.212 1
Loris tardigradus UM 0.192 0.193 1 13.0 1.50 165 1.6 0.50 3.19 12 11 169 0.11
Arctocebus calabarensis UM 0.312 0.306 1 9.5 1.10 134 1 0.38 2.66 13 25.2 27 37 105 0.19
Nycticebus coucang UM 0.679 0.626 1 19 192.2 1 1 1.00 16 48.2 51.6 50.8 189 0.25
Nycticebus pygmaeus UM 0.462 0.376 1 9.0 188 1.23 20 23 133
Perodictus potto UM 0.83 0.836 1 8.0 2.03 170 1 1 1.00 22.33 46.5 39.3 38.9 210 0.27
Tarsius bancanus Mon&UM 0.128 0.117 1 2.52 178 1 0.74 1.35 12 23.6 28.5 80 0.256 0.13 0.82
Tarsius syrichta 0.134 0.117 1 180 1 13.5 26.2 27.9 22.2 82 0.15
Tarsius pumilus 1
Tarsius spectrum Mon 0.125 0.108 2.5 14.0 1.42 157 1 0.42 2.40 12 23.1 68 0.15
Callithrix argentata 0.33 0.36 9.5 1.67 2 0.62 3.22 35.1 32 120 3.4
Callithrix humeralifer Mon&PA 0.36 0.38 11.5 12.5 34.5
Callithrix jacchus Mon&PA 0.317 0.324 8.7 22.0 1.50 148 2.1 0.52 4.03 11.7 27 30.15 30.23 91 0.38 2.98
Cebuella pygmaea Mon&PA 0.11 0.122 5.7 24.0 1.88 131 2.1 0.50 4.19 11.67 16 17.2 14.1 91 0.26 0.9
Leonthopithecus chrysomelas 0.62 0.535 6.7
Leonthopithecus chrysopygus 3.6
Leonthopithecus rosalia Mon&PA 0.62 0.598 7.2 18.0 2.38 128.6 1.78 0.50 3.55 14.17 50 53.6 52.4 91 0.69 2.56
Saguinus bicolor 0.428 0.43 6.7 0.53
Saguinus midas Mon&PA 0.515 0.575 6.4 20.0 2.00 127 2 0.55 3.63 13.25 40 70 0.63
Saguinus leucopus 0.494 0.49 44
Saguinus oedipus Mon&PA 0.418 0.404 7.2 18.0 1.89 168 1.9 0.58 3.27 13.5 44 44 42.1 66 0.50 3.5
Saguinus imperator Mon&PA 0.474 0.475 6 150 2 17 47 46.8 91 0.63
Saguinus labiatus Mon&PA 0.49 0.529 6.3 145 2 0.82 2.44 43.5 38 0.60
Saguinus mystax Mon&PA 0.51 0.539 5.5 16.0 145 0.96 20 46.9
Saguinus fuscicollis Mon&PA 0.343 0.358 5.1 2.33 149 2 1.00 2.00 39.9 39.1 38.8 90 0.54
Saguinus tripartitus 6
Saguinus inustus 0.585 0.803
Saguinus nigricollis MM 0.468 0.484 6.3 140 2 0.69 2.90 13.9 43.5 43.2 43.9 80 0.62 3.68
Callimico goeldii Mon 0.499 0.468 7.7 8.5 1.32 151.5 1 0.50 1.99 17.9 50.6 54.7 53.3 65 0.067 0.33 2.95
Cebus albifrons MM 3.18 2.29 16.8 43.1 4.02 155 1 1.50 0.67 44 234 237.5 227.7 274 1.51 4.7
Cebus capucinus UM 3.68 2.54 21 54.0 4.00 162 1 2.20 0.46 46.9 230 250 548 1.35 1.42
Cebus olivaceus MM&UM 3.29 2.52 17.1 72.0 6.00 1 2.17 0.46 720
Cebus apella MM 3.65 2.52 11.1 56.0 5.50 155 1 1.84 0.54 44 239.7 220.7 197.1 365 1.00 1.55
Saimiri bolivensis MM 0.911 0.711 60 155 102
Saimiri oerstedii MM 0.897 0.68 50 1
Saimiri sciureus MM 0.899 0.68 35 30.0 2.50 160 1 1.17 0.85 21 95.2 112.5 106.4 51 0.479 0.60 1.78
Saimiri ustus 0.921 0.799
Saimiri vanzolinii 0.95 0.65 40
Aotus trivirgatus Mon 0.813 0.736 3.8 30 2.40 133 1 0.70 1.43 20 97 88 94 75 0.479 0.73 3.5
Aotus azarae Mon 1.18 1.23 4.1
Callicebus brunneus Mon 0.854 0.805 4 1
Callicebus cinerascens
Callicebus moloch Mon 1.02 0.956 3.3 30 3.00 163.5 1 1 1.00 12 100 74.4 244 0.61
Callicebus personatus Mon 1.27 1.38 3.7 1
Callicebus hoffmannsi 1.09 1.03
Callicebus calligatus
Callicebus cupreus 1.02 1.12 3.1 130 0.87 74
Callicebus dubius
Callicebus donacophilus 0.991 0.909
Callicebus oenanthe
Callicebus olallae
Callicebus modestus
Callicebus torqatus Mon 1.28 1.21 4 30 4.00 1 1 1.00 140
Pithecia aequatorialis Mon
Pithecia albicans Mon 4.6
Pithecia irrorata Mon 2.25 2.07 4.4
Pithecia monachus Mon 2.61 2.11 4 121
Pithecia pithecia Mon 1.94 1.58 2.7 2.08 165 1 1.58 0.63 13.75 122
Cacajao calvus MM 3.45 2.88 30 43.2 3.50 1 20.1 547.5
Cacajao rubicundus MM 1 3 0.33
Cacajao melanocephalus 3.16 2.71 30 1
Chiropotes albinasus MM 3.15 2.49 22.5 160 1 15
Chiropotes satanas MM 3 2.77 9.7 160 1
Alouatta belzebul 7.27 5.52 7.4
Alouatta caraya MM&UM 6.42 4.33 8.9 38.5 3.70 187 1 262
Alouatta fusca MM 6.73 4.35 6.8
Alouatta palliata MM 7.16 5.323 13.7 36.0 3.60 186 1.1 1.66 0.66 20 480 365 1.10 2.84
Alouatta seniculus MM&UM 6.873 5.3 8 48.5 4.60 191 1 1.38 0.72 25 263 231 295 372.3 3.5
Alouatta villosa MM&UM 11.4 6.43 5.4 48 4.50 187 20 480
Ateles belzebuth MM 8.29 7.85 22 1 3.00 0.33 20
Ateles fusciceps MM 8.89 9.16 51.6 4.90 226 1 2.25 0.44 24 485 6
Ateles geoffroyi MM 7.78 7.29 42 72.0 7.00 229 1 2.90 0.35 27.3 512 447 822 3.79 2.24 2.45
Ateles paniscus MM 9.11 8.44 38.5 57.6 5.00 230 1 4.00 0.25 33 452.5 425 2.00 3.41
Lagothrix flavicauda MM 9.1 365
Lagothrix lagothricha MM 7.28 7.02 16.7 96.0 5.00 225 1 1.75 0.57 25.92 450 510 432 315 2.00
Brachyteles arachnoides MM 9.61 8.07 19.2 7.50 232.5 1 2.82 0.35 30 639
Macaca arctoides MM 12.2 8.4 3.84 178.2 1 1.48 0.68 30 487 502 497 411 2.30 2.73 6.43
Macaca assamensis MM 11.3 6.9 21
Macaca radiata MM 6.67 3.85 24.9 48.0 4.00 163 1 1 1.00 30 404 411 388 365 2.48 4.37
Macaca sinica MM 5.68 3.2 21.6 63.0 5.00 1 1.50 0.67 30
Macaca thibetana 15.2 9.5 21 5.00 170 20 500 2.40
Macaca cyclopsis 6 4.94 20.2 30.0 4.50 162 1.27 403 407 398
Macaca fuscata MM 11 8.03 45 54.0 5.54 173 1 1.93 0.52 33 496 558.3 526.8 365 2.40 2.87 6.27
Macaca mulatta MM 9.355 7.085 36 42.0 4.00 164 1 1 1.00 29 475 490.3 466.3 316 1.33 2.90 4.39
Macaca fascicularis MM 5.36 3.59 27 51.6 3.86 167 1 1.07 0.93 37.08 345 353.1 326.1 420 1.70 2.07 3.22
Macaca nemestrina MM 9.45 5.7 18.3 35.0 3.92 170 1 1.11 0.90 26.29 472 483.6 443.7 365 1.32 2.78 2.6
Macaca maurus 9.72 6.05 175.5 1 390 2.22
Macaca tonkeana 14.9 9 173
Macaca nigra MM 9.89 5.47 35 49.0 5.44 176 1 1.48 0.68 18 461 2.62
Macaca ochreata 5.3 2.6
Macaca silenus MM 8.9 6.1 26.5 4.90 180 1 1.38 0.72 38 407 514 438 365 2.26
Macaca sylvanus MM 16 11 18.3 46.0 4.80 164.7 1 1 1.00 22 450 2.42 4.28
Cercocebus albigena MM 8.25 6.02 16.6 48.0 4.08 185 1 2.75 0.36 32.7 425 210 2.20 2.30 5
Cercocebus aterrimus MM 7.84 5.76
Cercocebus galeritus MM 9.61 5.26 18.3 6.50 171 1 19 4.04
Cercocebus torquatus MM 9.47 5.5 26.8 32.0 4.67 171 1 1.08 0.93 27 517
Mandrillus leucophaeus UM 17 42.0 5.00 176 1 1.23 0.81 28.6 722
Mandrillus sphinx UM 31.6 12.9 13.9 39.0 4.00 174.6 1 1.46 0.68 43.33 613 906 890 350 3.00 3.51 6.52
Papio anubis MM 23.15 12.5 40 57.5 6.92 180 1 1.71 0.58 45 1068 980 915 420 3.80 5.93
Papio papio MM 184 1 1.16 0.86 40 642.3 681 603.6 3.49
Papio cynocephalus MM 21.8 12.3 55.4 66.0 5.50 175 1 1.75 0.57 40 854 737 803 365 3.03 4.88 5.1
Papio ursinus MM 29.8 14.8 57.1 38.0 3.67 187 1 1.75 0.57 45 600 850
Papio hamadryas UM 18.95 10.65 7.3 51.5 6.10 172 1 2 0.50 35.6 727.5 760 695 365 3.10 4.23
Theropithecus gelada UM 19 11.7 10 49.5 4.00 167 1 2.14 0.47 19.25 464 737 450 3.90 2.78
Cercopithecus aethiops MM 5.023 3.457 28.9 54.0 5.00 163.3 1 1.33 0.75 24 314 334.9 335.9 365 1.17 1.92 3.51
Cercopithecus ascanius MM&UM 3.7 2.92 26.3 54.0 5.00 1 1.48 0.67 22.5 371 180
Cercopithecus cephus UM 4.29 2.88 11 48.0 5.00 1 2.25 0.44 22 340 365 2.87
Cercopithecus erythrotis UM 3.6 2.9 1 180
Cercopithecus erythrogaster UM 4.1 2.4
Cercopithecus petaurista UM 4.4 2.9 14
Cercopithecus mitis UM 7.697 4.363 16.3 70.5 5.92 140 1 1.67 0.60 20 402 360 495 697 2.87 3.5
Cercopithecus nictitans UM 6.67 4.26 16 48.0 5.00 1 1.97 0.51 406 2.4
Cercopithecus campbelli UM 4.5 2.7 14 36.0 3.50 180 1 540
Cercopithecus mona UM 1 22 284
Cercopithecus denti UM
Cercopithecus wolfi UM 3.91 2.87 435
Cercopithecus pogonias UM 4.26 2.9 15 48.0 5.00 165 1 2 0.50 20 340 2.06 2.57
Cercopithecus neglectus Mon&UM 7.35 4.13 5 62.3 4.67 182 1 1.62 0.62 22 260 455 450 365 1.64 1.43 3.2
Cercopithecus hamlyni UM 5.49 3.36
Cercopithecus diana UM 5.2 3.9 23 5.42 1 1 1.00 34.8 475 460 365
Cercopithecus dryas
Cercopithecus salongo
Cercopithecus lhoesti UM 5.97 3.45 17.4 1 1.33 0.75
Cercopithecus preussi 5
Cercopithecus solatus 6.89 3.92 10 382
Erythrocebus patas UM 12.4 6.5 28 41.2 3.00 167.5 1 1.22 0.82 21.58 504.5 541 468 212 2.40 3.01 6.78
Miopithecus talapoin MM 1.94 1.56 115 48.0 4.38 165 1 1 1.00 27.67 177.5 180 0.042 1.08 1.1
Allenopithecus nigroviridis MM 6.13 3.18 40 4.40 1 28 242
Colobus angolensis MM 9.68 7.57 10.9 1
Colobus guereza MM&UM 13.5 9.2 8.3 4.75 170 1 1.75 0.57 22.25 395.5 596 549 390 1.60
Colobus polykomos MM&UM 9.9 8.3 10.2 8.50 170 1 1.04 0.96 30.5 597 1.24 3.51 6
Colobus satanas MM&UM 10.4 7.42 15.5 195 1 480
Colobus badius MM 8.36 8.21 34 42 4.08 198 1 2.13 0.47 788
Colobus kirkii 5.8 5.46
Procolobus verus MM 4.7 4.2 6.3 167 1
Pygathrix avunculus 14 8.25 25
Pygathrix brelichi 6.1
Pygathrix roxellana MM 17.9 11.6
Pygathrix nemaeus MM&UM 11 8.44 9.3 48 4.00 165 1 1.36 0.74 10.25 393.5 324 463 330 2.38
Simias concolor Mon&UM 9.15 6.8 4.5
Nasalis larvatus MM&UM 20.4 9.82 10.5 48 4.50 166 1 1.48 0.68 13.5 525 600 2.00 3.16
Presbytis aurata 11
Presbytis comata UM 6.68 6.71 1
Presbytis frontata MM&UM 5.56 5.67
Presbytis melalophos MM&UM 6.59 6.47 11.6 1
Presbytis rubicunda MM&UM 6.29 6.17 6.5 1
Presbytis cristata UM 6.61 5.76 22.8 1 1.48 0.68
Presbytis francoisi 7.7 7.35 457 457 457
Presbytis geei 10.8 9.8 12.5 1
Presbytis johnii UM 12 11.2 14.8 1 1.84 0.54 500
Presbytis vetulus UM 8.17 5.9 8.8 209 1 1.73 0.58 447 226 1.10 2.14
Presbytis obscura MM&UM 7.9 6.26 17 150 1 485 425 341 3.23
Presbytis phayeri 7.87 6.3 12.9 165 1.25
Presbytis pileatus UM 12 9.86 8.5
Presbytis potenziani Mon 6.17 6.4 3.7 1
Presbytis entellus MM&UM 14.533 10.533 25 42.0 3.42 199 1 1.68 0.59 25 500 456 2.10
Hylobates agilis Mon 5.88 5.82 4.4 1 3.12 0.32 724
Hylobates lar Mon 5.9 5.34 3.9 108.0 9.31 213 1 2.69 0.37 31.5 400 400 407 730 1.07 1.88 3.12
Hylobates muelleri Mon 5.71 5.35 3.4 2.96 47
Hylobates moloch Mon 6.58 6.25 3.3 1 35 724
Hylobates pileatus Mon 5.5 5.44 3.5 39
Hylobates klossi Mon 5.67 5.92 3.6 210 3.29 724
Hylobates hoolock Mon 6.87 6.88 3.6 84.0 1 2.96 0.34 42 724
Hylobates syndactylus Mon 11.9 10.7 3.6 9.00 228 1 3.00 0.33 35 517 555 552 2.27
Hylobates concolor Mon 7.79 7.62 4 1 36 724
Pongo pygmaeus (MM&) UM 78.2 35.7 1 84.0 9.68 249.5 1 6.50 0.15 57.33 1728 1965 1653 408.8 11.00 6.93
Pan paniscus MM 45 33.2 85 102.0 13.50 240 1 5 0.20 40 1162 1400 1494 8.50 4.84 10.14
Pan troglodytes MM 49.567 40.367 60 126.0 14.00 228 1 6 0.17 53 1742 1877 1814 1460 8.50 7.64 14.08
Homo sapiens Mon (&UM) 62.2 54.8 198.0 14.00 269 1 3.50 0.29 100 3375 3457 3334 720 9.2 12.55 16.41
Gorilla gorilla UM 169.367 80 7 78.0 10.04 260 1 3.83 0.26 50 2122.9 2251 1996 1004 19.80 8.17 15.32

Data sources:


Adult weight data:

Smith & Jungers (1997).
------------------------------------------
Mating systems:

Lindenfors & Tullberg (1998), Kappeler (1997).
------------------------------------------
Age at female maturity:

Bearder(1987), Fedigan & Rose (1995), Goldizen (1987), Melnick & Pearl (1987),
Richard (1987), Roberts (1994), Robinson & Janson (1987),
Robinson et al. (1987), Ross & Jones (1999), Rowe (1996),
Stanger et al. (1995).
------------------------------------------
Age at first birth:

Bearder (1987), Bercovitch & Berard (1993), Fedigan & Rose (1995), Ross (1988,
1991, 1992), Ross & Jones (1999), Rowe (1996), Stanger et al. (1995).
------------------------------------------
Gestation length:

Bearder (1987), Fedigan & Rose (1995), Garber & Leigh (1997),
Glander (1994), Goldizen (1987), Hartwig (1996), Harvey et al.
(1987), Izard et al. (1988), Jantschke et al. (1995),
Jurke (1996), Lee (1999), Matsumura (1993), Melnick & Pearl (1987),
Roberts (1994), Robinson et al. (1987), Ross (1988, 1992), Rowe (1996),
Stanger et al. (1995), Thierry et al. (1996).
------------------------------------------
Number of offspring:

Bearder (1987), Dietz et al. (1994), Harvey et al.
(1987), Goldizen (1987), Roberts (1994), Ross (1988, 1991), Ross & Jones (1999),
Rowe (1996), Stanger et al. (1995).
------------------------------------------
Neonate weight:

Garber & Leigh (1997), Glander (1994), Hartwig (1996), Lee (1999), Roberts (1994),
Ross (1988, 1991, 1992), Smith & Leigh (1998).
------------------------------------------
Interbirth intervals:

Bearder (1987), Fedigan & Rose (1995), Goldizen (1987), Harvey et al. (1987),
Izawa (1978), Jantschke et al. (1995), Lee (1999), Melnick & Pearl (1987),
Richard (1987), Roberts (1994), Robinson et al. (1987), Ross (1988, 1992),
Ross & Jones (1999), Rowe (1996).
------------------------------------------
Age at weaning:

Fedigan & Rose (1995), Garber & Leigh (1997), Harvey et al. (1987),
Roberts (1994), Rowe (1996), Winn (1994).
------------------------------------------
Weight at weaning:

Lee (1999).
------------------------------------------
Lifespan:

Bearder (1987), Roberts (1994), Ross (1988, 1991, 1992), Ross & Jones (1999),
Rowe (1996).
------------------------------------------
Group size:

Barton (1996), Kappeler & Heymann (1996), Koenig (1995).
------------------------------------------
Postnatal growth rate:

Ross (1991).
------------------------------------------

References

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Bearder, S.K. 1987. Lorises, bushbabies, and tarsiers: diverse societies in solitary foragers. In: Primate Societies (B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker, eds). University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Bercovitch, F.B. & Berard, J.D. 1993. Life history costs and consequences of rapid reproductive maturation in female rhesus macaques. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 32: 103-109.

Dietz, J.M., Baker, A.J. & Miglioretti, D. 1994. Seasonal variation in reproduction, juvenile growth, and adult body mass in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). Am. J. Primatol. 24: 115-132.

Fedigan, L.M. & Rose, L.M. 1995. Interbirth interval variation in three sympatric species of neotropical monkey. Am. J. Primatol. 37: 9-24.

Garber, P.A. & Leigh, S.R. 1997. Ontogenetic variation in small-bodied New World primates: implications for patterns of reproduction and infant care. Folia Primatol. 68: 1-22.

Glander, K.E. 1994. Morphometrics and growth in captive aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis). Folia Primatol. 62: 108-114.

Goldizen, A.W. 1987. Tamarins and marmorsets: communal care of offspring. In: Primate Societies (B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker, eds). University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Hartwig, W.C. 1996. Perinatal life history traits in New World monkeys. Am. J. Primatol. 40: 99-130.

Harvey, P.H., Martin, R.D. & Clutton-Brock, T.H. 1987. Life histories in a comparative perspective. In: Primate Societies (B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker, eds). University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Izard, M.K., Weisenseel, K.A. & Ange, R.L. 1998. Reproduction in the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). Am. J. Primatol. 16: 331-339.

Izawa, K. 1978. A field study of the ecology and behavior of the black-mantled tamarin (Saguinus nigricollis). Primates 19: 241-274.

Jantschke, B., Welker, C. & Klaiber, S.A. 1995. Notes on breeding of the titi monkey Callicebus cupreus. Folia Primatol. 65: 210-213.

Jurke, M.H. 1996. Behavioral and hormonal aspects of reproduction in captive Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in a comparative and evolutionary context. Primates 37: 109-119.

Kappeler, P.M. 1997. Intrasexual selection and testis size in strepsirhine primates. Behav. Ecol. 8: 10-19.

Lee, P.C. 1999. Comparative ecology of postnatal growth and weaning among haplorhine primates. In: Comparative Primate Socioecology (P. C. Lee, ed.), pp. 111-139. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Lindenfors, P. & Tullberg, B.S. 1998. Primate size evolution: the consequences of sexual selection. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 64: 413-447.

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